Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1988


Modernizing and Equipping the Army

In 1983 the Army decided to keep active component strength constant in order to stress modernization priority over personnel increases. Unfortunately, slower than expected growth of the Defense Department budget in recent years has reduced Army expectations in both areas. In FY 88 funding for modernization fell below levels targeted by the Army, so Congress and Pentagon officials cut Army active component strength from about 781,000 to 772,300. Nevertheless, production and delivery continued during the year for equipment and systems that support close combat; fire support; air defense; command, control, and communications; and the other mission areas. The Army leadership continues to seek modernization of equipment and systems for the interrelated close, deep, and rear operations of Air-Land Battle. Investment in research and development to exploit advanced technologies and acquire a qualitative advantage over potential adversaries remains a high priority.

Because of the problems presented by reduced funding and Army modernization needs, the Army leadership decided to stabilize its technology base program in FY 88. In further response to requirements of the 1986 Defense Department Reorganization Act, the Army established the Office of the Deputy for Technology and Assessment within the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Research, Development, and Acquisition) (OASA [RDA]). This new office designed an initiative in FY 88 for the Army's Technology Base Master Plan. The plan would promote assessment of key emerging technologies through advanced technology transition demonstrations (ATTDs). Army Research, Development, and Acquisition officials selected eleven of these technologies in FY 88, which included advanced materials/material processing, artificial intelligence, biotechnology, directed energy weapons, and robotics. Coincident with these developments, the Office of the Secretary of Defense also established an ATTD program in response to a recommendation of the 1987 Defense Science Board (DSB). By coordinating both ATTD programs, RDA leaders anticipate more efficient


assessment of new technologies before the Army commits itself to purchasing them.

Close Operations

Close operations involve major committed combat elements and usually comprise maneuver, close combat and close air support, indirect fire support and counterfire, combat support and combat service support, and command and control. Infantry and armored units apply direct combat power with short-range weapons assisted by attack helicopters and conventional artillery. The Abrams tank represents the foundation of the Army's modernization efforts and the key to its close operations. Combat units have received a total of 5,137 Abrams tanks since fielding began in 1981. Its firepower, special armor, compartmentalization of fuel and ammunition stowage, automatic fire detection and suppression system, and mobility provide its crew with high levels of shock action and protection on the battlefield. Introduced in 1985, the M1A1 Abrams replaced the M1's 105-mm. with a 120-mm. smoothbore cannon and added an NBC (nuclear, biological, and chemical) microclimatic cooling system to an existing thermal sight, laser rangefinder, and full stabilization. The M1A1 Abrams tank can operate effectively in all climate and light conditions and in an active chemical environment. Field experience has revealed flaws in the Abrams fire detection system. Abrams tanks experienced fifty-six fires in FY 88, one of them fatal. Most of the fires originated in the engine compartment. The Army Safety Center initiated a lengthy investigation into the problem.

Endowed with the mobility of the Abrams tank, the Bradley Fighting Vehicles (BFVs) provide the mechanized infantry with a full-track, armored fighting vehicle, and scout and armored cavalry units a vehicle for reconnaissance missions. Both the infantry and the cavalry fighting vehicles have a two-man turret, which mounts the 25-mm. automatic stabilized cannon, the TOW antitank guided missile system, and the 7.62-mm. coaxial machine gun. The infantry vehicle also has six 5.56-mm. firing port weapons positioned along its sides and rear. Modified with the TOW 2 missile system, the M2/M3Al Bradleys appeared in 1987. First produced in May 1988, the M2/M3A2 Bradleys possess enhanced survivability features-improved armor, span liners in the troop compartments, revised internal restowage of fuel and ammunition, and provisions for chemical energy-defeating armor. Deliveries of Bradleys through November 1988 totaled 4,041-2,300 basic,


1,371 M2/M3A1s, and 370 M2/M3A2s. These vehicles represent 51 percent of the Army's procurement objective of 7,934 Bradleys.

