The Army of the US Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief
Third Regiment of Infantry
By Lieut. J. H. McRae
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The Third United States Infantry first came into being under the Act of March 5, 1792, an act for making farther and more effectual provisions for the protection of the frontiers of the United States, and which, among other things, provided for the raising of three additional regiments of infantry, also for the completion of the battalion of artillery and two regiments of infantry already in the service. Under the provisions of Section 3 of the above named act, the Third Infantry was, by direction of President Washington, organized as the infantry of the Third Sub-legion.
In the reorganization of the army, November 1, 1796, under the Act of May 30,1796, the infantry of the Third Sub-legion became the Third Regiment of Infantry, with Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Gaither as its first commandant.
From its organization till 1800 the regiment was stationed along the northwestern frontier. It accompanied General Anthony Wayne in his successful campaign against the Indians in 1794, during which the entire regiment was engaged in action against hostile Indians at Fort Recovery, Ohio, June 30, and again at the rapids of the Miami of Lake Erie, August 20, Lieutenant Robert Craig being killed in the former engagement. In 1800 the regiment was transferred to the Mississippi Territory with headquarters at Fort Adams.
Under the Act of March 16, 1802, the regiment was discharged on the first of the following June, and it remained out of service until its reorganization under the Act of April 12, 1808, with Edward Pasteur as its first colonel. Colonel Pasteur resigned January 1, 1810, and was succeeded by Colonel William Dent Beall, promoted from the 5th Infantry. On the 24th of April, 1812, Joseph Constant of the Fifth Infantry became colonel of the Third by transfer. He resigned August 15, 1813, and was succeeded by Colonel Gilbert C. Russell.
From its reorganization till the War of 18 12, the regiment was stationed at various posts throughout the southern Atlantic States; from which States it had been recruited. During the War of 1812 it was in the seventh Military District, the headquarters of which were at New Orleans. It participated in the campaign against the Creek Indians, which commenced with the massacre at Fort Mimms, August 30,1813, followed by a general uprising of the Indians along the southwestern frontier, and ended with the bloody battle of Emucfau, or Horse Shoe Bend, March 25, 1814, where Jackson first distinguished himself as a military commander, and where the power of the great Creek nation was broken forever.
*An abridgment of Lieut. J. H. McRae's "History of the 3d Infantry."
A part of the regiment was with Jackson at the capture of Pensacola, Florida, November 7, 1814, and a part was with him later when the brilliant victory of New Orleans was won.
In the reorganization of the army under the Act of March 3, 1815, the Third was consolidated with the 2d, 7th, and 44th, to form the First Regiment of Infantry; and a new Third was formed by the consolidation of the 1st, 17th, 24th, 28th, and 30th regiments. The Third Infantry, therefore, includes the oldest organization in the United States Army,—the original First Infantry, which was organized under a resolve of Congress of June 3, 1784. Colonel John Miller of the 17th was retained as colonel of the Third, Colonel Russell being honorably discharged. Lieutenant-Colonel Matthew Arbuckle, 3d Infantry, remained as lieutenant-colonel under the new organization, and Major Charles K. Gardner, the author of the designation of companies by the first letters of the alphabet, became major of the regiment. Major Gardner was succeeded the following year by Major Zachary Taylor, who was reinstated as major of the Third Infantry, having been honorably discharged at the time of the reorganization. He was promoted to the 4th Infantry April 20, 1819.
For the next eleven years the regiment was stationed along the Great Lakes and vicinity, garrisoning at different times the posts of Detroit, Mackinac, Forts Howard, Dearborn, Knox, Harrison, Wayne, Crawford, etc. The headquarters were at Detroit from 1815 till 1821, when they were transferred to Fort Howard, remaining at the latter place until the summer of 1826.
Upon the resignation of Colonel Miller, February 10, 1818, Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Lee Smith, 3d Infantry, became colonel of the regiment, and remained in command until the reorganization of the army in June, 1821, when he was honorably discharged and Colonel Ninian Pinkney became colonel of the Third in his place.
In 1826 the regiment was transferred to Missouri, and in September was at "Camp Miller," where it assisted in the construction of a new post which subsequently was named Jefferson Barracks. In the spring of 1827 Colonel Leavenworth (who had succeeded Colonel Pinkney upon the death of the latter in December, 1825), with Companies B, D, E and H, selected the present site of Fort Leavenworth, and in April of the following year the entire regiment, except Companies C and G at Fort Armstrong, was concentrated at Cantonment Leavenworth, but in the spring of 1829 returned to Jefferson Barracks.
Companies E and K, under Captain Lewis, left Jefferson Barracks November 26, and arrived at camp on Black Creek, Choctaw Nation, December 31. Companies A, C, G and I, forming the first battalion, under Major S. W. Kearny, left Jefferson Barracks, December 14, 1830, for service in the Choctaw Nation, and arrived at Natchitoches, on the Red River, where it went into camp, on the 31st. In November, 1831, this battalion took station at Cantonment Towson, Choctaw Nation, near the southeast corner of what is now the Indian Territory. In September of that year the field and staff, with Companies B, D, F and H, were transferred from Jefferson Barracks to Cantonment Jesup, La., where the headquarters of the regiment
were established and remained, except for a few short intervals, until ordered to Florida in the fall of 1840.
General Orders of February 12, 1834, placed Colonel Leavenworth in command of the Left Wing, Western Department, and while on an expedition in what is now the Indian Territory, he died at "Cross Timbers," 120 miles west of Fort Towson, on the 21st of July following.
He was succeeded by Colonel James Many, who joined at Fort Jesup and assumed command of the regiment January 3, 1835. Colonel Many remained colonel of the regiment, though unqualified by age and physical disability for active service, until his death, February 3, 1852, when he was succeeded by Colonel Thomas Staniford, promoted from the Eighth. Colonel Staniford never joined, and upon his death just three years later, he was succeeded by Colonel Benjamin L. E. Bonneville, whose adventures are made famous by Irving, promoted from the Fourth Infantry. Colonel Bonneville joined the following December and assumed command of the regiment, which he retained until his retirement, September 9, 1861.
In the spring of 1837 Companies B and E, under Brevet Major Belknap, were detached from the garrison of Fort Jesup to the Sabine River for the purpose of opening it up to steamboat navigation from Cook's Ferry to its mouth, a distance of about 300 miles. The two companies first formed a camp for the purpose of building boats by which means to descend and improve the course of the river, opposite Sabine Town, Texas. Starting on the downward course September 23, when the river was about at its lowest, the work of removing snags and overhanging trees was commenced and progressed from day to day until the "Raft," or great jam of logs, was encountered nearly half way from Cook's Ferry to the head of Sabine Bay. This was an almost solid mass of surface and sunken timber completely blocking the river from bank to bank. The work of cutting out a practicable channel through the obstructing mass was finally effected through the incessant labor of two weeks, and upon arriving at the mouth of the river the command crossed Sabine Bay to a point on the Louisiana side, where it arrived and went into camp November 27. The companies remained there until the following summer when they returned to Fort Jesup.
