Endnotes for Chapter XIV

1 The town had been badly damaged in air raids.

2 General Mason-MacFarlane's request was approved with the suggestion that in addition to those selected by General Traina, other prisoners of war should be screened for possible use in a judicial capacity.

3 Allied Legal Officers in Italian Government territory had the duty of exercising supervision over the work of Italian courts in trying cases which affected Allied interests. They were to ensure that priority be given to all such cases and that adequate sentence be imposed ACC Exec Memo 72.

4 The conditions in Sicily did not, at first, permit much more than removal of Fascists on high levels and the most flagrant Fascists on lower levels.

5 This report is more detailed than the Sicily Scheda Personale or personal questionnaire, the prototype of the one used later by ACC/AMG throughout occupied Italy.

6 The Fascist bank official was later replaced.

7 Appendix III, a "Guide" for use in analyzing Schede returns, was issued in connection with Memorandum No. 45. It is a codification of the principles embodied in the preceding AMG directives. A copy of this guide will be found in ACC files, 10000/536/108.

8 This lengthy compilation is omitted here but may be consulted in file cited above.

9 The Italian Government carried out epuration on the mainland little better than in Sardinia, but it greatly stepped up the pace of epuration after it moved to Rome. (See below, Chapter XVI, Section 5.)

10 This memorandum allowed a greater latitude in retaining Fascist officials than the Chief Commissioner's letter of 24 May. One reason was that the above memorandum was issued after the Allies had taken Rome and had become aware of how large a number of individuals had remained in office under the Fascists for justifiable reasons. Moreover, by this time the Allies had decided to turn over the more systematic epuration work to Italian committees.

11 AMGOT GO 35, Suspension of Fascist Officials and Employees, will be found in Chapter XVI, Section 7. For the major features of DLL-159 (Decreto Legislative Luogotenenziale), Sanctions Against Fascism, see Chapter XVI, Section 5. Shortly after DLL-159 was issued by the government, AMG adapted its epuration policy to the principles of that decree and also to the use of Italian provincial committees for carrying out the great bulk of epuration, although immediately upon occupation, in accordance with ACC Executive Memo No. 67, AMG officials used their administrative judgment in quickly ejecting the leading fascists from key positions.

12 The statistics cover only the Fascists removed from office through the formal procedures for epuration. Many more, of course, were dismissed on the basis of administrative judgment.

13 A provision of the Hague Convention on belligerent occupation prohibits the occupant from making changes in the basic policy of the country occupied.

14 In November 1943 the Cabinet of the Italian Government issued a communiqué listing the measures to be taken to remove Fascism from governmental administration. Msg, AMM to AFHQ, 29 Nov 43, ACC files, 10000/100/29. These measures are reviewed in this memorandum of the Chief Legal Officer.

15 The Sicily labor policies were, in general, the bases of those applied later throughout occupied Italy.

16 Upon approval of CCS, a statement of labor policy implementing GO 8 was issued as GO 17, applicable to all occupied Italy. This order did not restore the right to strike, which remained under the regulation of Italian law that had not been suspended. In fact, local strikes had already taken place, even though not legally sanctioned.

17 By July 1944 the various Regions had adopted their own labor programs. In order to establish a uniform labor policy, GO 28 was issued. With exception of Article III, it was a combination of GO 8 (sec. 3, above) and GO 17 (this section).

18 According to the SCAO Region III, even the arithmetic books were found to be impregnated with Fascist ideology-the doctrine of Credere, Obbedira, Combattere!

19 In a note Washburne pointed out that these figures were only approximations, based on incomplete data.

20 Islands just north of Sicily, which were taken in connection with the assault on Sicily.

21 On 13 October MGS created an advance headquarters of a Subcommission for Displaced Persons, with Lt. Col. MacFarlane as its first chief.

22 About the time this decision was made another had to be made which was less felicitous. The Holy See requested that Allied authorities permit Italian women, children, and aged and infirm persons residing in German-occupied Italy to return to their homes in southern Italy and the islands. AFHQ felt itself compelled to decline, principally, on the ground that the enemy would undoubtedly make use of the excellent opportunity offered to infiltrate enemy agents. CAD files, 091.4 (3-8-43), Sec. 1.

23 In reply to a message of inquiry from CCAC about the practicability of now repatriating I8oo American and British nationals, SACMED had stated on 13 August that were he to repatriate civilians, soldiers wishing to return to the United States or the United Kingdom on compassionate grounds could no longer, without cause for grievance, be declined on the ground of transportation difficulties.

24 Organizations such as UNRRA, dependent upon obtaining government appropriations and faced with tremendous difficulties in transporting personnel and supplies in wartime, inevitably took longer to enter into full operation than either the Army or they themselves expected. For additional material on the DP problem and on UNRRA, see Chapters XIX and XXI.

25 Plans for protection of Europe's art heritage will be found in Chapter III, Section 6.

26 In fact, only one officer was assigned to the MFA&A function in Sicily and he did not go in with the task forces.

27 MFA&A was an integral part of ACC/AMG and internally fell into three related groups: (r) Headquarters of the Subcommission which was a part of the Administrative Section of Hq, ACC; (2) MFA&A officers assigned to the staff of AMG groups operating in the Army areas; (3) MFA&A officers assigned to the Staff of the Regional Commissioners taking over as the Army moved forward. Mission and functions of the subcommission follow under date of 23 March 1944. For further details see ACC files, 10000/145/107.

28 Additional measures recommended for the protection and salvage of artistic and historic monuments based on experience in Sicily will be found in SHAEF files, G-5, MFA&A, Historical, Jkt. 1.

29 In June an engineer company engaged in renovating the theater in the Royal Palace aroused the MFA&A Subcommission to cold fury. It apparently stripped the entire proscaenium of its moldings, ornamental piers, hangings, and all decorative details-despite a clear understanding with the MFA&A officer that the proscaenium was to remain untouched. Memo, Mai E. T. De Wald, Dir, MFA&A Subcom, for President of Admin Sec, ACC, 9 Jun 44, ACC files, 10000/105/711.

30 The directive was accompanied by GO No. 68, 29 December 1943, Historic Monuments, which put responsibility for the use of buildings for military purposes on the Allied Commander in Chief or Commander in Chief, Fifteenth Army Group, as the case might demand. It further provided that the posting of off-limit placards and the prevention of looting, wanton damage, and sacrilege of buildings were command responsibilities. A copy of this GO will be found in file cited.

31 On 20 October Radio Fascista announced that all the art treasures of Sicily had been divided and sent to London and Washington. ACC files, 10000/154/317.

32 Viscount Stansgate considered the request reasonable, and presumably his recommendation to the Executive Commissioner resulted in the three jeeps being made available.

33 The protection of fine arts was originally assigned by ACC to an Education and Fine Arts Subcommission. A few months after the activation of ACC, the education and fine arts functions were assigned to distinct subcommissions. See note 27, above.

34 This letter is filed in ACC files, 10000/145/319

35 Gen Alexander's lttter referred to in Administration Instructions 10 was dated 17 February.

36 In March 1944 Colonel Newton had become a member of the Civil Affairs Division. His primary task was to set up an organization and SOP by means of which the civilian planning already undertaken could be put into effect (see Chapter III, Section 6). Early in May he was authorized to visit the European and Mediterranean Theaters to gather information and aid in the formulation of a program for preservation of fine arts and historic monuments in occupied territories. CAD files, 000.4 (3-25-43).

Search CMH Online
Return to CMH Online
Last updated 18 February 2004