The 1988 edition of the Army Aviation Modernization Plan reflects current views on present and anticipated changes in the threat, force design, technologies, and resources. It provides for continuing the light helicopter (LHX) program to develop a reconnaissance and attack aircraft capable of functioning in the projected threat environment of the mid-1990s and beyond. The Army wanted 4,500-5,000 LHXs, to include a utility version, but Defense Department officials reduced the number to about 2,100 reconnaissance/attack aircraft. Congress also emphasized continued procurement and technical improvement of the Army's most efficient existing aircraft-AH-64 Apache, UH-60 Black Hawk, OH-58D AHIP, CH-47D Chinook-and other special mission aircraft to sustain an adequate Army aircraft fleet until LHX production begins in the mid-1990s. The plan also calls for retirement of older helicopter models no longer useful on the modern battlefield-UH-1 Huey, OH-58 Kiowa series, OH-6A Cayuse, CH-54 Tarhe, and AH-1 Cobra among others. Congress capped funding at $3.5 billion a year for the aircraft modernization plan, which forecasts a fleet of 6,600 aircraft, 2,000 less than in the current inventory.

The Army plans to field 48 attack helicopter battalions equipped with the AH-64 Apache-29 active, 15 National Guard, and 4 reserve. The 1st Battalion, 130th Aviation, a Roundout unit for the XVIII Airborne Corps stationed in Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, became the first National Guard unit to receive the Apache with receipt of the first of six helicopters in November 1987. The Army planned to discontinue the OH-58D AHIP in 1988, but Congress approved $138 million for its expansion. A redesigned OH-58 Kiowa helicopter, the AHIP boasts a weight increase to 5,400 pounds over the OH-58's 4,500; sophisticated electronics and a mast-mounted sight; and armament systems with the Hellfire, Stinger, .50-caliber machine gun, and 2.75-inch rockets. Despite its own impressive firepower, current planning calls for the AHIP to operate with the Apache as a hunter/killer team; the AHIP locates targets, and the Apache destroys them. By mid-FY 88 six Army divisions had AHIP platoons-1st, 2d, and 3d Armored; 3d and 8th Mechanized; arid the 2d Infantry. The XVIII Airborne Corps had one AHIP company.

Of highest concern to the Army leadership, its LHX program received approval by Defense Department officials in FY88 to begin its demonstration/validation phase in early FY 89. Intended to replace the tactically inferior AH-1 Cobra, OH-6 Cayuse, and the


OH-58 Kiowa, the LHX will perform armed reconnaissance and light attack missions and complement the larger and more powerfully armed AH-64 Apache. Developers will strive to obtain a maximum empty weight of 7,500 pounds and a cost limit of $7.5 million per aircraft in FY 88 dollars. Powered by two 1,200 shaft horsepower T800 engines, the LHX will have two crewmen but the capability of one-person operation. It will have an automated cockpit, helmet mounted wide view optics, and worldwide navigation capability. With a minimum dash speed of 170 knots and a minimum vertical climb of 500 feet per minute, its armament will include the Hellfire antitank missile system, air-to-air Stinger missiles, and a turreted automatic gun. Along with crashworthy design features, the LHX will possess wheeled landing gear and self-deployability to Europe.

Recent concern about developments in reactive armor and electro-optical countermeasures prompted the Army's Armor Anti-Armor (A3) Modernization Plan, a combined arms approach. To help meet the challenge, the Army indicated to Congress it would procure 3,000 MlA2-configured Abrams tanks during a five-year period and also field a Block III tank by 1997. A changing budget environment, however, caused the Army to retrench on its plans for the M1A2. An existing weapon, the Army's Hellfire modular missile system has proven itself an effective airborne antiarmor device. The AH-64 Apache can carry sixteen Hellfires, and the LHX will also mount them. Active development of a digital auto pilot will improve Hellfire lethality. The TOW (tube-launched, optically tracked, wire command link-guided) missile has undergone improvements to keep pace with armor changes, and the Army has begun receiving the superior TOW 2A. Its tandem warhead armament system achieves increased lethality against the latest reactive armor by adding a small warhead to the missile probe. The initial charge explodes on a tank's reactive armor to clear a path for the primary warhead that will penetrate the tank's skin. A TOW 2B development program has begun, which relies upon the capability of the missile to fly over and fire down upon armored vehicles. The Advanced Antitank Weapon System Medium (AAWS-M), the replacement for the Dragon missile but still in the testing stage, will allow individual infantry personnel to destroy tanks regardless of visibility conditions and electro-optical countermeasures.