Having been ordered to join the army in Florida the entire regiment was, during the month of October, 1840, en route to Fort Brooke, Tampa Bay, via New Orleans, and by November 20 was concentrated at Fort Brooke, Major Wilson commanding, Colonel Many being on sick leave and Lieutenant-Colonel Vose on detached service as superintendent of the general recruiting service.
For the next two and a half years the regiment bore its full share of the hardships and arduous duties incident to the Florida War. From Fort Brooke the companies were dispersed to numerous detached posts and camps throughout middle and west Florida and along the Georgia border, constantly engaged the year round, patrolling and scouting the surrounding country and swamps in search of, and to protect settlers against, small bands of marauding Indians. Major Wilson commanded the regiment and the Western District until relieved by Colonel Vose, November 22, 1841, who continued in command until March 29 of the following year, when,
having been promoted to the 4th Infantry, he was in turn relieved by Major Wilson. The latter having been promoted to the First Infantry, was relieved in command July 25, 1842, by Captain Clark, the senior officer present. Lieutenant-Colonel Hitchcock joined and assumed command of Fort Stansbury and the Western District on the 12th, and of the regiment on the 29th of October, which command he retained during the remainder of the war.
After the pacification of August 14, 1842, the troops remaining in Florida (the Third and Eighth Regiments of Infantry and six companies of the Fourth) were concentrated, detached camps being drawn in and a number of posts abandoned. The headquarters of the Third were at Fort Stansbury, 12 miles from Tallahassee. The aggregate strength of the regiment at this time was 690 men. Three companies were stationed at Cantonment Morgan, Horse Key; and one company each at Forts Pleasants, Robert Gamble, Hamilton, Stansbury, Ocilla, and Brooke.
Although General Worth's order of August 14 announced that hostilities with the Indians had ceased, yet they were to be carefully watched by the military, and those who violated their treaty agreements to be secured if possible and removed to their new home in Arkansas. Tiger Tail, the most noted chief remaining in Florida, and who had been the principal instrument in protracting the war three years, disregarding his promise to move south to the allotted reservation, was surprised and captured in his camp by Lieutenant T. Jordan, 3d Infantry, with a detachment of 20 men.
A band of Creeks under the chief Pascoffer, on the Ocklockonnee River, was causing much apprehension along the border of West Florida. Lieutenant-Colonel Hitchcock, commanding Third Infantry, stationed at Fort Stansbury, was ordered to besiege the country by land and water, with boats, mounted men and foot men. These operations, characterized by great skill and energy on Colonel Hitchcock's part, seconded by the zealous exertions of the officers of the regiment, resulted in the surrender of Pascoffer and his band of 51 souls (29 warriors) January 9, 1843. By this capture middle and west Florida were relieved entirely of Indians, and the whole territory of the most inveterate of her foes.
Peace being at last restored to Florida, the regular force remaining in the Territory was reduced to one regiment—the Eighth Infantry, and the Third was sent to Jefferson Barracks, where it arrived and reestablished the regimental headquarters on the 22d of April, 1843. During the regiment's service in Florida it had lost three men killed, and three officers and 65 men who died of disease.
In the summer of 1843 the eight companies of the regiment stationed at Jefferson Barracks (K and I having been detached to Fort Leavenworth shortly after the return of the regiment from Florida) and eight companies of the Fourth, were formed into a school for brigade drill under Colonel Kearny, and so thoroughly were they drilled and disciplined during the summer and fall of 1843, and the winter of 1843- 44, that they gained a reputation throughout the service which placed them in the forefront of the army.
In the spring of 1844 the entire regiment was transferred to Camp Wil-
kins, near Fort Jesup, and with the Fourth Infantry at Camp Salubrity and seven companies of the Second Dragoons at Fort Jesup, became the "Army of Observation" under General Zachary Taylor. During the summer of 1845 the regiment was transferred to Corpus Christi, Texas, where it arrived in the early part of August, and with the 4th, 5th, 7th, and 8th Regiments of Infantry, seven companies of the Second Dragoons, four batteries of light artillery, and one regiment of heavy artillery serving as infantry,—about 3000 in all,—became the "Army of Observation of Texas," still under the command of General Taylor.
The regiment remained in camp at Corpus Christi until March 11, 1846, when, as part of the Third Brigade, it took up the march for the Rio, Grande with Captain Lewis N. Morris in command. Lieutenant-Colonel Hitchcock was absent sick, and did not afterwards serve with the regiment during the war, but was on General Scott's staff as inspector general of the army, during the campaign from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. Arriving at the Rio Grande on the 29th at a point directly opposite the city of Matamoras, the regiment went into camp, where it furnished its daily quota of officers and men for duty in the construction of the field work afterwards called Fort Brown.
On the 1st of May, the work being sufficiently advanced, the commanding general made a movement towards the coast for the purpose of establishing a base of supplies. The Third Infantry, forming a part of the command, arrived at Point Isabel on the 2d, and remained there until the afternoon of the 7th, at which time the army commenced its march for its former position opposite Matamoras. The regiment was engaged in the actions of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma on the 8th and 9th of May, in the latter warmly, but it fortunately escaped with but little loss, the sergeant major and one private being killed, and one officer and six enlisted men wounded. The regiment, with one company of the Second Dragoons and one battery of artillery, was ordered to pursue the enemy after Resaca de la Palma, which it did with vigor, halting only on the bank of the Rio Grande, where it bivouacked for the night and where it remained until the 11th when it moved to the old camp opposite Matamoras.
Major Lear joined from sick leave on the 16th and assumed command of the regiment. Crossing the river on the 18th the regiment remained in camp near Matamoras until the movement upon Monterey commenced in July. While in camp at Matamoras Companies A, B, E and G, having the smallest number of officers present, were temporarily broken up, the privates being transferred to other companies and the officers, non-commissioned officers and musicians sent on recruiting service. Company A was afterwards reorganized at Vera Cruz, when D was broken up and the men transferred to A. Companies B, D and E, were reorganized and joined the headquarters of the regiment at Puebla in August, 1847. Company G was reorganized at Governor's Island the following year and joined at Puebla on the regiment's return march from the City of Mexico.
