Endnotes for Chapter III
1 Memos, WPD for CofS, 8 Mar 23 and 6 Aug 31, WPD 1105 and 1105-55; unsigned and undated study (Jan 41?), title: Harbor Defenses, Their Purposes, Composition, and Organization, WPD 1105-69; Joint Action, par. 19. See FM 4-5, 29 Jul 40, for details of Coast Artillery organization and tactics.
2 Memo, WPD for CofS, 8 Mar 23, WPD 1105. This study, approved on 17 Apr 1923, remained the basic definition of War Department policy with respect to harbor defenses until the eve of World War II.
3 Ibid; Rpt of Harbor Def Bd, 27 Jul 40, AG 602 (4-30-40), sec. I; tab A, OPD Interoffice Memo, 24 Oct 45, OPD 660.2/62. From Maine to the State of Washington, these locations were: Portland, ,Portsmouth, Boston, New Bedford, entrances to Narragansett Bay, eastern entrance to Long Island Sound, New York Harbor, the Delaware and Chesapeake entrances, Charleston, Key West, Pensacola, Galveston, San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, and the entrances to the Columbia River and Puget Sound. The Navy considered all of the defenses except those at Galveston essential to its purposes. Memo, WPD for CofS, 6 Aug 31, WPD 1105-55.
4 Various papers and studies, WPD 1105 and WPD 3617; Ltr, SW to Senator Augustine Lonergan, 19 Aug 32, WPD 3793-40.
5 Memo, CofCA for CofS, 31 May 40, WPD 1956-77.
6 Memo, WPD for TAG, 26 Jul 40, WPD 1956-77; Memo, WPD for TAG, 31 Mar 41, WPD 1956-92.
7 In March the Veterans' Administration had raised anew the old question as to whether the Army had any more posts that might properly be abandoned. This had initiated a resurvey of harbor defense posts and needs.
8 On the general situation and other American defense preparations in June and July 1940, see Conn and Fairchild, Framework of Hemisphere Defense, ch. II.
9 Ltr, Maj Gen Walter C. Baker (CofCWS), President, Harbor Def Bd, to TAG, 27 Jul 40, AG 602 (4-30-40), sec, I. In 1940 the board consisted of the Chiefs of Coast Artillery, Engineers, Ordnance, Chemical Warfare Service, and Air Corps, as well as the Chief Signal Officer, with the senior member being the presiding officer. The board's recommendations with respect to mobile coast artillery are mentioned below.
10 Various papers, dated 7 Aug 11 Sep 40, AG 602 (4-30-40), sec. I, and WPD 4279-2. The program was officially approved on 5 Sept, and the TAG letter announcing it was dated 11 Sept.
11 Various papers, dated 2 July -2 Sep 41. WPD 4279-21.
12 Ist Ind, TAG for CofCA, 3 Nov 41, on Memo, CofCA for WPD, 4 Oct 41, AG 660.2 (9-11-40), sec. I.
13 Two studies by Lt. Col. Edward M. Harris, prepared in August 1949, summarize the organization and deployment of Army seacoast artillery units from World War I through World War II. In OCMH.
14 Memo, WPD for CofS, 8 Apr 39, WPD 3617-39; Rpt of Harbor Def Bd, 27 Jul 40, AG 602 (4-30-40), sec. I.
15 History of the Eastern Defense Command (hereafter cited as Hist of EDC), OCMH, ch. 4, and History of the Western Defense Command, 17 March 1941-30 Sept 1945, OCMH (hereafter cited as Hist of WDC), ch. 14.
16 Memo, CofCA for ACofS WPD, 8 May 41, WPD 2521-81, and other papers in this WPD file and in AG 660.3 (8-23-41) ; Memo, CofS for CNO, 10 Feb 42, tab E, title: Misc Information Concerning Use of Controlled Mines During War, WPD 1105-70; Hist of EDC, pp. 26-28; Study by Col Herbert C. Reuter, 5 Sep 49, A Summary of Historical Information Pertaining to Controlled Submarine Mining, prepared in connection with the transfer of submarine mine responsibility from the Army to the Navy in 1949, copy in OCMH.
17 Hist of EDC, p. 29; for types of harbor defense radar, see Dulany Terrett, The Signal Corps: The Emergency, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1956) (hereafter cited as Terrett, The Emergency), app.