Cannon and rocket systems supply conventional artillery indirect fire support for close operations. Several initiatives will remedy current limits in range and lethality of some artillery systems. The XM762 electronic time artillery fuze will allow greater accuracy, easier manual setting, and compatibility with inductive


howitzer autosetters. The M864 base-burn dual-purpose improved conventional munition, now in production, will increase the range of the munitions it replaces by 60 percent. Modifications continue on the M109A2/A3 155-mm. howitzer fleet-an improved recoil system and cannon with a maximum range of 30 kilometers, micro-cooling for an NBC environment, and improved ballistic protection. The Army completed initial fielding of the 155-mm. variant of the Field Artillery Ammunition Support Vehicle to forward-deployed artillery forces in Korea and Europe in FY88. A tracked, self-propelled, armored ammunition carrier, it exceeds the survivability rate of the existing unarmored M548 ammunition resupply vehicle. Towable by the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) and air transportable by the Black Hawk helicopter, the British Light Gun M119 fulfills fine light infantry division need for an extended range, lightweight 105-mm. howitzer. It can fire U.S. standard 105-mm. projectiles 14.3 kilometers and rocket-assisted projectiles 19.5 kilometers. The United Kingdom (UK) will produce those scheduled for initial fielding in November 1989, but the U.S. will eventually assume M119 production.

Deep Operations

Deep operations constitute those activities directed against enemy forces not in contact with the forces conducting close operations at the forward line of troops (FLOT). Corps headquarters and higher command echelons normally conduct deep operations that include surveillance and acquisition of enemy targets, interdiction of these targets, deception of the enemy about current operations, countering of enemy command and control systems, and effective maintenance of U.S. Army command and control. To observe enemy deployments 100 kilometers and beyond, the Army and the Air Force are developing the joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (JSTARS),. It can detect, track, classify, and assist in attacking both moving and stationary targets. The Army is developing the Ground Station Module (GSM) for JSTARS, while the Air Force is creating the Prime Mission Equipment (PME)-platform, radar, and data link. The schedule calls for an operational orbit to support Europe in 1997, followed by additional orbits to support worldwide requirements.

Concerned about the competing and costly unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) programs of the armed services, Congress consolidated them within the Office of the Secretary of Defense in the FY 88 Defense Appropriations Act.


The UAV Joint Project Office, which operates under Naval Air Systems Command, has responsibility for managing the acquisition of UAV systems for the Defense, Department. In September 1988 the UAV Joint Project Office designated the Army's Missile Command (MICOM), Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, as the site for a UAV joint development center, while the Army Intelligence School (AIS), Fort Huachuca, Arizona, provides a joint training center. The UAV program will jointly develop four categories of UAV systems of which the Army has responsibility for three. The close-range system will have an operational radius sufficient to support divisional cannon and rocket artillery and will be fielded to divisions, armored cavalry regiments, and separate brigades. The short-range system will have an operational radius of 150-300 kilometers and will be fielded to corps and echelons above corps military intelligence brigades. The endurance system will provide a minimum of 24 hours of mission performance at extended ranges and will also be fielded to corps and echelons above corps military intelligence brigades. The Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps will use the medium-range system for fixed and mobile target reconnaissance.

The multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), a free-flight, all-weather, indirect-fire rocket system operational since 1983 and being fielded throughout the world, can fire twelve 13-foot rockets to ranges over 30 kilometers in less than a minute. Mounted on a tracked, self-propelled launcher, it can deliver overwhelming firepower against enemy artillery, air defense, and other light materiel and personnel targets. Now jointly produced by the U.S. with the United Kingdom, France, and West Germany, the MLRS includes a preplanned improvement for a terminal guidance warhead with the capability of destroying enemy armor from above, a sense-and-destroy armor warhead to improve counter-battery fires, and a binary chemical warhead. The MLRS launcher can also carry two Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) missiles, a conventional ballistic system with missiles capable of propelling 1,000 antipersonnel/antimateriel bomblets beyond the range of cannons, rockets, arid the Lance missile system. ATACMS is in full-scale development and scheduled for fielding in FY 90. An Oklahoma National' Guard battalion, the 1st Battalion, 45th Field Artillery Brigade, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma, became the first reserve component unit to receive the MLRS, in FY 88.

