Early in the Cold War, the Army realized that improving its access to science and engineering expertise in academia and industry was necessary to field forces with a qualitative advantage against the much larger Soviet army. In 1950, the service established the Army Scientific Advisory Panel, which, in 1977, became the Army Science Board. Over the succeeding decades, the organization widened its efforts from a focus on materiel issues to important work on personnel and organizational topics. At the same time, the Army encountered challenges such as the transition to an all-volunteer force, the widespread use of digital devices, and the effects produced by climate change. This publication highlights and honors the women and men who voluntarily contributed their knowledge and skills to assist the Army in defending the nation.