Chapter 2


1. 12th A Gp and FUSA G-1 Daily Summaries, 12 Sep 44; FUSA, Order of Battle, Combat Units, 20 Sep 44, FUSA G-2 TAC Misc file, Sep 44. Cf. Third Army strength as found in Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, p. 18.

2. 3d Armd Div AAR, Sep 44, and Combat Interv with 3d Armd Div G-4.

3. Maj Gen Troy H. Middleton, VIII Corps.

4. Interv with Maj Gen Truman C. Thorson, former G-3, FUSA, 12 Sep 56; Sylvan Diary, passim.

5. Interv with Brig Gen John G. Hill, former G-3, V Corps, 15 Oct 54

6. Interv with Col R. F. Akers, former Asst G-3, FUSA, 11 Jun 56.

7. Interv with Thorson.

8. Ibid.

9. The G-1 was Col. Joseph J. O'Hare; the G-4, Col. Robert W. Wilson; the G-5, Col Damon M. Gunn.

10. The Ninth Air Force and Its Principal Commands in the ETO, Vol. II, Pt. I.

11. See, for example, testimony in Operational History of the Ninth Air Force, Book V, Ground Forces Annexes.

12. As of 30 September, the IX TAC commanded the 368th, 370th, 404th, and 474th Fighter-Bomber Groups and the 67th Tactical Reconnaissance Group.

13. Ninth Air Force, Vol. I, Ch. VII. For a detailed study of air-ground liaison, see Kent Roberts Greenfield, Army Ground Forces and the Air-Ground Battle Team Including Organic Light Aviation, Army Ground Forces Study No. 33, Historical Section, Army Ground Forces, 1948. Copy in OCMH.

14. IX Bomb Div, Medium Bombardment—Its Use in Ground Support, copy in History, IX Bomb Div, Nov-Dec 44.

15. Ninth Air Force, Vol. I, Ch. VII. Though the masses of Allied heavy bombers were used on one occasion during the Siegfried Line Campaign for direct support of the ground troops, their role was primarily strategic and the effects on the ground fighting difficult to specify.

16. Wartime prisoner of war interrogations and postwar manuscripts by German officers provide ample evidence of German belief in this theory.

17. See Ruppenthal, Logistical Support of the Armies, Vol. II, pp. 218-35.

18. This account is based primarily on Research and Development Service, Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Comparison of American, German, and Japanese Ordnance, 6 May 1945, Vols. I and II. A comprehensive study and comparison of American and German weapons and equipment will be included in Ordnance Overseas, a volume in preparation in the Ordnance subseries of THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. The German infantry division, like the American, had four artillery battalions—three
light and one medium. The German pieces were gun-howitzers (105-mm. light, and 150-mm. medium); the American pieces were howitzers (105-mm. and 155-mm.).

19. Charles V. P. von Luttichau, Notes on German and U.S. Artillery, copy in OCMH.

20. For a detailed study of the liaison plane, see Kent Roberts Greenfield, Army Ground Forces and the Air-Ground Battle Team, AGF Study No. 35; L B. Holley, Evolution of the Liaison Type Airplane, 1917-1944, USAF Historical Studies 1946.

21. An American heavy tank did not reach the theater until 1945 and then in relatively insignificant numbers.

22. Cole, in The Lorraine Campaign, pages 603-04, compares characteristics of German and American tanks during the fall of 1944.

23. The name Siegfried Line, or Siegfriedstellung, originated in World War I. It was a German code name given to a rear defensive position established in 1916 behind the central portion of the western front, from the vicinity of Arras to a point just east of Soissons. The position played an important role as the front line fluctuated during the last two years of the war. The Germans fell back on this line in early spring of 1917 and from it launched their last great offensive in March 1918. Unless otherwise noted, information on the West Wall is from the following: SHAEF Weekly Intel Summary 25 for week ending 9 Sep 44; 12th A Gp Weekly Intel Summaries 4 and 7 for weeks ending 26 Aug and 23 Sep 44, respectively; OB WEST, A Study in Command; German maps in OCMH; FUSA Rpt of Opns, pp. 51-54; VII Corps, Office of the Engineer, Initial Breaching of the Siegfried Line; Sidney Bradshaw Fay, West Wall, The Encyclopaedia Britannica (University of Chicago, 1948 edition), Vol. 10, p. 243c.

24. More on climate may be found in: The Climate of the Rhine Valley, Germany, XIX Corps AAR Oct 44; The Climate of Central and Western Germany, Annex 1 to FUSA G-2 Per Rpt 92, 10 Sep, FUSA G-2 file, Sep 44.

25. Memo for Record, 2 Sep 44, Notes on Meeting of Supreme Commander and Commanders; FWD 13765, 4 Sep 44, and FWD 14764, 14 Sep 44, Eisenhower to Comdrs, all in 12th A Gp 371.3 Military Objectives, I.

26. 12th A GP Ltrs of Instrs 8, 10 Sep 44, 12th A Gp Rpt of Opns, V, 91-92.

27. This is the author's analysis of material found in FUSA AAR, Sep 44. See also Interv with Gen Bradley, 7 Jun 56.

28. See below, Ch. III.

29. Sylvan Diary, entry of 10 Sep 44.

30. See Ltr, Hodges to Gerow, 11 Sep 44, V Corps G-3 file, 11 Sep 44.

31. V Corps G-2 Estimate 11, 10 Sep 44; Order of Battle, Incl 2 to VII Corps G-2 Per Rpt 97.

32. FUSA G-2 Estimate 26, 11 Sep 44.

Return to Table of Contents

Search CMH Online
Last updated 26 September 2006