The Special Electronic Mission Aircraft (SEMA) represent an integral part of the intelligence and electronic warfare tactical mission capability of the Army. The existing fleet includes the Quick Look RV-1D (side looking airborne radar), Guardrail RC-12D


and RC-12H/K (signals intelligence), Grisly Hunter (forward-looking infrared and infrared line scanner), and the Quick Fix EH-60 (heliborne-direction-finding and jamming system). The Army essentially has fielded SEMA, but product improvements continue. Joint Army/Air Force Initiative 17, 22 May 1984, transferred responsibility for Special Operations Forces (SOF) rotary wing airlift support from the Air Force to the Army. The Deputy Secretary of Defense supports a program for fifty-one MH-47E (modified CH-47D Chinook) and twenty-three MH-60K (modified UH-60A Black Hawk) helicopters. Significant features of the aircraft include a fully integrated cockpit, more powerful engines, forward-looking infrared, terrain following/avoidance radar, air-to-air refueling, and Stinger air-to-air missiles. Their expected missions include troop insertions and extractions behind enemy lines, rapid deployment, and strategic intelligence strikes. The Army Program Objective Memorandum for 1990-94 allots funding for most of the desired aircraft.

The U.S. government has concluded that, until a worldwide verifiable ban on chemical weapons occurs, America needs binary munitions as a deterrent to war, as a bargaining agent in arms control negotiations, and as a weapon should deterrence fail. Congress has mandated that the Defense Department destroy its aging and hazardous unitary chemical weapons by 1997 and create a binary chemical stockpile. As the Defense Department lead, the Army will coordinate production of 155-mm. GB-2 binary chemical projectiles, develop the Binary Chemical Warhead (BCW) for MLRS, produce the BIGEYE bomb for the Air Force and Navy, and store both the binary and remaining unitary devices until the tatter's destruction. Major accomplishments of binary chemical modernization during FY 88 included presidential approval to produce the 155-mm. binary projectile and the BIGEYE bomb, initial production of the 155-mm. projectile in December 198'7, and transition of the BCW for the MLRS to full-scale development in July 1988. To satisfy an operational need for a mobile NBC-reconnaissance vehicle, the Under Secretary of the Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army (VCSA) had tentatively decided in 1988 to adopt the German Spuerpanzer Fuchs for worldwide fielding and to terminate the XM87 RDTE (research, development, test, and evaluation) program. Congress, however, directed the Army to conduct ongoing full competition evaluation of similar systems.


Rear Operations

Effective rear area operations assure freedom of maneuver and continuity of combat operations for troops on the FLOT. Rear area operations focus on sustaining the tempo of combat and preparing for the next phase of a campaign. Primary activities include command and control, air defense, assembly and movement of reserves, redeployment of fire support, and sustainment.

The tactical command, control, and communications (C3) mission area permits commanders to control combat operations successfully through timely receipt of battlefield data and access to communications systems which function even during enemy electronic countermeasures. The Army Tactical Command and Control System (ATCCS) integrates five battlefield functional area command and control automated systems-Maneuver Control System (MCS); Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS); All Source Analysis System (ASAS); Forward Area Air Defense Command, Control, and Intelligence (FAADC2I) System; and the Combat Service Support Control System (CSSCS). The MCS allows commanders at corps through battalion to evaluate large amounts of data on their forces, the enemy, and the characteristics of the battlefield. A hybrid computer system, MCS militarized hardware production began in 1983, while nondevelopmental item equipment deliveries began in FY 88. AFATDS provides fully automated support for planning, coordinating, and executing close support, counterfire, and suppression of enemy fires. It corrects the fire control and distribution deficiencies of TACFIRE (tactical fire direction system). Army officials anticipate initial fielding of AFATDS hardware in FY 94.

The ASAS connects to ATCCS and the Air Force Enemy Situation Correlation Element (ENSCE) for coordinated joint combat operations. Testing of ASAS continues with fielding anticipated in the late 1990s. The FAADC21 system provides the air defense artillery control system for ATCCS at corps echelons and below. FAADC21 consists of four interrelated programs-command and control hardware and software to integrate all subsystems and components and display the force and engagement operations information, a ground-based sensor to provide aircraft tracking over the division area of influence, a Masked Target Sensor to track at and forward of the FLOT, and identification devices (cooperative and noncooperative, active and passive) to sort friends from hostiles. These combined programs produce a system that permits situation


awareness, force alerting, and engagement of hostile aircraft at the maximum range of FAADS weapons.

