Endnotes for Chapter III
1 The statement was initiated by the International Division, SOS, during the course of conversations in January 1943 with a representative of the Commanding General, ETO, suggesting that civilian supply be planned and handled by the Army as an integral part of military operations. It had the concurrence of Headquarters, SOS, of the Operations Division, WDGS, and of McCloy, ASW, but it had no immediate practical repercussions outside the War Department. ASF, ID, History of Civ Sup, I, 40-41.
2 On 6 February, Colonel Miller, Director MGD, made the same recommendation, though considerably stronger, to the Provost Marshal General.
3 Captain Hall refers to a conference which he attended in the Office of the Under Secretary of War on 31 January 1943. In another memorandum he adds the information that Col. A. H. Wade, handling civil affairs for ETOUSA, presented to the conference an appeal for a strong, parent civil affairs organization in the War Department to prevent such difficulties as he was facing in London. Colonel Wade stated that only such an organization could enable him to secure decisions on policy and obtain information or carry on for him the necessary liaison with U.S. civilian agencies. He declared that the Military Government Division as currently constituted was inadequate to serve his needs. Memo, Hall for Wickersham, 31 Jan 43, PMGO files, 321, PMGO and MGD.
4 According to Colonel Miller, Director, MGD, General Gullion realized that "because of the Provost Marshal General's inferior position in the Army Service Forces, he lacked authority to implement those basic policies requiring co-ordination of military and civilian agencies." Memo, Miller for Contl Div, PMGO, 17 Sep 45, sub: Commentary of Military Government (MG), PMGO files, 319.1 Rpts-MG Inter-Office.
5 OPD also had definite views about the location of the proposed civil affairs division. The Logistics Group had been handling most of the theater communications on civil affairs, and Brig. Gen. Patrick H. Tansey, its head, felt that a separate division should be established within this branch for such matters. After the Secretary's Office had initiated discussions, General Handy, Assistant Chief of Staff, OPD, requested General Tansey to prepare an outline and chart. Colonel Haskell, later the first head of CAD, drafted these for General Tansey in accordance with his idea of locating the new division within OPD. Interv, Albert Weinberg with General Tansey, 5 Apr 50.
6 Hilldring was designated Chief of the Civil Affairs Division on 7 April 1943. The division was placed on the General Staff and, therefore, under the Chief of Staff as well as the Secretary of War. About a month after its creation, CAD was shifted to the Special Staff, where it remained.
7 Only so much of the JCS and CCS discussions of the issue is included in this chapter as pertains to the decision to entrust to CAD the civil affairs planning responsibility for JCS. For other portions of the discussions concerning the creation of combined civil affairs agencies, see Chapter V.
8 As Hilldring indicated, and the following documents show, he assumed the authority to co-ordinate. He was aware that the charter of CAD did not explicitly confer it. But he felt justified by the known intentions of the Secretary and the requirements of the situation. The question of broadening the directive to make his authority explicit was considered but it was deemed best not make a legalistic issue of the matter which, after some initial difficulties, seemed to be working out well on a basis of general concurrence. (Interv, Weinberg with Maj Gen Hilldring, 15 Sep 50.) Hilldring came to his new office from a long experience in the War Department, including the position of Assistant Chief of Staff, G-1, which had familiarized him with the processes of interoffice negotiation. He was, besides, a resourceful and forceful person.
9 This jurisdictional dispute was resolved in CAD's favor by order of the Secretary of War on 21 May 1943. WD Memo for the Chief, CAD, AG files, 014.1 (5-17-43).
10 A Joint Civil Affairs Committee was created on 3 April 1944. Its charter incorporated the provision for a purely military membership as desired by the Navy. Hilldring's contention that such a committee was not needed seems to receive confirmation in the relative inactivity of the Committee, which held very few meetings.
11 The agreement with Governor Lehman was in one aspect an outgrowth of OFRRO's concurrence in Army control of civilian relief in Tunisia. (See above, Ch. II, sec. 7.) The motives which led Lehman to welcome the War Department's co-operation are indicated in Chapter IV, below, and, as will be seen, have to do with the difficulties of OFRRO in coming into operations at an early stage.
12 This phrase came to be generally used in characterizing the extent of the Army's mission in civilian supply.
13 The Secretary of War approved the recommendation of the Chief of CAD on 2o May. Planning was co-ordinated by the Civilian Supply Branch of the International Division.
14 The proposal for a civilian supply section in the Army Supply Program was first made at an ASF staff conference on 4 June. Acceptance of the proposal was influenced largely by recent experience appearing to show that the procurement efforts of civilian agencies could not be counted upon.