In the latter part of July the Third, brigaded with the Fourth with Colonel Garland as brigade commander, commenced the advance into the interior. Marching first to Camargo, thence to Monterey, it was warmly engaged in
the actions which ensued on the 21st, 22d, and 23d of September. On the 21st the regiment formed part of the assaulting column upon the eastern defenses of the city, which were gallantly carried, with a loss, however, to the regiment of six of its most gallant and valuable officers and 16 men killed; and one officer (Captain Bainbridge) and 29 men wounded,—a total loss of 52 out of an effective strength of 14 officers and 248 men. The following named officers were killed: Captains L. N. Morris, P. N. Barbour, and G. P. Field, and Lieutenants D. S. Irwin and Robert Hazlitt. The last named was killed while fearlessly exposing himself in attempting to place his mortally wounded commanding officer under cover. Major Lear died October 31 of the wounds then received. Upon the death of Major Lear the command of the regiment devolved upon Captain Bainbridge, who, upon his promotion to the 7th Infantry in the following February, was succeeded by Captain E. B. Alexander who retained the command until the close of the war.
After the surrender of Monterey on the 24th September the regiment was encamped at Walnut Springs, about four miles from the city, where it remained until the 13th of December, when it, together with most of the regular troops under General Taylor, took up the line of march for Tampico, en route to Vera Cruz. At Tampico the troops embarked for the general rendezvous at Lobos Island, thence to Vera Cruz, where they landed March 9, 1847, and the regiment took part in the siege of the place which followed.
After the capture of Vera Cruz, General Scott's army was detained a month awaiting transportation, and then began that brilliant and wonderful march to the City of Mexico, during which there was not even a skirmish in which our troops were not victorious, and always against greatly superior numbers (sometimes three to one) posted in strong works and natural defenses. The Third Infantry was still in Smith's Brigade, Twiggs' Division, which was the first to leave Vera Cruz, taking up the line of march April 8, 1847.
The enemy was first discovered strongly posted on the heights of Cerro Gordo, the first high spur of mountain met with on the national road from Vera Cruz to the City of Mexico. In the battle of April 18, the regiment was commanded by Captain Alexander, and with the 7th Infantry and 1st Artillery, under Colonel Harney, 2d Dragoons (General Smith being sick), formed the assaulting column to carry the heights of Telegrafo, the key point of the enemy's position, which was crowned with artillery and strengthened with palisades and breastworks. This strong and important position was carried by a brilliant charge—the Seventh on the right, the Third on the left, and the First Artillery in rear as support. General Scott makes special mention of this charge in his report of the battle. After explaining the great importance of carrying the position and naming the troops detached for the purpose, he says:
"The style of execution, which I had the pleasure to witness, was most brilliant and decisive. The brigade ascended the long and difficult slope of Cerro Gordo, without shelter and under tremendous fire of artillery and musketry, with the utmost steadiness, reaching the breastworks drove the enemy from them, planted the colors of the First Artillery, Third and
Seventh Infantry, the enemy's flag still flying, and after some minutes of sharp firing finished the conquest with the bayonet. It is a most pleasing duty to say that the highest praise is due to Harney, Childs, Plympton, Loring, Alexander, their gallant officers and men, for this brilliant service, independent of the great results which followed."
The Telegrafo being captured there was but a feeble and brief resistance offered at other points. Our army gained a most complete and decisive victory. The Third formed part of the pursuing column, which so hotly pressed the retreating army that nearly the whole of it was dispersed and disorganized. The losses of the regiment in this battle were 9 men killed or mortally wounded; and two officers (Lieutenants Ward and Bee) and 24 men wounded.
The victorious army now moved on to Jalapa and from there to Puebla. As the time of about 4000 of General Scott's volunteers had expired, the army was delayed here until August before sufficient reinforcements were received to warrant an advance. The onward movement from Puebla commenced August 7, with Twiggs' Division, to which the Third still belonged, again in advance, it being a rule with General Scott that one of the two regular divisions should always be in front.
From Puebla to the City of Mexico is about 160 miles, and the army, having crossed the Rio Frio Mountains without opposition, descended into the basin in which the city is situated and arrived at Ayotla August 11, at which place and along Lake Chalco, the army was concentrated preparatory to an advance upon the City of Mexico.
The Third Infantry, still under Captain Alexander and in Smith's Brigade,—which was temporarily commanded by Major Dimick, 1st Artillery, General Smith being in command of all the forces which made the attack,-was warmly engaged and took a gallant and important part in the battle of August 19th and 20th, the first of those remarkable battles around and in view of the City of Mexico, and which resulted in the capture on the morning of the 20th of the important position of El Pedregal, or Contreras.
On the afternoon of the same day—August 20—the most severe of all the battles fought in the basin of Mexico took place at the hamlet of Churubusco, which contained a fortified convent and a strong field work at the head of the bridge over which the causeway to the capital passed. Immediately after the victory of Contreras General Scott moved his little army, confident of another victory, against these strong works held by at least three times his numbers, the whole remaining force of Mexico being assembled in or in supporting distance of them, with the determination to make a last desperate stand to save their beloved capital. To Twiggs' Division was given the capture of the citadel of the works, the strongly fortified convent, and in the assault which followed the ever gallant "Buff Sticks"* played the most conspicuous part. That part is best told in General Scott's own words. In his report of the battle he says:
"Finally, twenty minutes after the tête de pont had been carried by
* A designation by which the regiment was universally known on account of its clean, soldierly appearance at all times.
Worth and Pillow, and at the end of a desperate conflict of two hours and a half, the church or convent—the citadel of the strong line of defense along the rivulet of Churubusco—yielded to Twiggs' Division and threw out on all sides signals of surrender. The white flags, however, were not exhibited until the moment when the Third Infantry, under Captain Alexander, had cleared the way by fire and bayonet and had entered the work. Captains J. M. Smith and O. L. Shepherd, both of that regiment, with their companies had the glory of leading the assault. The former received the surrender and Captain Alexander instantly hung out from the balcony the colors of the gallant Third."
The following extract is from the report of the Mexican officer in command:
"The first to present himself upon the parapet was the valiant Captain James M. Smith of the Third Infantry, who gave an example of valor to many following him; and no less magnanimous than daring, scarcely had he ascertained that now, on our part, no resistance was made, than he showed a white flag."
The losses of the regiment at Contreras and Churubusco were six men killed; one missing; and three officers (Captains Craig and Chandler, and Lieutenant Buell) and 26 men wounded.