18 Various papers WPD 3617-63 and WPD 1105-103; Hist of EDC p. 25.
19 Joint Action, ch. III, and Memo, CNO for Commandants, Naval Districts, 5 Nov 40, sub: Jt Def of Harbors, WPD 1105-65, describe the respective responsibilities of the two services during World War II.
20 See Samuel Eliot Morison, "History of United States Naval Operations in World War II," vol I, The Battle of the Atlantic: September 1939-May 1943 (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950) (hereafter cited as Morison, Battle of the Atlantic), app. IV; ch. IV below.
21 Jt Cir, approved by CNO, 29 May 41, and by CofS, 23 Jun 41, distributed by Ltr, TAG to CG'S, 25 Jun 41, AG 660.2 (5-29-41) .
22 OCS Memo for Rcd, 27 Oct 38, WPD 1956-54; Memo, Secy, Army and Navy Munitions Board, for ASW, 24 Feb 39, AG 381 (2-24-39) ; Memo, WPD for CofS, Sep 39, WPD 3674-17 Memo, WPD for CofS, 15 Dec 39, WPD 3674-18.
23 Hist of EDC, ch. 2, and History of the Northeastern Sector, Eastern Defense Command, OCMH (hereafter cited as Hist of NE Sector, EDC), pp. 1-2, give a brief survey of Atlantic coast developments during this period. The latter is filed with retired EDC records.
24 Memo, G-3 for WPD, 15 Jan 42, WPD 3674-83. The higher actual strength resulted principally from the temporary use of field artillery units during 1942, and thereafter from the overstrengths authorized during the transition from general to limited service.
25 Ltr, SW to CG's Def Comds, 18 Jul 42, OPD 660.2/23; Hist of EDC, p. 25.
26 Memo, G-4 for TAG, 26 Dec 41, and accompanying OCS Memo for Rcd, OCS 18585-95 D/F, WPD to SOS, 26 Mar 42, OPD 660. 2/2.
27 Memo, Chief, S&P Group, for Chief, North American Theater, OPD, 30 Sep 43, OPD 660.2/50; Ltr, OPD to COMINCH, 31 Oct 42, AG 660.2 (9-11-40), sec. I; Ltr, COMINCH to CofS, 8 Nov 42; Memo, CG SOS for CofEngrs, CSigO, CofOrd, and CofCWS, 20 Nov 42. Last two in OPD 660.2/23
28 JCS Policy Memo 15, 20 Mar 45.
29 Memo, Chief, Logistics Group, for ACofS OPD, 24 Oct 45, and accompanying tab A, OPD 660.2/62.
30 Ltr, TAG to CG'S, 21 May 35, AG 660.2 AA (5-15-35)
31 See Conn and Fairchild, Framework of Hemisphere Defense, ch. I; Craven and Cate, eds., Plans and Early Operations, chs. II and IV.
32 Tab B, Rpt of Air Bd, 26 Jun 39, WPD 3748-17.
33 Two WPD Aide-memoires, May 39, WPD 3807-31 : tabs X and Y, Rpt of Air Bd, 26 Jun 39, BPD 3748-17: Memo, WPD for CofS, 7 Aug 39, and atchd tab 12, WPD 4078-II; tabs B and C, Memo, WPD for CofS, 21 Dec 39, WPD 3807-41; Memo, CofAS for WPD, 21 Feb 42, WPD 1398-II.
34 Tab C, Memo, WPD for CofS, 21 Dec 39, WPD 3807-41; tab F, Rpt Of Comm 2, Air Def Bd, 3 May 40, OPD Exec 12, item 17.
35 Air Force Combat Comd Status Rpts, 30 Jun and 30 Nov 41, OPD Exec 16, items 27 and 29. See ch. IV below, for the deployment of aviation in continental defense after Pearl Harbor.
36 Various papers, WPD 1956-41 and WPD 1956-54; Memo, WPD for CofS, 7 Aug 39, WPD 4078-11.
37 Memo, WPD for DCofS, 27 Dec 38, WPD 1956-57; Memo, WPD for TAG, 3 Mar 39. WPD 4078-7; Memo, WPD for CofCA, 21 Mar 39, WPD 4078-8; Memo, WPD for CofS, 7 Aug 39, BPD 4078-11.
38 The Army during the prewar period never did calculate the needs for aviation and antiaircraft artillery for defending the continental United States against land-based air power, because until 1942 transoceanic bombardment was impossible and also because it was assumed that American air power would be successful in preventing the establishment of any hostile air base within the Western Hemisphere.