The Army fielded the two-person portable Tactical Army Combat Service Support Computer System (TACCS) as a device designed to feed data to the Combat Service Support Control System (CSSCS). It improves the accuracy and transmission of administrative and logistical data. Production began in 1987, and deliveries totaled about 8,000 by December 1988. Plans call for fielding CSSCS in FY 93. Three primary communication/data systems support ATCCS-Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE), Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio Systems (SINCGARS), and the Army Data Distribution System (ADDS). MSE, a common user, automatically switched, survivable, secure voice, data, and facsimile communications system for corps and divisions of both the active and reserve components, allows the Army to implement Air-Land Battle command and control. MSE has a modular signal organization structure, mobility, and fast erection capability that interoperates with TRITAC, combat net radio, commercial telephone systems, and NATO communications networks. Fielding of MSE began in February 1988 at Fort Hood, Texas, with follow on operational test and evaluation during August-October. MSE performance proved effective and superior to the current system. The manufacturer is incorporating several improvements to include a higher call completion rate by way of a block improvement plan being implemented in conjunction with additional fielding.

The SINCGARS, the Army's new lightweight, securable VHF-FM combat net radio, can operate in voice and data modes despite enemy jamming by frequency hopping on 2,320 channels in a frequency range of 30-88 megaherz. Available in manpack, vehicular, and airborne models, SINCGARS will function as the primary communication system for tactical units. In FY88 the Army fielded 155 systems to Korea and about 300 to TRADOC. Early reports indicated that SINCGARS was performing well. The ADDS, an automatic tactical data distribution system, gives commanders the capability of meeting near-real-time data communications and position location reporting requirements. It represents two systems-the Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS), a joint Army/Marine program, and the Joint Tactical Information Distribution System (JTIDS), a tri-service program. Low rate initial production of ADDS will begin in 1989.

The Army's satellite communications program consists of the ground environment of the Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) and the Ground Mobile Forces Tactical Satellite


Communication Program. The Army contributes to DSCS by developing, procuring, and fielding ground satellite communications earth terminals and control systems for the armed services. These terminals and control systems support rapid and reliable worldwide command, control, communications, and intelligence operations for military commanders and the National Command Authority. Developments in progress include efforts to maximize traffic rates and to minimize vulnerability to enemy countermeasures. The Ground Mobile Forces Tactical Satellite Communications Program (GMFS) provides single and multichannel and special purpose tactical satellite ground terminals and control systems to meet critical long-range, jam-resistant, and nuclear-survivable communications needs. The Army is procuring the single channel AN/PSC-3 and AN/VSC-7 ultra high frequency terminals for its Rangers and Special Forces. Work continues on developing the survivable, antijam, and mobile ground terminal, the Single Channel Objective Tactical Terminal (SCOTT), for the Military Strategic and Tactical Relay Satellite Communications System (MILSTAR).

Continuing advances in Soviet helicopters and long-range weapons mandate ongoing modernization of Army air defense systems. Several existing missiles defend against short-, medium-, and long-range air threats. Initially fielded in 1969, the Chaparral supplies short-range, low-altitude protection against enemy aircraft. In service since 1960, the Hawk medium-range guided missile system affords air defense against low- to medium-altitude air attack. The Patriot missile, first deployed to Europe in 1985, serves as the centerpiece of Army theater air defense. Several product changes are improving Chaparral missile system performance. Now being fielded, a forward-looking infrared night sight aids night and adverse weather target acquisition. Programmed improvements to Chaparral include the Rosette Scan Seeker for countermeasure protection and a collective NBC protective system. The Army had deployed the Roland Air Defense Missile System, which originated in Europe, to only one unit, the 5th Battalion, 200th Air Defense Artillery, New Mexico National Guard. Since Chaparral units require fewer full-time staff and less money to operate than Roland units, the Army leadership decided to eliminate the Roland system. It reorganized the 5th Battalion, now designated the 6th, into a Chaparral unit in FY 88.