After their defeats at Contreras and Churubusco, and after losing in killed and prisoners a number equal to our entire army, and treble as much ordnance as our army had in its siege train and field batteries, the enemy fell back to the very gates of the city. Pending negotiations for peace between the two governments an armistice was agreed upon, which went into effect August 23, and our army went into cantonment in the neighboring villages along the slopes of the mountains to the south of the city. The Mexicans were so enraged by the ultimatum given by our government on the 2d of September, that they immediately commenced to strengthen their defenses, in violation of the terms of truce, whereupon General Scott declared the armistice at an end and commenced preparations to enter the capital, resulting in the battles of Molino del Rey, Chapultepec, and Mexico, on the 8th, 13th and 14th days of September, respectively.
General Smith's Brigade having been left at San Angel as a reserve and as a guard to the general depot, the Third did not participate in the capture of Molino del Rey, but was actively and gallantly engaged in the other battles. On the 12th Companies D and I were detached to support the battery engaged in bombarding the Mexican fortifications at the Garita Ninio, Perdido. On the same evening a selected party of three officers and 57 men was detached to form a part of the storming party of regular troops against the fortress of Chapultepec. On the morning of the 13th the main body of the regiment (Companies D and I having not yet joined) moved forward to support the attack upon that strong fortress, Smith's Brigade having reinforced Quitman's Division and forming the right of the column. Chapultepec was carried about 9.30 A. M. on the 13th, and the regiment then pushed forward in pursuit of the retreating army, and participated in the taking of the different batteries along the Belên causeway leading into the city, particularly at the Garita de Belên, or southwest gate of the city, which
was taken with considerable loss, the troops being under both direct and flank fire from the strong fortress, called the Citadel, just within the gate, and from behind the stone pillars and arches of the aqueduct along the road. Here the regiment, Companies D and I having joined late in the afternoon, remained during the night. Worth's Division had pursued the enemy along the San Cosme causeway and had also entered the city by the San Cosme gate. These victories of the 13th of September closed the active operations of the war. Early on the morning of the 14th, the Third, which had so signally distinguished itself during this war, was among the first (Quitman's Division) who marched into the grand plaza of the city and hoisted the Stars and Stripes over the "Halls of the Montezumas."*
General Santa Anna had evacuated the city during the night, but before doing so had liberated some 2000 convicts, who, joined by about as many others—deserters and populace—caused considerable annoyance and casualty to the army when it entered the city, by firing upon it from house tops, etc. The Third was engaged during the greater part of the 14th in suppressing this outbreak, with severe loss to the regiment.
The losses of the regiment on the 13th and 14th of September were 12 killed or mortally wounded, and 48 wounded. During the whole war the regiment lost 52 (including six officers) killed, and 140 (including seven officers) wounded.†
The war was now over, but following the excitement of the recent battles and the capture of the city, irregular diet, etc., many men of the regiment fell sick and died. The returns show that from April till December, 1847, there were 120 deaths in the regiment from disease.
The army remained in and around the City of Mexico until the following June, when the treaty of peace having been ratified by the United States Senate, the evacuation commenced. The Third Infantry left the city on the Morning of the 5th, and arrived at Vera Cruz July 3. Left Vera Cruz on the 9th on the ship Masconomo, and arrived at Camp Jefferson Davis, East Pascagoula, Miss., July 21, 1848,
In October and November Headquarters and Companies A, B, C, E, I and K, were transferred to Texas, taking station at Camp Salado, four miles from San Antonio; and Companies D, F, G and H, to Jefferson Barracks, where they remained until the following April when they were sent to Fort Leavenworth.
During the winter of 1848-49, while the Texas battalion under Brevet Major Van Horne was encamped on the Salado River, at about 1 o'clock on a quiet starlit morning the sentinel over the storehouse suddenly found himself walking in water. He gave the alarm and in an instant the hitherto peaceful camp was in a furore of excitement and terror, for as men, women and children tumbled out of bed, they found themselves in water. When
- * There is a drum-major's baton now in possession of the regiment, presented to it by its old brigade commander, General Persifor F. Smith, the wooden portion of which is part of the flagstaff of the capitol building, or national palace, of Mexico, and the metal portion is made of Mexican silver.
- † Of the officers serving with the Third Infantry during the Mexican War, six afterwards became major generals of volunteers during the Civil War, and one a major general and one a brigadier general in the C. S. A.
the sun arose that morning the insignificant rill of the night before had become a sea of raging waters, in some places two or more miles in width. Every vestige of the camp was completely swept away by the force of the torrent, but such had been the promptness, efficiency and discipline of all concerned that only one life was lost, that of a non-commissioned officer of the regimental staff, supposed to have been drowned in his sleep. His body was never recovered. The regiment lost everything,—clothing, baggage, personal effects, private papers, etc., while the Government lost arms, ammunition, quartermaster and subsistence stores, everything except the horses and mules which had saved themselves and helped to save the women and children. The force of the flood was so great, that, with the exception of one armchest full of muskets found lodged in adrift in the Cibolo River, some 50 miles below the camp, nothing was ever recovered.
During the month of May, 1849, there were 35 deaths from cholera in the companies at Camp Salado and 11 in the battalion at Fort Leavenworth.
On the 1st of June, 1849, the six companies in Texas under Major Van Horne were sent to El Paso del Norte; arriving at camp five miles below El Paso September 8, a distance of about 670 miles. Companies D, F, G and H, under Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander (who was also commanding the regiment), left Fort Leavenworth about the middle of May for Santa Fé, where they arrived July 22. The entire regiment was now in New Mexico, headquarters and three companies being at Santa Fé; two companies at the post opposite El Paso; and the others scattered along the Rio Grande as far north as Taos, N. M.
The regiment remained in New Mexico until 1860, and the returns show the different companies to have been almost continuously on the march (while not engaged in building new posts) changing stations, escorting trains over hundreds of miles of trackless wilderness infested with hostile Indians, on exploring expeditions, scouts, and campaigns against Indians. The following is a list of the engagements with Indians, and some of the more important expeditions in which portions of the regiment took part during this time:
August 16 to September, 26; expedition against Navajo Indians; Companies D, F, G and H. October 17 to November 12; expedition against Apache Indians; Company E.
February 6; engagement with Apaches near Fort Webster; Company K; three men killed. February 19 to March 31; expedition against Apaches on Gila River; Company B. June 6; Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel L. S. Craig was shot and killed by two deserters from Fort Yuma, while in command of the International Boundary Line Survey escort, of which his company (A) formed part.