39 Memo and Incls, WPD for COB, 7 Aug 39, WPD 4078-11.
40 Ibid For further details on the organization and development of antiaircraft units and equipment, see Army Ground Forces Study 26, by Lt. Col. Alvin M. Cibula, The Antiaircraft Command and Center (Washington, 1946) ; and Constance McLaughlin Green, Harry C. Thomson, and Peter C. Roots, The Ordnance Department: Planning Munitions for War, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1955), ch. XIV.
41 Tab F, Rpt of Comm 2, Air Def Bd, 3 May 40, OPD Exec 12, item 17; Memo, WPD for CofS, 29 Nov 40,WPD 4079-36.
42 Army Station List, 15 Oct 41, AG 322 (10-8-41).
43 D/F, WPD to CofAS, 4 Sep 41, WPD 1956-94.
44 See below, ch. IV. OPD Weekly Status Maps, 5 Feb1942-20 Jan 1944, AG 061, show the actual strengths during 1942 and 1943.
45 Memo, G-3 for WPD, 15 Jan 42, WPD 3674-83. These regiments would have required about 108,000 troops, twice as many as this Troop Basis provided for manning harbor defenses.
46 Antiaircraft Artillery Def Project, ETO, 1942, 10 Jan 42, submitted to the General Staff by Ltr, GHQ to TAG, 4 Feb 42, AG 660.2 AA (1-1-40), sec. I; various papers, WPD 4627-5, especially Memo, CofCA for WPD, 21 Feb 42.
47 Memo, WPD for G-3, 8 Mar 42, WPD 1956-96; Memo,OPD for TAG, 18 May 42, OPD 660.2 AA/13.Throughout this antiaircraft.discussion all figures of regimental strength have been reduced to the common denominator of the prewar mobile regiment, which contained one battalion manning twelve large guns and a second battalion manning thirty-two automatic guns.
48 Terrett, The Emergency, ch. V, and app pp. 318-25, in which the Army radars of World War II are identified and described .
49 Ltr, TAG to CG's First, Third, and Fourth Armies, 23 May 40; Memo, WPD for CofS, 31 Jul 40. Both in AG 660.2 AA (5-22-40). Also, various background papers, WPD 3640.
50 Remarks of Gen Arnold in Conf, 25 Jan 41, OCS Conf, binder 8.
51 George Raynor Thompson, Dixie R. Harris, Pauline M. Oakes, and Dulany Terrett, The Signal Corps: The Test, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1957), PP. 93-97.
52 Memo, Col Sherrill for ACofS WPD, and atchd tab A, 8 Jan 42, WPD 4187-25; Incl to Signal Corps Memo, 14 Jul 42, title: Distribution of Ground Radar Sets in Cont U.S., cited in Thompson et al., The Test, p. 290.
53 History of the Western Defense Command, vol. III, ch. 10, contains a map of the overwater coverage of the twenty-five radar installations maintained along the west coast in 1943.
54 Memo, WPD for TAG, 9 Jun 41, WPD 1098-22; various papers, AG 452.3 (10-5-40)
55 Directory, Army of the United States, 1 Nov 41; Memos, CofCA for CofS, 15 and 18 Feb 42, AG 452.3 (10-5-40) (I) ; Memo, OPD for TAG, 18 May 42, OPD 660.2 AA/13.
56 See ch. II, above.
57 Min, WD Gen Council Mtg, 1 Mar 43.
58 Ind to JPS 333, 1 Dec 43, ABC 384 North America (11-29-42), sec. 2. See ch. IV, below.
59 For further details on the origins and deployment of the various elements of the continental air defense system, see Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, eds., "The Army Air Forces in World War II," vol. VI, Men and Planes (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1955) (hereafter cited as Craven and Cate, eds., Men and Planes), ch. I.
60 PMG Study 3B-1, 30 Apr 46, title: Defense Against Enemy Action Directed at Civilians, OCMH (hereafter cited as PMG Study 3B-1, 30 Apr 46).
61 AST Monograph, War Department Relationships With the Office of Civilian Defense, completed in May 1943, in OCMH, is an inadequate treatment, but the two volumes of appended documents are a useful compilation on the organization of civilian defense protective services during the war. (This work is hereafter cited as WD Relationships with OCD.)
62 Ltr, TAG to CG'S, 21 May 35, AG 660.2 AA (5-15-35) : Memo and Incls, WPD for CofS, 26 May 38, WPD 4078. Leo P. Brophy and George J. B. Fisher, The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, 1959), chapter X, describes the work of the Chemical Warfare Service in this field before and during World War II.
