Endnotes for Chapter XXIII
1 Pogue, Supreme Command, pp. 75-84.
2 For the text of the President's letter see above, page 108.
1a As the documents preceding this indicate, General Smith preferred an American officer but deferred to General Eisenhower's decision that it would be better to have a British officer as chief of civil affairs in order to avoid criticism of SHAEF policy in areas where the British had Kong-established interests. General Holmes was brought from AFHQ to assume the post of Deputy. See Pogue, Supreme Command, pp. 8r-82.
2a The General Board was established by GO 128, Hq ETOUSA, 17 June 1945, as amended be GO 182, 7 August 1945, to prepare a factual analysis of the strategy, tactics, and administration employed by the U.S. Forces in the European Theater. Extracts from the reports of this Board are used at pertinent points in this and following chapters. Copies of the General Board Studies, 131 in all, are on file in OCMH. Supporting documents are in Kansas City.
3 On 4 May 1944 Col. Cuthbert P. Stearns was succeeded by Colonel H. McE. Pendleton. See Pendleton's article, "The European Civil Affairs Division," Military Review, XXVI (April 1946), 49-51.
4 The Civil Affairs Center had been established at Shrivenham, England, on 1 December 1943, to receive, assign, train, equip, and move tactical units officers (and later enlisted men) who were to administer civil affairs in European territory occupied by Allied authorities. ECAD was created within the physical framework of Civil Affairs Center, and shared with it a common commanding officer. During the period 6 February 1944-4 April 1944 the two existed side by side, the personnel of the Civil Affairs Center passing into ECAD as the latter developed.
5 Supply estimates and instructions to Technical Services, referred to as Tabs A & B herein, will be found in CCAC files, 400 (9-21-43), sec. 2.
6 CCS Directive for Rehabilitation Liberated Territories, 22 Aug 43. (See Chapter V, Section 4.)
7 See Chapters IV, Sections 6 & 7 and XVII, Sections 4 & 5; see also Coakley and Leighton, Global Logistics, 1943-45, Chapters XXI and XXII.
8 On 22 February 1944, the combined program of requirements was submitted to supply and shipping allocating authorities simultaneously by the U.S. and British, and on 25 February 1944 SHAEF was notified that the estimated civilian supply needs for enemy occupied countries contained in CAAC-62 had been approved by CCAC but had not been considered by CCS. SHAEF's comments and recommendations were requested.
9 Early in the year, following discussions with McSherry, Deputy Chief Civil Affairs Officer, SHAEF, the CCAC(S) had generated a request that the British Government provide assurance to CCS that U.K. foodstocks would be available to meet initial requirements for relief of Northwest Europe. On 28 January 1944 the British replied in CIV-308 stating the conditions under which the War Office would earmark quantities of food from U.K. stocks against the first 90 days of operations under assault and collapse conditions. The amounts offered came to approximately 200,000 tons against assault conditions and 700,000 tons under collapse conditions. The former amounted to 16 percent of Plan "A" food estimates for Northwest Europe, the latter to 55 percent. On 6 March 1944 the CCAC Supply Subcommittee recommended that the offer of the British War Office be accepted with the understanding that the decision as to the responsibility for making replacement and as to the sources of replacement be a combined U.S./UK decision, and that questions affecting lend-lease and ultimate financial responsibility would not be affected. CCS delayed action with the result that Eisenhower issued the virtual ultimatum reproduced here. See MS, History of CAD, Part 3, in files of OCMH.
10 This exchange of aide-mémoires cleared the way for final approval of Plan "A." The U.S. Chiefs of Staff approved Plan "A" on 22 July 1944 and the British Chiefs of Staff indicated their approval on 3 September 1944. These belated final approvals did not affect the availability of civilian supplies in support of operations during the summer of 1944. See A History of the Civilian Supply Branch, p. 223. The final U.S.-U.K. agreement on payment for civilian supplies provided that, while each country paid initially for the supplies which it procured, in the end this was to be adjusted on the basis of reimbursement by the recipient governments; and losses due to deficiency in reimbursement were to be distributed in accordance with a formula whereby the United States, in recognition of its greater financial strength, accepted the greater portion of the losses.
11 Present were members of the UK Treasury delegation and representatives of the State, War, Navy and Treasury Department. The meeting was called in response to a letter of 15 Sep 43 from Sir David Waley to McCloy regarding invasion currency and rate exchange.
Last updated 18 February 2004