April 6 to June 15; expedition against the Jicarilla Apaches; Company G. April 14 to May 11; scout into the White Mountains against Mescalero Apaches; Company C. June 18 to August 15; expedition against Mescalero
Apaches near head of Rio Yula; Companies A. E and I. June 30, Lieutenant J. E. Maxwell killed in action with Jicarilla Apaches near Moro River, 40 miles south of Fort Union, while in command of a detachment of the Second Dragoons.
March; expedition against Gila and Mogollan Apaches; Companies A and I, which marched between 500 and 600 miles during the month and engaged the enemy at Sierra Almagre on the 21st, and near Rio Meimbris on the 29th. March 2o; engagement with Apaches, Fort Thorn; detachments of D, F and I.
January 31 to February 5; expedition to Cañon Medera against Apaches; Company I. April to September; expedition against the Gila and Mogollon Apaches, under Colonel Bonneville; Companies B, C, I and K and detachment of E, with following engagements:
May 24, Cañon de los Muertos Carneros, B and detachment E; June 2, Mogollon Mountains, C and detachment F; June 27, Gila River with Coyotero Apaches, C and detachments of F and K; one officer and three men wounded with arrows.
January 1 to February 11; scout against Kiowa Indians in neighborhood of Manzana; Company F. March to September; Mormon expedition into Utah; Companies A, E and F. May 30; engagement with Navajo Indians at Ewell's hay camp near Fort Defiance; detachments of B and G. September, October and November; campaign against Navajos; engagements:
September 19 to 24, Cañon de Chelly, Company G; September 25, Laguna Negra, Company B; October 1, Bear Springs, Company B; October 10, Ranchos de los Anagones, Company G; November 9, near Fort Defiance, Company F.
January 27 to February 5; scouts into the Pueblo Indian country near Zuni; Company B. July 18 to August 17; Scout to Moqui villages and region south and west of Fort Defiance; Company K. August and September; scouts into the Navajo country; Companies C, D, E and K. November 1 to 12; campaign against Tuni-Cha Navajos; Companies B, C and G. November 14; engagement with Tuni-Cha Navajo Indians near Fort Defiance; detachments of B, C, E and G.
January 17; engagement with Navajos near Fort Defiance; detachments of B, C, E and G. January 18 to 22; engagements with Navajos near Fort Defiance and Sixteen Mile Pond; detachments of B, C, E, F and G. February 8; engagement with Navajos near Fort Defiance; detachments of B, C, E and G. April 5; engagement with Navajos near Fort Defiance; detachment of B. April 30; attack on Fort Defiance by Navajos;* Companies B, C and E.
* For full account see "Reminiscences of Fort Defiance, N. M., 1860," published in No. 13. JOURNAL OF THE MILITARY SERVICE INSTITUTION.
During the summer and fall of 1860 the regiment was transferred from the Department of New Mexico to that of Texas, where the companies were distributed as follows:—Headquarters and Companies B, D, G, H and K, at Fort Clark, Colonel Bonneville commanding; Companies A, C and E, at Ringgold Barracks, Lieutenant-Colonel Electus Backus commanding; Companies F and I at Fort McIntosh, Major C. C. Sibley commanding. These were the stations of the different companies at the close of the year 1860.
As the mighty war clouds which hovered over the country were then fast lowering, the regular troops stationed in Texas were ordered to evacuate that State by way of the coast. Headquarters and Companies B, D, G, H and K, under Brevet Major O. L. Shepherd (Colonel Bonneville on leave), left Fort Clark March 19, 1861, and arrived at Indianola on the 7th of April. The line of march took them through the city of San Antonio, just before reaching which instructions were received from Colonel Waite (who had relieved General Twiggs of the command of the Department), that, as there was some excitement among the citizens of the place, it would be well if the command marched around the city.
"However, the old regiment was not in the habit of sneaking around by the by-ways when the main road was open, and Major Shepherd called a council of the officers; the matter was laid before them, and without a dissenting voice it was determined that the trunks and boxes should be opened and full dress uniform gotten out and put on, band instruments unpacked, and the regimental flags removed from their cases; and that we should march through San Antonio with everything that we possessed flying, blowing and beating; so that for awhile everything was in confusion, and the leeward side of every wagon in the train became an extemporized dressing-room."
Thus they entered and passed through the town with "colors flying, band playing, and every man and officer as fine as brass and bullion could make him."*
At Indianola the command embarked for New York Harbor, where it arrived April 25.
Companies C and E had embarked for Fort Hamilton, N.Y. Harbor, the month before. From there they were sent to Fort Pickens, Florida, where they arrived April 16, and participated in the following engagements before joining the headquarters of the regiment the ensuing year: Santa Rosa Island, October 9; bombardment of Fort Pickens, November 22 and 23; Fort Barrancas, January 1; and Fort Pickens, May 9 to 12. The companies lost two men killed and seven wounded.
Companies A, F and I, less fortunate, were compelled to surrender to an overwhelming force of Confederates under Colonel Van Dorn, at Matagorda Bay, near Indianola, April 26, the men and officers being paroled until such time as they could be exchanged. They rejoined the headquarters of the regiment the following year, every enlisted man being reported "present or accounted for," although many had received tempting offers of commissions in the Confederate service.
The headquarters and battalion of five companies left Fort Hamilton
* Major Bell on the evacuation of Texas by the Third Infantry.
for Washington May 9, and in the early part of June the battalion was ordered to reinforce General Patterson's command. It went by rail to Carlisle, Pa., and marched to and forded the Potomac near Williamsport, making part of one day's march toward the enemy, when it was recalled to Washington, making a forced march while returning which rivalled—at least in the amount of fatigue it imposed—the famous retreat from Bull Run, the command being on their feet and marching for twenty hours out of twenty-four.
On the 4th of July the battalion was transferred from Washington to Arlington Heights where it remained until the 16th, when, with two companies of the Second and one of the Eighth Infantry, all formed into one battalion under Major George Sykes, it took its place in the column starting out on that short and memorable campaign ending in the disastrous battle of Bull Run. This "small but incomparable body of infantry," the only regular infantry in the column, formed part of the First Brigade (Porter's), Second Division (Hunter's).
It is impossible in the limits of this sketch to give more than the briefest outline of the part taken by the regiment in this campaign or in any of the campaigns and battles which followed, but it is not necessary to do more, as that part is a portion of the written history of our country. Its gallant conduct in this, the first great battle of the war, its unflinching steadfastness and perfect order in covering the flight of the panic stricken army, was but a presage of that which was to distinguish it throughout the war. The regiment lost in this battle five men killed, 26 missing, and four wounded; also two officers wounded and taken prisoners.