The current improvement program, Phase III, updates the Hawk missile system. It has redesigned the Hawk acquisition, tracking, and fire control equipment to simplify operator use and to improve electronic countermeasures and data supply to the


AN/TSQ-73 missile minder command and control system. The Stinger, first fielded in 1981 as a manportable air defense missile system and now both modified to the Pedestal Mounted Stinger and intended as a helicopter weapon, continues to acquire product improvements for individual soldier use. The Stinger Post, first fielded in 1987, improved Stinger performance against infrared countermeasures. Stinger reprogrammable microprocessor (RMP), initially deployed to Europe in FY 88, facilitates future changes to Stinger seeker software to counter anticipated improvements of infrared countermeasures.

The Patriot Tactical Air Defense Missile System serves as the high-altitude air defense for the field Army and vital military bases. In its ninth year of production, the Patriot is undergoing product improvements to increase its antitactical missile capability. During test firings in 1986 and 1987, the Patriot demonstrated its known potential by successfully intercepting and destroying a Lance missile and other tactical missile targets. Patriot antitactical missile capability, PAC-1, consists of system radar software modifications that enable the detection, tracking, and interception of high-angle approach short-range ballistic missiles. PAC-2 has additional software improvements and a more lethal warhead.

Cancellation of the Sergeant York air defense gun system in 1985 meant that the Army leadership realized that neither one nor multiple weapons acting independently can defeat the forward area air threat. The Forward Area Air Defense System (FAADS), designed for total air defense coverage to the division area, integrates weapons, sensors, and command, control, and intelligence systems to counter the anticipated forward area air threat into the 21st century. FAADS consists of five major elements-a command, control, and intelligence (C2I) component; a line of sight-forward-heavy (LOS-F-H) weapon; a non-line of sight (NLOS) weapon; a line of sight-rear (LOS-R) weapon; and combined arms initiatives. The FAADS C2I component incorporates ground/ aerial sensors with a data processing/distribution system. Full-scale development for air defense software, ground sensor nondevelopmental evaluation, and aerial sensor and noncooperative target recognition proceeded in FY 88. In November 1987 the Army announces selection of the air defense antitank system (ADATS) as the LOS-F-H weapon for FAADS. Mounted on the M3A2 Bradley cavalry fighting vehicle chassis, ADATS has electro-optic sensors, a search radar, and eight laser beam-riding missiles. It will undergo technical and operational testing in late 1989.


The non-line of sight (NLOS) component for FAADS employs the fiber optic-guided missile (FOG-M) mounted on both the HMMWV and the MLRS chassis. With full-scale development planned for FY 89, FOG-M has a seeker mounted in its nose that transmits pictures by a bidirectional fiber optic data link while in flight so the gunner can locate hidden targets. The Army selected the Pedestal Mounted Stinger (PMS) as its LOS-R weapon. Erected on the HMMWV with eight Stinger missiles and devices to provide day/night and adverse weather capability, the two-man PMS, renamed Avenger, crew provides air defense against fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters at low altitudes in the division rear area. Having procured about sixty Avenger systems by the end of FY 88, the Army expected to expand Avenger production in FY 89. Combined arms initiatives underway that supplement FAADS include installing air-to-air Stingers on the OH-58C/D helicopter, improved air defense sights for the Bradley fighting vehicle, and antihelicopter ammunition for tanks.

Rear area operations also entail combat service support missions that include assembly and movement of reserves, supply, redeployment of fire support, and medical functions. These depend, in turn, upon a variety of Army transportation facilities adapted to air, ground, and water service. The UH-60 Black Hawk helicopter is replacing the UH-1 Huey in Army air assault, air cavalry, and aeromedical evacuation missions. It can transport a fully equipped eleven-man squad in most weather conditions. The Army has already fielded Black Hawks to many CONUS and OCONUS units. It fielded additional Apaches in FY 88 and procured Hellfire missile system kits, crashworthy external fuel tanks, and auxiliary heaters for retrofitting to Black Hawks. The CH-47 Chinook serves as the Army's medium lift helicopter with a payload capacity of about 16,000 pounds or thirty-three troops. First fielded in 1962, the Chinook transports ammunition, petroleum, large weapons, and personnel on the battlefield. A modernization program begun in 1975 upgraded the Chinook A, B, and C models to a D configuration for anticipated use into the early 2000s. Structural improvements include fiberglass rotor blades, modularized hydraulics, and a triple hook cargo system for an anticipated fleet of 472 CH-47Ds.

The Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet remains short of requirements. The medium vehicle fleet, composed of many 2.5-ton trucks of 1950s design, needs replacement according to Army wheeled transportation assessments. A five-year contract awarded in FY 86 called for delivery of 15,000 upgraded 5-ton trucks, and the Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles program sought further


modernization of the medium fleet in FY 88. A Milestone I/II Army Systems Acquisition Review Council and Defense Acquisition Board decision approved a full-scale development validation phase in May 1988 for a modernized 5-ton fleet. The FY 88/89 authorization bills directed the Army to establish a multiyear contract for 4,737 Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Trucks (HEMTT) starting in FY 88 and Palletized Loading System (PLS) competitive hardware testing and source selection within two years. PLS offers self load/unload capability, potential to decrease other dedicated vehicle and material handling requirements, an improved ammunition supply distribution system, and NATO interoperability. A Milestone I/II Army Systems Acquisition Review Council and Defense Acquisition Board decision also approved a full-scale proveout phase for a 16.5-ton PLS in FY 88.

Four logistics support vessels (LSVs) joined the Army's watercraft fleet in FY 88 which increased the Army's capability in intratheater lift operations to transport cargo from ship to shore, from beach to beach, and through inland waterways. The vessels consisted of the following- General Frank S. Besson, Jr., delivered to the 335th Transportation Detachment at Fort Eustis, Virginia, in November 1987; CW3 Harold C. Clinger, delivered to the 605th Transportation Company, Fords Island, Hawaii, in February 1988; General Brehon B. Somervell, delivered to the 604th Transportation Company, Washington National Guard, Tacoma, Washington, in April; and Lieutenant General William B. Bunker, delivered to the 1099th Transportation Company, Fort Eustis, Virginia, in May. With a delivery range of 6,500 nautical miles fully loaded at 10.8 knots cruising speed, these 273-foot vessels, with bow and stern ramps, can carry 2,000 short tons including trucks and outsized tracked vehicles, containers, and general cargo on 10,500 square feet of deck area. Commanded by warrant officers, the crews of these vessels consist of 6 warrant officers and 23 enlisted personnel. In another Army watercraft matter, the Naval Sea Systems Command awarded a contract in January 1988 for construction of 2, of a projected 10, 120-foot oceangoing tugboats to augment the Army's offloading assets.

In FY 88 the Army began fielding a new generation of equipment called deployable medical systems (DEPMEDS). Training exercise MOBEX 83 had identified a serious deficiency of medical equipment for the Army's field hospitals, and the Defense Resource Board directed the Army to provide necessary funding to equip the hospital structure. A congressional moratorium on the existing hospital equipment system, medical unit self-contained


transportable (MUST), precluded further procurement of that generation of hospital equipment. A congressional mandate for the services to maximize standardization in hospital equipment resulted in the quad service family of standardized functional modules for use in equipping the hospitals of the various services. DEPMEDS consist of seven types of modular combat hospitals ranging from forward-deployed mobile Army surgical hospitals to general hospitals located in the communications zone, easily locatable and air transportable. Each hospital has different combinations of standard modules such as operating rooms, X-ray units, and wards. DEPMEDS-equipped hospitals employ the latest medical technology and can function in all climates. Procurement and fielding projections call for 156 DEPMEDS-equipped hospitals by FY 96. The Army distributed 14 DEPMEDS-equipped hospitals to field units and 1 to the training base at the Academy of Health Sciences by the end of FY88.

Assisted by computer design technology, the Army's Research, Development, and Engineering Center of Fort Belvoir, Virginia, completed a project in 1988 which produced a new three-color camouflage pattern for all tactical equipment. Considered more effective than the four-color pattern used since the early 1970s, the new pattern comes in 413 design packages for 834 types of equipment. Distribution of the new camouflage drawings has begun. When applying the designs to equipment, technicians also will use a substance resistant to chemical agents so soldiers can decontaminate equipment in the field. Incorporating a practice employed by armies long ago and also by the Soviets today, the U.S. Army is acquiring decoys and fake targets to deceive enemy forces. Canvas Abrams tanks, lined with plastic sheets that create thermal images of the vehicle's armor, engines, and wheels, have fooled U.S. Army soldiers during training exercises. The Army plans to purchase a fake tank for each Abrams tank and is investigating more elaborate decoys, which include electronically generated fake targets.

