Endnotes for Chapter XXVI

1 These matters will be treated in detail by Robert Ross Smith, The Riviera to the Rhine, a volume in preparation for the series UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II.

1a On the same date, 20 August 1944, separate directives were issued on price control and rationing, agriculture and related industries, monuments, fine arts and archives, political prisoners, refugees and displaced persons, law and order, labor, and transportation. Copies will be found in file cited.

2 A comprehensive account of the activities of this organization was prepared by Marcel Vigneras under the title of French Forces of the Interior, Their Organization and Participation in the Liberation of France, 10 vols., 1944, a copy of which is on file in OCMH.

3 Early plans provided that CAHQ would not assume responsibility until an area passed to Army. At that time it was anticipated that the advance would be slow but steady and divisional CAO's would be able to visit and revisit towns in their areas, with VI Corps civil affairs staff making follow-up surveys after the divisions moved forward. The rapid advance made that procedure impossible. In an effort to ease the burdens of the tactical units, CAHQ put into effect the plan mentioned above in the 18 August report to AFHQ in less than a week after the landings. As soon as the French civilian problems were put on a territorial basis, divisional and/or Corps CAO's would go into a town, determine requirements for food, milk, medical supplies, etc., and report the situation to CAHQ. For example, when Draguignan, the capital of Var, was liberated, CAHQ sent in one of its own officers as CAO to work with local officials who had been installed according to procedure brought out in the above documents. Other CAO's were sent out to make surveys at such key points as Nice, St.-Raphaél, and Brignoles and staff officers from the G-5 Section of Seventh Army were drafted to help cover the area.

4 These were printed forms to be filled in by the civil affairs officers on day of entry into a town. They were meant to reduce the paper work and were broken down as follows: A. Government Affairs; B. Relief; C. Public Health; D. Economics; E. Labor; F. Fiscal; G. Remarks. The conditions as shown by the summaries cited herein are included as typical.

5 On 21 August, CAHQ was increased by five enlisted men, three jeeps, one weapons carrier, and one trailer. CAHQ Rpt, 22 Aug 44, SHAEF files, G-5, 17.17.

6 On 29 August Communist-dominated FFI forces liberated Nice and a reign of terror began. By 31 August it was estimated that approximately 100 summary executions and 1,000 arrests had taken place. The ACofS, G-5, Seventh Army, General Cochet's Chief of Staff, and a representative of the French Ministry of the Interior made a rush trip to the city for investigation. As a result, they recommended that Nice be occupied by French second line troops and that the Regional Commissioner and a responsible Communist leader visit the city in an effort to evaluate the situation, stating that " . . . there are indications that the independent action on the part of the Communists in Nice is not in line with the current Party policy and would be repudiated by its higher leadership...." SHAEF files, G-5, 6o, Jkt 5, app. M-4, 5, 6.

7 The French had asked the Americans to get this score for them, saying that they were embarrassed at state functions by their inability to match the "Star Spangled Banner" and "God Save the King" with a rendition of the USSR anthem which had replaced "The Internationale." Months later, the score still had not arrived and the Communists continued to complain about the music played during the local ceremonies.

8 On 23 August, Seventh Army reported that ". . . The Acting LCAO, French Army B, is just making contact with his CAO's because of the delay in unloading his transport. He has been briefed concerning his duties. . .." SHAEF files, G-5, 17.17, Hist Rpts, 7th Army.

9 Civilian needs did not constitute a serious problem in the majority of these regions since they were in large part farming areas.

10 This section deals with efforts to bring under control the disturbing element in the French Forces of the Interior, an element found primarily among the younger members and armed civilians posing as members. As brought out earlier in this chapter, the FFI were so well organized in the towns uncovered during the rapid advance of the Seventh Army that practically no problem of civil government arose which they could not handle with a minimum of assistance from civil affairs officers.

Primary tasks for the Resistance forces during operations were laid down at AFHQ. An account of those activities is the subject of French Forces of the Interior, by Vigneras. In the UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series, Rearming the French, 1957, by the same author, deals briefly with the subject.