After the battle of Bull Run the battalion returned to Washington and there formed part of the Provost Guard. A few days after its return it was reviewed by President Lincoln accompanied by General McDowell. "In their passage down the line they drew rein in front of the colors, when the general, turning to Mr. Lincoln, said, 'Mr. President, there are the men who saved your army at Bull Run.' The President, looking up and down the line, replied, 'I've heard of them.'"
During the winter of 1861-62 the battalion of the regiment, brigaded with the Tenth Infantry, remained encamped at Franklin Square. Two of the paroled companies (F and I) having been exchanged, joined during the winter from Fort Hamilton. Companies C and E joined from Florida the following June in time to participate in the seven day's fight on the Peninsula. Company A did not join until the following fall when the whole regiment was once more united.
In March, 1862, the Third left Washington for Fortress Monroe to join McClellan's army previous to its advance to Yorktown. It was commanded by Major N. B. Rossell (Colonel Charles F. Smith, who had succeeded Colonel Bonneville upon his retirement in September, 1861, being on detached service as major general of volunteers) and formed part of the Regular Brigade, commanded by General Sykes. The regiment participated in the siege of Yorktown and in the Seven Days' Fight, taking a very conspicuous and gallant part in the battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27, when its commanding officer and six men were killed, 19 men wounded, and 19 miss-
ing; and of Malvern Hill, June 30 and July 2, in which Lieutenant McGuire and four men were killed, 11 men wounded and 9 missing.
Upon the death of Major Rossell the command of the regiment devolved upon Captain John D. Wilkins, who retained it until the following spring. Colonel Smith died April 25, 1862, and Colonel William Hoffman, promoted from the Eighth Infantry, became colonel of the regiment and remained such until the consolidation in 1869. He did not serve with the regiment, however, during the war, being on detached service as commissary general of prisoners.
From the Peninsula the regiment, with its division (now become Sykes' Division of Regulars) was transferred to the Army of Virginia under General Pope—joining in time to participate in the second battle of Bull Run, in which no regiment played a more prominent rôle than the 3d Infantry.
It arrived on the old battle-field about 7 o'clock on the morning of the 30th. A short time afterwards its brigade was formed in line of battle in front of the Dogan House, and the regiment ordered forward, as skirmishers, to occupy the crest of the hill in their front, their left resting on the Alexandria and Warrenton turnpike. It remained in this position about three hours when orders were received to advance the line. This was promptly and gallantly done, driving the enemy from some houses in front of their left—several men of the regiment being killed and wounded here. But it was later in the day that the regiment and brigade was to conspicuously distinguish themselves—when the division to which they belonged was to make a charge and cover a retreat destined to become historical for the steadfastness and intrepidity of the participants in it. It "saved the army," and drew, on the field of battle, from General MacDowell, the memorable exclamation, "God bless the regulars!" The regiment's losses in this battle were two officers and fourteen men wounded and thirty-one men missing, total fifty-two.
At Antietam the division was held in reserve at least most of the time, and did not, therefore, take as prominent a part as usual in the battle. It left Middletown on the morning of the 15th of September, crossed South Mountain, and reaching the east bank of Antietam River, took position behind some hills on the left of the turnpike leading direct to Sharpsburg. The Third Infantry was at once thrown out as skirmishers and occupied the crest of the river bank to the right and left of the bridge. It remained in this position all night and until relieved by the 4th Infantry, about 10 o'clock next morning. During the 16th and 17th, it remained in reserve, although exposed to a heavy fire from the enemy's artillery. On the 19th the regiment moved forward, with its division, in pursuit of the retreating enemy, passed through Sharpsburg, and on the 20th bivouacked near the Potomac opposite Blackford's Fort. Skirmishers were here thrown out in front of each brigade and a desultory fire maintained with those of the enemy on the Virginia side.
At the battle of Fredericksburg, which came next, the division of regulars first acted as support to the attack on Marye's Hill. It left its bivouac at Falmouth on the afternoon of the 13th, and moved towards the upper pontoon bridge, the 3d leading the advance. The moment the head of the
column showed itself, the enemy opened fire upon it with shot and shell, and, while awaiting an opportunity to cross, the regiment lost three men wounded—one mortally. After effecting a crossing, the regiment, depositing their knapsacks in the street, moved hurriedly towards the scene of action, arriving at the southern edge of the city at the moment the attack on the enemy's outworks was repulsed, and encountering part of the fire of the enemy, by which several men were wounded. The regiment was then ordered to the right and took position in the cemetery. About midnight it advanced out on the plank road, relieved a portion of Humphries' Division, and with the 4th Infantry took position behind a tannery. Skirmishers were thrown out some three hundred yards to the right. At daybreak the enemy's pickets and sharpshooters opened a brisk fire upon them, from their intrenchments, but a stone's throw away, when they were withdrawn, but not until some were killed and several wounded. They still remained under constant front and enfilading fire from the enemy, within one hundred yards, securely sheltered behind stone walls and rifle pits, and, as General Sykes said in his report of the battle, "could offer no resistance only the moral effect of that hardihood and bravery which would not yield one foot of the line they were required to protect. No better test of the qualities of troops could be shown than that displayed by these brigades. Patience, endurance, discipline and courage were conspicuous."
About 11 A. M., the 3d and 4th effected an entrance into the tannery with their bayonets, through the brick walls. They soon after loopholed the walls and from these and the windows they succeeded in driving the enemy from the houses and rifle- pits on the right, relieving the brigade, in great measure, from the fire of the sharpshooters during the remainder of the day. At 12 o'clock that night the regiment was relieved, having held the position 24 hours, and proceeded to the city and bivouacked near St. George's Church. During the evening of the 15th it changed position three times. Toward morning it was placed in front and nearest the enemy, where it remained until the whole army had crossed safely to the northern banks of the Rappahannock, when it received orders to fall back, being the last to recross the river. The losses in this battle were three men killed and 12 wounded.
Shortly after this, while in camp at Henry House, the regiment was reorganized. Its strength present having been reduced to 12 officers and 408 enlisted men, Companies A, D, E and H were broken up, the men transferred and the officers attached to other companies. It remained a six company organization until the close of the war.
The regiment took part in Burnside's famous "Mud March," and, later, in the battles of Dowall's Tavern and Chancellorsville. In the latter it moved with the attacking column and participated in the engagements of May 1st. On the 2d, 3d, 4th and 5th, it held its position in the line of battle. It also assisted here in driving back to the field of battle some of the fugitives of the Eleventh Corps. The losses in this battle were four men wounded and four missing.
