Endnotes for Chapter XVII

1 The question of a preliminary peace treaty was discussed further but made little progress. It was felt that it would be necessary to include the Soviet Union, and it was also difficult to reach Anglo-American agreement as to the time when political and military conditions would be ripe. In December 1944, in connection with discussions of the so-called New Policy toward Italy, U.S. members of the CCAC took the position that the time had arrived for a revision of the Armistice regime but the British members did not agree. (Sec. 8.)

2 In August 1944 the UNRRA Council adopted a resolution which exempted Italy from the provision calling for initial probationary supply operations in enemy or ex-enemy countries. It authorized a maximum expenditure in Italy of $50,000,000 for medical and sanitary supplies, supplies for displaced persons, and food for children and for nursing and expectant mothers. Because of the shipping shortage UNRRA could not begin to implement this program until February 1945. For the portion of the Roosevelt-Churchill announcement omitted here and the statement in connection with civil disorders over the Roatta case, see Chapter XVI, Section 6. The position was taken that the disorders, however regrettable, should not deter the two governments from transferring more responsibility to the Italian Government.

3 Early in 1945 UNRRA submitted a program for shipment of supplies to Italy during the first six months of the year. SACMED endorsed the program, provided that the implementation thereof did not affect his ability to meet operational and basic civil affairs requirements. Under the terms of the Hopkins-Law Agreement, 31 January 1945 (Chapter XXXII, Section 3), one ship was allocated for February and one for March, subject to military necessity. Incl to CCS 746/8, 31 Jan 45 in CCAC 560 (9-30-44) sec. 1.

4 This change in status, which enabled Mr. Macmillan to study more closely the problem of the new policy, was effected in the theater by AFHQ General Order 27, 18 November 1944. The same order announced the appointment of Commodore Stone, formerly in temporary capacity, as Deputy President of the Allied Commission, and in addition as Chief Commissioner of the Allied Commission and CCAO of occupied territory under AMG.

5 In an appendix, Macmillan listed certain Italian positions the appointments to which the Italian Government had requested permission to make without prior Allied approval.

6 Lest this observation be misconstrued as reactionary, it should be noted that Count Sforza and many other Italian liberals were of the same opinion.

7 Civilian economic and supply agencies.

8 The basic directive of 30 January was followed by supplementary directives. This one is given here because it was issued soon after the 30 January directive. Others will be found on pages 640-41

9 The Quartermaster General had calculated that SACMED's estimate of the tonnage necessary to maintain a 300-gram bread ration in all of liberated Italy was too high by about 500,000 tons. It was this fact, together with its belief that the current shipping rate might be maintained, which led the CCS to conclude that SACMED could sustain the increase which it authorized.

10 These recommendations seemed to the Chief Commissioner to be warranted by the CCS directive and he was sustained in this position by higher authority.

11 The Administrative Section had by this time been replaced by a Civil Affairs Section which comprised all the subcommissions which were not of an economic character or independent of the sections.

12 This was only one of numerous transfers of authority made by the theater on its own initiative. In January, for example, the Allied Publications Board (A.P.B.) had delegated to the Italian Press Commission all powers regarding the granting or revocation of licenses in territory under Italian jurisdiction. P.W.B.-controlled papers remained exempt from this control and A.P.B. reserved the right of intervention on questions of military security or undemocratic practices. ACC files, 10000/101/502.

13 AFHQ in MAT-469, 19 December 1944, had represented to CCAC that granting of these facilities was not practicable.

14 The agreement provided that all "Co-operatives" (i.e., prisoners of war working for the Allied forces voluntarily in Italy) would be released to the Italian Government 1 July. The Government agreed automatically to retain the personnel and to form them into units similar to those to which POW's previously belonged. Such personnel would automatically become subject to Italian Military law.

15 This letter was written to confirm the understanding reached by FEA with the War Department at meeting of representatives on 13 March 1945.

16 FEA took over the military program for the period September-December 1945 while the rehabilitation program to which McCloy referred became the basis of the UNRRA supply program scheduled to begin in January 1946. (See below, Chapter XXI, Section 3.)

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Last updated 18 February 2004