11 The two major problems facing officers of the Law and Public Safety Branch of CAHQ were coping with the unruly elements in the FFI and fighting the vast black market trade in property stolen from the U.S. Army. Still another function, though not so demanding, was the safeguarding of cultural objects.

12 See above, Chapter XXIII, Section 5.

13 It was reported that ammunition trains between Marseille and Lyon were returning empty whereas surplus fresh fruits and vegetables available in the Lyon area could well have been brought into the deficit area. By the middle of October tonnage allowances were provided not only for shipment of surplus products to the south but for Civil Affairs stocks to be sent north.

14 Civil Affairs report covering the period 18-23 August stated that labor registrations had been instituted in St.Tropez, Ste.-Maxime, Plan-de-la-Tour, La Garde Freinet, St.-Raphael, Frejus, Le Muy, and Draguignan.

15 The figures are given in Memo, CO, 2678th CA Regt., to G-5, AFHQ, 27 Aug 44, filed in SHAEF files, G-5, Hist, 60, Jkt V, D-6.

16 Following in large part procedures laid down in Algiers, the French were authorized to meet the U.S. Army's 1 October payroll.

17 Upon receipt of Allied imported flour shortly after liberation, the bread ration was raised to 200, then to 250 and 300, until finally, by 1 November, it had reached 350 grams a day. The Services and Supply Branch handled all phases of the import program except accounting, which was a function of the Economics and Finance Branch, and the unloading of supplies and turnover to the French authorities, which was supervised by the Port Detachment.

18 Since there had been no bread ration in Cannes for ten days, no bread was available except on the black market. In the Grasse area there was sufficient bread for a week or ten days and in Draguignan sufficient food for the same period. At Nice, when Allied food arrived, the people got their first taste of bread in twelve days, and their first white bread in years. Farther inland the situation was not so critical but in the coastal cities there was no reserve supply of either flour or meat.

19 About a week later, the liaison officer reported that the situation in Nice had improved but was still critical, not from a shortage of American products but because of inadequate transport. The bread ration had been increased from 100 to 350 grams for workers, and from 50 to 300 grams for adults; it remained at 250 grams for small children. Also, a ration of American meat was to be issued twice a month, as well as a little soap and sugar. Local newspapers accused the American forces of not allowing the French people sufficient transportation for food shipments. To determine the exact situation throughout the Alpes-Maritimes Department, Colonel Parkman was directed to make a personal survey. His report, dated 29 October, is included herein.

20 See AFHQ Interim Directive, 20 August 1944, in Section I, above.

21 The 6th Army Group had been activated in Corsica on 1 August 1944 and had followed the invading Seventh Army into France. SHAEF files, G-5, 504, 6th AGp Fld Rpts.

22 On 31 October 1944 the 2678th CA Regiment was disbanded and the 6837th CA Regiment organized on 1 November in the 6th Army Group. On 21 November the 6837th was relieved and the personnel reassigned to the Southern Line of Communications for duty with G-5 Staff Sections or detachments. Details will be found in the following files: Hq, 6th U.S. AGp, 320.2-1 (Oct 44) and SHAEF files, G-5, AG 370.5-27, CA Detachments and Units.

23 CG, 6th Army Group, immediately requested clarification of this directive which appeared to divest him of responsibility for civil affairs in the departments named. On 13 November he received the following message: "CG, 6 Army Group has Civil Affairs responsibility within those portions of the 31 departments which now lie or may hereafter fall within army boundaries, and such responsibility is to SCAEF directly. As Army boundaries move forward, COM ZONE ETO will assume responsibility within the designated areas." SMC-OUT 5568, Nov 44 in SHAEF files, G-5, AG 014.1-1, #6.

24 For complete coverage see Roland G. Ruppenthal, Logistical Support of the Armies, Volume II, September 1944-May 1945, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II, chapter on Southern Line of Communications.

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