63 WPD Interoffice Memo, 1 Jun 39, WPD 4078-3.
64 Memo, G-3 for WPD, 12 Dec 39, WPD 4078-3.
65 Tab 8, Memo, WPD for CofS, 20 Feb 40, WPD 4078-3.
66 Memo, WPD for Cofs, 2o Feb 40, and accompanying papers, WPD 4078-3.
67 Various papers, WPD 4078-21 and WPD 4078-25.
68 Various papers, WPD 4078-23, WPD 4078-40, and WPD 4078-43; Notes on Conf in OCofS, 29 Jul 40, OCS Conf, binder 3 ; Elwyn A. Mauck, Bureau of the Budget, MS, Civilian Defense in the United States, 1940-45, ch. II, p. 3, copy in Bureau of the Budget files. On American Legion civilian defense activities during 1940 and 1941, see H. Doc. 538, 77th Cong., 2d sess., Proceedings of the 23rd National Convention of the American Legion, September 1941, (hereafter referred to as American Legion, Proceedings 1941), pp. 380-82; and, on the Legions role during the war generally, Richard Seelye Jones, A History of the American Legion (New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company,1946), ch. VII.
69 Memo, SGS for G-3, 5 Oct 40, OCS 17967-44; Remarks of CofS and SW at War Council Mtg, 26 May 41, SW Conf, binder I; Ltr, SW to Dir OCD, 23 Jun 41, OCS 15491-48; Testimony of Mr. Walter D. Binges (of the National Technological Advisory Comm), 9 Jan 47, Report of War Department Civil Defence Board (Washington, February 1947), an. 1.
70 Memo, CofS for G-3, 5 Dec 40, WPD 3793-115; Memo ASGS for G-3, 9 Dec 40, OCS 17967-50; Memo, G-3 for Maj Gen Stanley D. Embick, 21 May 41, WPD 4078-43; Report of War Department Civil Defence Board, p. 7.
71 Notes on Conf in ODCofS, 4 Feb 41, OCS Conf, Binder 10; 1st Ind, TAG for CofCWS, 24 Jul 41, on Memo, CofCWS for TAG, 30 Apr 41, AG 383 (3-6-41) (1) ; American Legion, Proceedings, 1941, P. 381.
72 The President is reported to have characterized it at the time as "sort of a ballyhoo committee." (Memo of Interv with President, 20 May 1941, atchd to 20 May 1941 entry in Stimson Diary.) Mr. Wayne Coy, in his testimony before the War Department Civil Defense Board on 17 Dec 1946, stated that its establishment was perhaps uppermost in the President's mind in creating the Office of Civilian Defense. Report of War Department Defence Board, an. I, pp. 208-09.
73 Report of War Department Civil Defense Board, an. I.
74 WD Relationships With OCD, pp. 12, 14, 65; Testimony of Gen Gasser, 23 Dec 46, Report of War Department Civil Defense Board, an. I.
75 PMG Study 3B-1, 30 Apr 46, exhibit F, p. 5.
76 Stimson Diary, entry of 18 Dec 41; Ltr, SW to Chairman, Senate Comm on Military Affairs, 30 Mar 42, OCS 15491-133; Memo, Chief, Admin Services, SOS, for G-1, 30 May 42, AG 383 (5-30-42) (2) ; WD Relationships With OCD, p. 12.
77 Testimony of Gen DeWitt, 12 Dec 46, and Mr. Sheppard, 13 Jan 47, Report of War Department Civil Defence Board, an. 1.
78 Ltr, SW and SN to Mr. La Guardia, 29 Sep 41, AG 383 (3-26-41) (1).
79 Memo, SGS for SW, 27 Feb 42; Memo, SW for Dir OCD, 9 Mar 42. Both in OCS 15758-122.
80 PMG Study 3B-1, 30 Apr 46, exhibit F, p. 6.
81 The Chief of CWS initiated War Department preparations for supplying civilian defense equipment by Memo for TAG, 30 Apr 41, AG 383 (3-26-41) (1), and war Department policy on the subject is delineated in Memo, TAG for Chiefs of Arms, Services, and Bureaus, 18 Sep 41, in this same file. On post-Pearl Harbor supply see WD Relationships With OCD, pp. 45-48.