Gettysburg came next. As part of the First Brigade of Regulars it arrived on the battle-field early in the morning of July 2, having on the three consecutive days previous marched over 62 miles. It first acted as reserve
for the right and centre, but during the afternoon was hastily sent to the left, where it participated in the fierce fighting around the Round Tops and near Devil's Den, where the slaughter of the regular infantry was so fearful. But they "once more justified their old reputation; not a single man left the ranks, and they allowed themselves to be decimated without flinching. Eleven hundred combatants only out of an effective force of 2000 are left standing." Captain Freedly, who commanded the regiment, was so seriously wounded in the knee that he never rejoined the regiment and was ultimately retired. Lieutenants Butler, Parker and Morton were wounded, 8 men were killed, 61 wounded, six mortally, and two were missing, making a total loss of 75 out of an effective strength of less than 300.
The remnants of the regiment, now under Captain Lay, remained in line of battle all day during the 3d. On the 4th it was sent out on reconnoissance and had a brisk skirmish with the enemy, after which it returned to its station below Little Round Top, but was immediately sent out again on the front line of pickets. It remained on picket that night and until the pursuit of the enemy commenced the next day.
During the summer of 1863 the regiment was sent to New York, where it arrived August 21, to assist in suppressing the Draft Riots. Leaving New York September 14 it again took the field and participated in the operations which led up to, and was engaged in, the battle of Rappahannock Station, November 7, one man being wounded.
It took part in the Mine Run campaign, November 26 to December 2, after which it was again sent to New York Harbor where it remained, stationed at Forts Richmond, Hamilton and Columbus, until October, 1864, when it was transferred to Washington and stationed at Camp Relief in the northern outskirts of the city.
In February, 1865, the regiment, with a total strength present of only 11 officers and 212 men, was again sent to the Army of the Potomac. It joined at Petersburg, and was stationed from that time until the end of the war at General Meade's headquarters, participating in all the subsequent engagements of the Army of the Potomac until the final surrender of Lee's army at Appomattox. Thus ended the war, the Third having borne a meritorious part in 21 battles and sieges, losing in killed, wounded and missing a total of 267 men,—a number equal to its average strength present during the war.
In the celebrated race between Sherman and Meade after the surrender of the Confederate armies, when both strove to reach the city of Washington the first, the Third marched (by odometer) 82½ miles in three days, and this a greater part of the time in rain and mud. In the grand review of the armies before President Lincoln, the Third, as part of the Provost Guard, was the leading infantry regiment of the column. On the 4th of July the regiment, with the 10th Infantry, was ordered in haste to General Wright's headquarters, a few miles away, to quell the threatened mutiny in the Provisional Corps, or proposed "Corps of Observation." It remained on duty there until the 27th, when it was transferred to the barracks at Washington Arsenal.
In the fall the regiment was transferred by rail to St. Louis, where it arrived October 29. Here Companies A, D, E and H, were reorganized December 19, 595 recruits having been received.
In the spring of 1866 the regiment, now commanded by Colonel (bvt. M. G.) Hoffman who had joined during the winter, left St. Louis for Kansas and the Indian Territory, where it remained for the next eight years. The following is a chronological list of engagements of portions of the regiment with hostile Indians during this time.
May 23; Big Timbers, Kan.; detachment of E. June 11; near Big Timbers, Kan.; detachment of E. June 15 ; Big Timbers, Kan.; detachment of E. July 3; near Goose Creek, Colo.; detachment of E. September 22; Pawnee Fork Bluff, Kan.; detachment of A.
September 2; Little Coon Creek, Kan.; detachments of A, F and H September 11 to 15; Sand Hills, I. T.; Company F. September 30; Big Bend, Kan.; Company D. October 1; attack on Fort Zara, Kan.; Company D. October 1; between Forts Larned and Dodge, Kan.; Company E. October 3; Crow Creek, Kan.; detachment of D. October 26; near Fort Dodge, Kan.; Company E. November 19; near Fort Dodge, Kan.; Companies A and H.
May 31; Bear Creek, Kan.; detachments of B and F. June 11; Camp Supply, L T.; Companies B, E and F.
July 2 Fort Larned, Kan.; Companies C and E.
June 19; Buffalo Creek, I. T.; detachment of D. June 21; Buffalo Creek, I. T.; detachment of A. June 24; Lear Creek Redoubt, Kan.; detachment of A.
In the reduction of the army in 1869, one-half of the 37th Infantry (Companies A, C, E, F and I) was consolidated with the Third, adding to the already long list of battles on her colors, those of Shiloh, Murfreesboro, Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta and Jonesboro.
Colonel (bvt. M. G.) G. W. Getty and Lieutenant-Colonel (bvt. B. G.) John R. Brooke, both of the 37th, were transferred to the Third in place of Colonel (bvt. M. G.) Hoffman and Lieutenant-Colonel (bvt. B. G.) Alfred Sully, placed on the unassigned list. General Getty was transferred to the 3d Artillery, December 31, 1870, never having joined the regiment, and Colonel Floyd-Jones was transferred to the Third from the unassigned list. He joined at Fort Dodge, Kansas, the following June and retained command of the regiment until his retirement in 1879.
In the early part of the summer of 1874 the regiment was transferred from Kansas to Holly Springs, Miss., where it was concentrated by the middle of July. It remained there in camp until the following September, when the headquarters and four companies took station at Jackson Barracks, La. Other companies were quartered in the city of New Orleans,
and the remainder distributed to various points throughout the State. The regiment remained in the Department of the Gulf on duty in connection with the enforcement of the Civil Rights bill until July, 1877, when it was ordered to Pennsylvania in connection with the riots of that year. Portions of it were on duty at Indianapolis, Ind.; Newport Barracks, Ky.; and at Pittsburg, Scranton, and Wilkesbarre, Pa.
By September 3, 1877, the entire regiment was concentrated at Wilkesbarre preparatory to a change of station to Montana. The headquarters and six companies were to go to Helena, and four companies with the lieutenant-colonel to Fort Missoula. The regiment left Wilkesbarre September 21 and arrived at Corrinne, Utah, on the 28th. From Corrinne the commands marched to their new stations, arriving on the 7th and 14th of November, respectively, and immediately went to work building quarters.
In the spring of 1878 the headquarters and six companies left Helena for the Milk River country, General Brooke,—who was in command of the regiment and also the District of Montana (Colonel Floyd-Jones on leave),—having been ordered to select a site for a new post in that region. The present site of Fort Assinniboine having been selected, the command camped at the Marias River July 23, and remained there until fall, when the headquarters went to Fort Shaw and took station, and the companies were distributed to various points in Montana. Company A took station at Fort Benton and Companies C and E at Fort Shaw. Companies F and G proceeded to Fort Belknap, thence 65 miles east following the course of the Milk River, where they captured 7 lodges of British half-breeds who had been causing trouble, and escorted them into Fort Belknap after having burnt their houses. The companies then took station at Fort Shaw. Company K was stationed at Fort Logan.