15 CCS 324/1 laid down the principles of the combined British and American supply program. See below, Chapter V, Section 4.
16 G-1, on 23 November 1942, approved the Provost Marshal General's request for the appointment of "2,500 individuals in the Specialist Reserve Section of the Officers Reserve Corps." The officers appointed were to be "assigned to a course in Military Government, upon the completion of which they shall revert to an inactive status." Memo, ACofS, G-1, to PMG, 23 Nov 42, in PMGO files, Hist of MGT.
17 Authority for commissioning from civil life was first given on 12 October 1942. But this authorization applied to the Army Specialist Corps, which was dissolved on 1 November 1942. Thus it became necessary to approve commissioning the Specialists in the Specialists Reserve Section, Officers Reserve Corps.
18 The specialists commissioned in the ORC were sent for four weeks to Fort Custer before being farmed out to the colleges.
19 The program for training occupational police is omitted since it was not long afterward abandoned. It was believed that the program imposed an excessive personnel commitment and that combat troops could be used as occupational police.
20 This memorandum was written in response to General Hilldring's request for a statement of the reasons why it was proposed to conduct the specialist training program in colleges rather than in Army posts. By this time PMGO military government training had come under the jurisdiction of the newly established Civil Affairs Division.
21 Civil Affairs Training Schools in the colleges.
22 The program recommended was authorized by WD directive of 31 March 1944.
23 From the outbreak of war, George L. Stout of the Fogg Museum of Fine Arts had been studying the problem of safeguarding works of art under war conditions and in March 1942, largely on his initiative, a conference to discuss these matters was held at Harvard University by the Department of Conservation of the Fogg Art Museum. In November of the same year concerted efforts were made by Taylor and Dinsmoor to interest the Government in salvage and restitution of works of art in Europe. The draft of a petition to the Government to create a commission for this purpose, drawn up in January 1943 under the direction of Mr. Stout, met with the approval of Taylor, Dinsmoor, the Director of the American Council of Learned Societies, and the Director of the American Association of Museums and American Defense Harvard Group, with the result as indicated by documents herein. Further details will be found in G-5 (Civil Affairs Division of SHAEF) SHAEF files, 130, Jkt 1.
24 Correspondence of the SW with Dr. Francis Taylor and Dinsmoor which had been referred to Wickersham on 30 March.
25 That That part of the letter containing suggestions concerning membership of the Commission, its location and functions is omitted.
26 With this letter to Wickersham on the subject which had been brought to the attention of the Secretary of War on 15 March (above), Dinsmoor submitted an Outline of Preliminary Processes for initial utilization of resources available at Princeton, Harvard, Columbia, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Dumbarton Oaks, the Library of Congress and the Frick Art Reference Library. For further details, see CAD files, 000.4 (3-25-43) (1).
27 British experiences in North Africa had pinpointed the necessity of appointing in advance specialist officers for conservation and protection of monuments and fine arts in Sicily and Italy. Therefore, in May 1943 the Office of the Adviser on Fine Arts and Monuments to the Chief Civil Affairs Officer of Allied Military Government was set up by the War Department with a lieutenant colonel and a major. Hammond was ordered from Air Force Headquarters in Washington to fill the major's slot. The British agreed to assign an adviser and, on 6 September 1943, Capt. F. H. J. Maxse reported as Deputy to Captain Hammond. Activities of this office were centered in the Subcommission on Education until the Subcommission on Monuments, Fine Arts and archives (MFA&A) was established. See CAD files, 000.4 (3-25-43) (1) and CCAC files, 314.8 (10-30-43) (1).
28 Frequently referred to as the Presidential Commission and the Roberts Commission.
29 With the approval of Eisenhower, on 10 December 1943 the Librarian of Congress directed Manuel Sanchez of his staff, who was then in Algiers, to report to the Military Government Section, AFHQ, as the head of the United States Staff for the collection of archives and library material. On 27 December, the Archivist of the United States recommended that Fred Shipman, Director of the Hyde Park Library, be attached to the Military Government Section for three months to collaborate with Sanchez. However, Shipman did not arrive at AFHQ Headquarters until 30 March 1944. For his reports on the activities of archives specialists in Mediterranean and European Theaters see ACC files, 10000/145/321 and CAD files, 000.4 (3-25-43) (1), sec. 6.
30 Chapters XIV, Section 7, and XXXI cover briefly the procedure in Sicily, Italy, Northwest Europe and Southern France.
Last updated 18 February 2004