82 Brophy and Fisher, The Chemical Warfare Service; Organizing for War, Chapter X, describes the operation of these schools in detail.
83 WD Relationships With OCD, pp. 39-43 ; PMG Study 3B-1, 30 Apr 46, exhibit F.
84 H. Doc. 364, 78th Cong., 1st sess., Proceedings of the 25th National Convention of the American Legion, Sept 1943, P. 229. gives a summary of Legion activity after Pearl Harbor; Foster Rhea Dulles, The American Red Cross (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950), pp. 354-55
85 Mauck MS, Civilian Defense in the United States, 1940-45, ch. V.
86 As quoted in Memo, G-3 for Gen Gasser, Bd for Civilian Protection, 14 Jun 41, WD Relationships With OCD, tab 14; and also in Memo, G-3 for TAG, 13 Sep 41, OCS 21084-20, an approved basic policy directive for Army-wide distribution on the subject of guarding nonmilitary installations.
87 These conclusions, so far as World War I experience was concerned, were carefully pointed out in tabs 2 and 3 to the basic civilian defense study of 20 February 1940, WPD 4078-3, but they seem to have been overlooked in the later prewar planning.
88 Chief of the Militia Bureau, Annual Report, 1919 (Washington, 1919) ; tabs 2 and 3, Memo, WPD for CofS, 20 Feb 40, WPD 4078-3.
89 Rads, TAG to CG's of Corps Areas, 2 Sep 39, AG 381 (8-24-39), sec, I.
90 Various papers, dated Jul-Nov 40, WPD 4357 and OCS 15435.
91 Memo, G-2 for CofS, 28 Aug 41, OCS 15435-38; Ltr, TAG to CG's, 3 Nov 41, WPD 4357
92 Memo, G-3 for CofS, 24 Jul 41; Ltr, SW to Dir OCD, 19 Aug 41. Both in OCS 20615-13. Memo, OCS for SW, 1 Aug 41, SW file, Cabinet Memoranda.
93 Memo, CofS for USW, 21 Apr 41, OCS 21169-26; Memo, G-3 for COB, 5 Aug 41, OCS 20475-35; Ltr, Chief of Natl Guard Bur to SW, 31 Oct 41, OCS 21169-72; Ltr, CofS to Mr. Thomas H. Beck, 26 Nov 41, OCS 15491-91. For further details on the organization and activities of State Guards before and during the war, see the Annual Report of the Chief of National Guard Bureau, 1941, 1942, and 1946; also Natl Guard Bur, WDSS, MS, State Guard Training, OCMH.
94 Memo, CG Ninth Corps Area for CG Fourth Army, 18 Sep 41, GHQ 381 Preparedness for War, binder 2; Memo, G-2 for CofS, 16 Oct 41, OCS 20615-26.
95 Memo, CofS for USW, 27 Oct 41, OCS 20615-26.
96 Memo, G-3 for CofS, 9 Dec 41, OCS 14561-27.
97 Memo for Rcd on Memo, G-3 for TAG, 29 Dec 41 OCS 17529-136.
98 Memo, SW for President Roosevelt, 24 Dec 41, OCS 20615-33; Annual Report of the Chief of National Guard Bureau, 1942, p. 79.
99 Joseph W. Stilwell, The Stilwell Papers, Theodore H. White, ed. (New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948), p. 10.
100 Roosevelt Papers, FDRL.
101 Ltr, SW to Dir OCD, 24 Dec 41, OCS 20615-33.
102 Ltr, Admin Asst to SW to Chairman, Senate Comm on Military Affairs, 21 Jan 42, OCS 21169-72
103 Notes on Conf in ODCofS, 17 Feb 42, OCS Conf, binder 32.
104 See, for examples, Memo, CofS for ASW John J. McCloy, 24 Feb 42, OCS 15450-15; Ltr, CofS to Hon. Warren R. Austin, U.S. Senate, 28 Feb 42, WDCSA 381 Nat Def (2-28-42).
105 Directory, Army of the United States, 15 May 42; Office of the PMG, MS, World War II: A Brief History OCMH, p. II.
106 Ltr (WD draft), President Roosevelt to Governor Culbert L. Olson of California, 29 Apr 42, WDCSA 381 Nat Def (5-7-42); Annual Report of the Chief of National Guard Bureau, 1946; Natl Guard Bur, WDSS, MS, State Guard Training, OCMH.
107 PMG, MS, Auxiliary Military Police Program, OCMH.
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