Endnotes for Chapter I

1 The British sent large amounts of goods and raw materials to the USSR during the latter half of 1941. The first American planes were shipped to Russia in September 1941 ; the first ship to leave the United States for the Persian Gulf sailed in November. "Enough supplies did get to Russia, however, to be of real value in the summer fighting of 1942." Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Lend-Lease: Weapon for Victory (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1944), pp. 208, 215. (Quoted by permission of the publishers.)

2 (1) Report on War Aid Furnished by the United States to the USSR Foreign Economic Sec, Office of Foreign Liquidation, Dept State, 28 Nov 45, p. 14. ( 2 ) Tables 1, 2 and Chart 12. For the five routes see Ch. XIX, pp. 432ff, below. (3) Hist Rpt, The Transportation Corps in the European Theater of Operations, Vol. VII, Apr, May, Jun 45, Pt. 3, Appendixes. ETO Admin 582, HRS DRB AGO (Historical Records Section, Departmental Records Branch, Adjutant General's Office). (4) British Battle Summary 38. BR 1736 (31) Operation "Torch," Nov 42-Feb 43, 1948, pp. 14ff.

3 Fuehrer Conferences on Matters Dealing with the German Navy 1942, Office of Naval Intelligence, Washington, D. C., 1946, pp. 65-66, Annex 5 to Rpt by the CinC, Navy, to the Fuehrer, 13 Apr 42.

4 (1) The American share includes the weight of motor vehicles assembled in Americanoperated plants in Iran and the cargoes they hauled north to the USSR and the weight of aircraft assembled at the American-operated plant in Iran, as well as the petroleum products originating in Iran and carried overland to Soviet receiving points. See Tables 1, 2, 3 4. Because of inadequate data, estimates of British accomplishment are only approximate. They are taken from or based upon figures in History of the Persian Gulf Command Historical Section, Office of Technical Information, Hq, PGC (cited hereafter as HOTI), Pt. VII, Ch. 6, Transport Routes and USSR Deliveries through the Persian Corridor, by Ogden C. Reed, pp. 28, 34, 36, 39. PGF (Historical Files, Office of Technical Information, Hq, PGC, now at Office of the Chief of Military History). (2) Estimate in last sentence is from Operations in the Iran-Iraq Area, address before the National War College, 18 January 1948, by Maj. Gen. Donald H. Connolly.

5 Quotations from treaty here and above from Samuel Van Valkenburg, Whose Promised Lands? (New York: Foreign Policy Association, Headline Series 57, May-June 1946), pp. 32-34.

6 The following account draws upon History of PAI Force, revised MS, by Colonel Hutchinson, Hist Sec, Cabinet Office, London (cited hereafter as PAI Force History), Pt. I, pp. 15, 16-28, 36, 41. This manuscript, expanded and altered in some details, was published as PAIFORCE: The official story of the Persia and Iraq Command 1941-1946 (London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1948).

7 (1) Maj Gen Sir Francis de Guingand, Operation Victory (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1947), pp. 87, 101. (2) India at War, 1939-1943, Hist Sec, India, pp. 77-79, 81-83, 89. Accession 618, OCMH. (3) A Review of the Joint British-Soviet Action Against Iran, by Harold B. Minor, 1 Nov 41. Dept State. (4) State Dept Rpt, British Controls in Iraq, by Richard E. Gnade, 25 Feb 44. MID (Military Intelligence Division) 330 Great Britain, 3 Apr 44 (12 Mar 43). (5) MA Rpts 1, 2, 3 from Baghdad, 5, 6, 10 Sep 41. MID 370.2 Great Britain, 9-10-41 (9-5-41). (6) PAI Force History, I, 57-65.

8 The treaty is printed in Philip W. Ireland, ed., The Neap East (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1942; 2d impression, 1945); also in The Middle East, 1948 (London: Europa Publications, Ltd., 1948), pp. 29-30.

9 For a panorama, from Peter the Great's occupation of Gilan in 1724 and Catherine the Great's conquests of Iran's Causasian provinces, down to World War II, see George Lenczowski, Russia and the West in Iran, 1918-1948: A Study in Big-Power Rivalry (Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1949), Introduction, pp. 1-5.

10 (1) R&A 1206, Conflicts and Agreements of Interest of the United Nations in the Near East, 10 Jan 44, Research and Analysis Br, Office of Strategic Services. ( 2 ) Middle East Oil a Vital Military Factor 21 Dec 45. MIS MID WD (Military Intelligence Service, Military Intellgence Division, War Department).