During the summer of this year various scouting parties were sent out from the Missoula garrison to watch the different trails and mountain passes for bands of hostile Indians, but with one exception they did not come into contact with any. Lieutenant Wallace with a mounted detachment of 13 men of Companies B, H and I, one guide, and two other citizens, overtook a band of Nez Percés, July 14, on the Middle Fork of Clearwater River, attacking them and, in a battle of two hours, killing 6 and wounding 3 Indians, and capturing 31 and killing 23 of the animals in their possession. No casualties to detachment.
In obedience to instructions from the district commander to "scout the country thoroughly for lurking bands of hostile Indians and road agents," a number of parties were sent out from the different posts garrisoned by the regiment during the spring of 1879, but, except in two cases, without noteworthy result.
Sergeant A. Cecil of Company A, with seven men,—part of a mounted detachment on a scout from Fort Logan in the direction of the Mussel Shell,—had a skirmish with a band of 8 hostile Sioux Indians, April 17, near Careless Creek, killing the entire party.
Lieutenant Kraus with a detachment of 18 men of Company A, while returning from Fort Benton from patrolling the Missouri River, having with him 9 horses which had been recaptured from the River Crows, was
attacked while in camp on Eagle Creek, Mont., May 4, about 11 o'clock P. M. Twelve horses and one mule belonging to the Government and 8 of the recaptured horses were stampeded and lost.
Various military telegraph lines, connecting the different posts in the territory, were constructed by the regiment during the year.
The retirement of Colonel Floyd-Jones, March 20,1879, promoted Lieutenant-Colonel (Bvt. B. G.) L. P. Bradley, 9th Infantry, to the Third, and Lieutenant-Colonel Brooke of the Third to the 13th. General Bradley never joined, and on June 14th transferred with General Brooke, who remained colonel of the regiment and commanded it until he was promoted brigadier general April 24, 1888.
In the spring of 1879, Company E left Fort Shaw and took station at Fort Ellis, where it was joined the following summer by Company C. These two companies remained at this post until its abandonment in the fall of z886, when they took station at Fort Custer.
In the summer of 1880 Company K was sent to the new post of Fort Maginnis, and in 1881 Companies A and K were sent to Fort Shaw. During the summer and fall of 1882-83 two or more companies from Fort Shaw were kept in the field observing the Indians at the Blackfeet Agency and protecting the settlements from the incursions of hostile Indians from the north. Three companies were also sent out from Fort Missoula in the summer of 1883, to assist in arresting renegade Indians on the Flathead reservation.
At the time of the threatened outbreak of the Crow Indians under "Sword Bearer," in the fall of 1887, Companies B and F were transferred from Fort Missoula to Fort Custer. Companies B and E were in line with other troops, during the skirmish at Crow Agency, November 5, but were not actively engaged though exposed to fire. After the trouble subsided, Sword-Bearer having been killed, Companies B and F returned to Fort Missoula, C and E remaining at Fort Custer.
Upon the promotion of General Brooke to be brigadier general U. S. A., April 24, 1888, Colonel (Bvt. B. G.) E. C. Mason was promoted to the regiment from lieutenant-colonel 4th Infantry, and, has commanded it since that time.
In the spring of 1888 the headquarters and Companies A, D, E, H and K were transferred to Fort Snelling, Minn., and Companies B, C, F and I to Fort Meade, Dak., Company G going to Fort Sisseton, Dak., where it remained until that post was abandoned the following June, when it was sent to Fort Snelling.
In common with other infantry regiments, Companies I. and K were skeletonized in August, 1890, and the enlisted men transferred to other companies. Company I was in the field at the time on the Cheyenne River watching hostile Indians. It was reorganized as an Indian company the following year at Fort Sully, S. D., where it remained until early in 1893, when it joined at Fort Snelling, where it was again skeletonized in October, 1894, the Indians being discharged.
Companies C and F participated in the Sioux campaign of the winter of 1890-91, being in the field the entire winter as part of the battalion com-
manded by Colonel E. V. Sumner. Company C made a forced march while joining the battalion on the Cheyenne, of 67 miles in 50 hours and twenty minutes.
Early in January, 1891, Companies H and B were sent to Fort Sully, S. D., while Sitting Bull's band of Indians were held there. In the following May they took station at Fort Snelling. Companies C and F were also sent to Fort Snelling this spring and the whole regiment (except the Indian company) was brought together there, where it has since remained.
In the spring of 1892, Companies A and E proceeded to the Sisseton and Wahpeton reservation, where they remained about three weeks on duty in connection with the opening of that reservation to settlement.
The regiment proceeded to Chicago, October 18, 1893, and participated in the military ceremonies connected with the dedication of the World's Fair buildings. Companies C and F having been specially selected, returned to Jackson Park on the 8th of June and remained on duty there with the War Department exhibit until the close of the fair.
The next tour of detached service for a portion of the regiment was to Leech Lake, Minn. The Indian agent there having accidentally shot an Indian, they became very much excited, threatening to kill him, and closely besieging him in his house. Company D under Lieutenant McCoy left Fort Snelling and proceeded in haste to the point of trouble. After liberating the agent, and quieting the, Indians the company returned to its station June 28.
The regiment, or a large part of, it, encamped with the National Guard of Wisconsin in the summer of 1890 and 1891. In 1892 it took part in a practice march and field manoeuvres. And, in 1893 and 1894, encamped with the Minnesota National Guard.
During the year, 1894 the regiment had considerable duty in connection with strikes. In April and May, Companies A, B, D and G, under Major Patterson, were on duty on the Great Northern R. R.; and in July, Companies C, E, and H, were called upon for service on the line of the Northern Pacific R. R.
The last detached service for which the regiment has been called upon,* was one of humanity during the recent forest fires in northern Minnesota, when Company G, under Captain Hale, was sent to the desolated district with tents, etc., to assist in furnishing aid and shelter to the afflicted and homeless.
Thus ends the chronicle of a century's service.
* Written in the fall of 1894.
Note—The writer is under obligations to General J. H. Eaton, Colonel Daingerfield Parker, Colonel Richard I. Dodge, General O. L. Shepherd (who has since died.), and to Mr. F. W. Heitman, for much information used in the preparation of this sketch.
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