Endnotes for Chapter XV

1 This conversation between the King and the Chief of the Allied Military Mission took place as the result of an invitation from the King after he had received the agenda for the Malta Conference, at which the long-term armistice was to be signed.

2 Count Carlo Sforza, Italian Foreign Minister in years immediately preceding the Mussolini regime, had come to the United States as an exile from Fascism. He had achieved an international reputation as statesman, as scholar, and as spokesman for anti-Fascist Italians.

3 The Duke d'Acquarone, Minister of the Royal Household, who represented the King in his political negotiations.

4 Acquarone had shown General Taylor a letter written by Badoglio to the King which reported, with professions of regret, the statement by an emissary of the Rome parties that they favored a regency and would have none of the King.

5 From AMGOT Plan, i May 1943, embodied piecemeal in proclamation. See Chapter VII, Section 7.

6 Psychological Warfare Branch, which exercised militarily necessary supervision of the organs of public information. A related agency was the Allied Publications Board which granted licenses for publications of all types.

7 The first incident was a meeting of students at the University of Naples without official permit. The Rector of the University took the position that the University enjoyed extraterritorial privileges. When an AMG officer attempted to disperse the meeting, stones were thrown by students and shots were fired in the air by the carabinieri.

8 The three last-named parties favored Italy's becoming a republic.

9 This message begins by referring to information received from the AFHQ political adviser that complete identity of views regarding major policy questions in Italy had not yet been reached between the British and American Governments. General Wilson stated that he would feel great embarrassment if steps were taken by either government which would show that any divergence of views existed.

10 In an interview at Ravello, the King told General Mason-MacFarlane that since "the Allies had permitted him to be openly discredited and attacked through PWB and our lax censorship, he felt his position had become almost impossible . . ." He agreed to create the lieutenancy with the understanding that no more publicity would be given to attacks upon him by press or radio in Italy. ACC files, 10000/136/88.

11 Not long after the date of this message, the three Allied governments received from Marshal Badoglio an appeal to give Italy the status of an ally.

12 As stated above, the right to conduct diplomatic relations had been denied. Also, any change in the status of Italian prisoners of war had been refused.

13 In other words, the Soviet Union would no longer have the excuse of nonrepresentation for any unilateral action such as that just perpetrated. AFHQ, in reply to this message, recommended that no initiative in the issue of further Soviet representation be taken for the present. In August 1944 the Soviet representative on the ACC arrived in Italy with many more assistants than the United States and the United Kingdom had contemplated or thought at all necessary. However, SACMED suggested that it would be polite to accept the Soviet increase with good grace as it might pave the way for Soviet agreement to the dispatch of Allied officers to Rumania later. The CCS approved the attachment of the additional Soviet officers to ACC, with the request, however, that AFHQ report to it if the officers went beyond their status of observers and attempted to participate in the work. The CCS also cautioned against any discussion with the Soviet representative in Italy linking the question of Soviet representation of ACC with the question of Allied representation on any control body to be set up in Rumania. Komer, op. cit., II, 28.

14 The new government also formally accepted the obligations toward the Allies incurred by its predecessors.

15 The city is Rome, the fall of which, 4 June 1944, is treated in Chapter XVI.

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Last updated 18 February 2004