11 The Special Observer Group Prior to the Activation of the European Theater of Operations, October 1944, pp. 25, 27, 40, 41, 51-52, 77, 80, 81-83, Hist Sec, ETO. Study superseded by The Predecessor Commands: The Special Observers and United States Army Forces in the British Isles, by Warrant Officer (jg) Henry G. Elliott, Part I of The Administrative and Logistical History of the European Theater of Operations.

12This and the following paragraph draw upon PAI Force History, I, 28, 46, 72-74, and II, 26.

13 Rad 4105, American Ambassador, London, from Beaverbrook to Hopkins and Harriman, 6 Sep 41. Iran 44/1.2, NADEF (North Atlantic Division Engineer Files, New York). Another copy PGF 242.

14 The Division of Defense Aid Reports, created 2 May 1941 by Executive Order 8751, was an instrument within the civilian executive agency, the Office for Emergency Management, designed to take over all the administrative details of the lend-lease program, to clear transactions and reports, and to co-ordinate the processing of requests for aid submitted by foreign countries. Its first executive officer was Maj. Gen. James H. Burns, with whom were associated Brig. Gens. Sidney P. Spalding and George R. Spalding, as heads of the Production Section and the Shipping and Storage Section respectively. Eventually the Division of Defense Aid Reports was abolished by the executive order of 28 October 1941 which created the Lend-Lease Administration. (1) A Brief Historical Statement, Records Analysis Div, Office of Budget and Adm Planning, Foreign Economic Administration, 10 May 44, p. 5. (2) Stettinius, Lend-Lease, p. 96. (3) WD Cir 59, par. 8, 2 Mar 42. (4) Ann Rpt, SOS, 30 Jun 42, p. 15.

15 (1) AG 400.3295 ( 8-9--41) Sec 1, under dates 5, 6, 10, and 23 Sep 41. ( 2 ) Memo, 10 Sep 41. Iran 44/1.2, NADEF. For estimates see also Memo, Gen George Spalding, 23 Sep 41, sub: Traps Facilities is Iran. PGF 122.

16 Rad 49, WD to Gen Chancy, l l Sep 41. AG 400.3295 (8-9-41) Sec 1.

17 (1) Memo for Secy War, 13 Sep 41. AG 400,3295 (8-9-41) Sec 1. ( 2 ) The draft presented to the President was agreed upon by General Burns, Averell Harriman, and Harry Hopkins in Hopkins' office, later approved "in principle" by the War Department, and forwarded 9 September by Burns to Hopkins for Roosevelt. Memo, Burns for Hopkins, 9 Sep 41. WPD 4596 to -15 Iran (Persia), HRS DRB AGO.

18 Established 8 April 1941 within the Office of the Under Secretary of War "to coordinate the functioning of the War Department," under the Lead-Lease Act, it was placed under the Commanding General, Services of Supply, effective 9 March 1942, and designated the International Division. On 1 October 1941 Col. H. S. Aurand became director. (1) Office Order, Secy War, 8 Apr 41. Folder 2, Drawer 3, Cabinet 65, Lend-Lease File--England, Defense Aid Papers, Intn Div. (2) See n. 14 above.

19 Memo, Gen Sidney Spalding for Harry Hopkins [n. d., but after 18 Sep 41]. Iran 43/1, NADEF.

20 (1) Memo, signed by Col Robert W. Crawford, Actg ACofS, WPD, 24 Sep 41. AG 400.3295 (8-9-41) Sec 4. Another copy Iran 2/8, NADEF. (2) Ltr, 27 Sep 41, sub: Iranian Mission. AG 400.3295 (9-26-41). Another copy AG 400.3295 (8-9-41) Sec 1. Wheeler was promoted to brigadier general on 29 September 1941.

21 (1) PAI Force History, I, 66, 70. The published version, page 74, says October. (2) Generals Auchinleck and Wavell exchanged commands earlier in the year.

22 (1) Ltr, Secy War to Gen Wheeler, 21 Oct 41, sub: Ltr of Instructions. AG 400.3295 (9-26-41). Another copy Iran 4/4, NADEF. (2) Ltr, Secy War to Secy State, 30 Oct 41. AG 400.3295 ( 9 Aug 41) Sec 1.

23 William C. Bullitt, in accepting a degree from the University of Montreal. Washington Post, July 15, 1941.

24 Rpt cited n. 11, especially p. 41.

25 (1) On the difficulty of proclaiming immediate support and of expanding aid thereafter until public opinion caught up, see Foster Rhea Dulles, The Road to Teheran: The Story of Russia and America, 1781-1943 (Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1945), Ch. XIV passim, especially p. 232. ( 2 ) See also n. 36 below.

26 For this and following paragraphs, see The Role of the Department of State in Connection with the Lend-Lease Program, Manuscript prepared in the Division of Research and Publication, Department of State, by George M. Fennemore, May 1943, pp. 205, 208, 210-12.

27 Arthur B. Purvis, a Canadian whose death in an RAF Ferry Command flight accident while en route to join Churchill at the Atlantic Conference ended a close and fruitful association with Harry Hopkins. See Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1948), p. 373.

28 The message to Stalin is given in full in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 321-22. 

29 Ltr by Davies, 20 Mar 37. Abstract PGF 262. Faymonville became a brigadier general on 1 February 1942.

30 AG 400.3295 (8-14-41) Sec I. Among those present were Maj. Gen. Richard C. Moore, Deputy Chief of Staff, and Colonel Aurand of G-4, War Department General Staff, supply experts.

31 AG 400.3295 (8-14-41) Sec 1.

32 AG 400.3295 (8-14-41) Sec 3. The travel orders were of 6 Sep 41. Information from Memo, Harriman for CofS, 4 Sep 41; and from the Role of the Department of State cited n. 26.

33 Stettinius, Lend-Lease, p. 205. (Quoted by permission of The Macmillan Company.) The United States made good its word by the stated date, 30 June 1942.

34 (1) Rpt cited n. 2 (1) . ( 2 ) Lend-lease to the USSR is fully treated by Robert W. Coakley in chapters on international supply before Pearl Harbor, in R. M. Leighton and Coakley, Logistical Support of Overseas Theaters, a volume in this series now in preparation. (3) The protocols are published in Soviet Supply Protocols, Wartime International Agreements, Department of State, Publication 2759, European Series 22.

35 Second Report under the Act of March 11, 1941 (Lend-Lease Art) (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1941), Letter of Transmittal, p. IV.

36 Early in September Harry Hopkins wrote Brendan Bracken, Minister of Information in the English cabinet: "We are having some difficulty with our public opinion with regard to Russia. The American people don't take aid to Russia easily. The whole Catholic population is opposed to it, all the Nazis, all the Italians and a lot of people who sincerely believe that Stalin is a great menace to the world. Still I think it will come out all right in the end." Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 372-73.

37 The Role of the Department of State cited n. 26, pp. 218-19.

38 (1) The Role of the Department of State, pp. 220-22. (2) Report to Congress on Lend-Lease Operations for Year Ended March 11, 1942 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1942), p. 34. (3) Stettinius Lend-Lease, p. 130. (4) As of June 1951 the USSR had not yet settled its lend-lease account with the United States.

39 Rad AMPSC 466, Lt Gen Brehon Somervell to Gen Connolly, 26 Mar 43. 400.3295 Lend-Lease Russia, SL (Material formerly filed in Persian Gulf Service Command boxes at St. Louis, now filed at the Kansas City Records Center, AGO, Kansas City, Mo.) 9021 : "Your records should operate with the assumption that British and American authorities are acting as agents, expediters and forwarders for the Russians and that the goods handled are property of the Russians . . . . As soon as the vessels are loaded in American ports the goods become Soviet property."

40 Maj. Gen. John N. Greely, in "Iran in Wartime," National Geographic Magazine, 84 (1943 ) 141, describes the barbed-wire enclosure where acres of American-built motor vehicles were guarded by Soviet troops with orders to shoot all unauthorized intruders.

41 In a memorandum of 30 September, prepared for the Chief of Staff by Brig. Gen. Sherman Miles, G-2, opposition was expressed to Faymonville's staying on in Moscow. The Deputy Chief of Staff, General Moore, however, wished Faymonville to stay (memorandum of 4 October). For fuller treatment of War Department differences of opinion concerning Faymonville, see Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pages 395-96. In Volume I of the Manuscript Index to the Hopkins Papers (under Book IV, Harriman-Beaverbrook Mission, page 6, Item 19) is noted a letter from Hopkins to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, 4 October 1941, transmitting a radio to the U.S. Embassy in Russia designating Faymonville as U.S. lend-lease representative in the USSR.

42 This mission is not to be confused with that of the same name (1 November 1943-31 October 1945) under Maj. Gen. John R. Deane for the purpose of establishing American airfields for shuttle bombing at Poltava, Mirgorod, and Piryatin in the Ukraine. John R. Deane, The Strange Alliance: The Story of Our Efforts at Wartime Co-operation with Russia (New York: The Viking Press, 1947).

43 Rad 462, Stettinius to American Embassy, Tehran, 31 Jul 44. State Dept Cable Book, Near East, Iran.

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