Soldier Support

The term "soldier support" refers to items that the individual soldier directly wears, uses, or consumes. These items include organizational clothing and equipment, individual weapons, and food. In late FY 88 the Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Logistics (ODCSLOG) initiated a study on the garrison dress, service, and utility uniform design trends for the 21st century. The Office of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel began a survey in


September 1988 regarding soldiers' views on the subject. Army officials expected completion of a private contractor study on Army uniforms for the 21st century by the end of 1989. To enhance the soldier's battlefield survivability and also to lighten the individual load, the Army has sought the individual tactical load-bearing vest, the large field pack with internal frame, and the extended cold weather clothing system. Budget cutbacks resulted in only minimal fielding of these items to selected units in FY 88. The Army announced that, effective January 1988, the new combat boot adopted in 1986 would serve as the only boot issued to both active and reserve component personnel.

For prevention of eye injuries during both training and combat, the Army began fielding ballistic laser protective spectacles to forward elements of selected units in June 1988. The interim product has three parts-clear polycarbonate spectacles, tinted polycarbonate spectacles, and a laser protective detachable frontsert. Soldiers who wear corrective lenses can obtain adaptable backserts. The clear lenses provide general eye protection, the tinted spectacles shield the sun, and the frontsert affords protection against low energy laser systems.

The Army is distributing a new bayonet, the M9, which doubles as a field knife and wire cutter. It weighs less than two pounds and replaces the M7 bayonet. The M9 can saw through 2-by-2-inch pine boards, aircraft fuselages, or two-strand barbed wire. Special Forces and Ranger units are receiving a new parachute, the MCl-1C, which has nonporous nylon material in its canopy that reduces the descent rate of the MCl-1B parachute from 21 feet per second to 14.6. The MC1-1C also has an increased forward drive of 8 to 10 knots or 2 to 4 knots more than the MCl-1B, which enables parachutists to maneuver more easily around ground obstacles. The new parachute uses the standard MC1-1B harness, pack tray, deployment bag, and packing procedures.

The Army plans to begin issuing the M40 chemical and biological protective mask to all ground personnel in FY 91. It replaces the M17 general purpose and the M9 special purpose masks. The M42 replaces the M24 used by the combat vehicle crew member. The M40 and the M42 provide better protection against foreign agents than their predecessors and, made of silicon rather than rubber, allow a softer yet tighter fit. The M40 has a removable filter compatible with NATO masks, and by being attachable to either side compatible the mask, can accommodate right or left-handed shooters. The M42 has a crew communications cable and a replaceable microphone.


The M9 and M24 have no voice transmitters or provision for the wearer to drink water, but the M40 has both.

Operational rations include T -rations, B-rations, and the Meal, Ready to Eat (MRE). The T -ration, with fully cooked heat and serve components, serves as the Army's primary hot field meal. Its anticipated full implementation in the near future lessened the need for cooks, so the Army recently cut 3,500 of them and converted the positions into other military job specialties. MIZE VIII, developed as the fourth version of MIZE, deleted 9 unpopular entrees and added 10 new entrees, brand name candy, and hot sauce. The Army has 12 MREs, 2 for breakfast and 10 for dinner/supper. In FY 88 it increased the 10 dinner/supper entrees from 5 to 8 ounces. Selected division and corps combat units, the National Training Center, and the Joint Readiness Training Center received partial distribution of MRE VIII in FY 88. Testing continued in FY 88 on rations for Special Operations Forces. One program completed initial development of 42 new ration components for a 6 day menu cycle for missions as long as 30 days. It also reduced the currently fielded per-day ration volume by 72 percent and weight by 3.8 pounds. Army Special Operations Forces and Marine Corps personnel conducted arctic cold weather tests of the Ration, Cold Weather (RCW) in FY 88. Smaller and lighter than the MRE, RCW features high calorie components that do not freeze at very low temperatures and also encourage water consumption by soldiers to prevent dehydration.

Strategic Defense

The U.S. Army Strategic Defense Command' (USASDC) conducts the Army's strategic weapons research and development program, which contributes to the Defense Department Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. The command has the specific mission of developing technologies for ballistic missile defense and management of Kwajalein Atoll as a national missile range. During FY88 the Strategic Defense Command managed a research program of $1.2 billion in the five functional areas of ballistic missile defense-surveillance, acquisition, tracking, and kill assessment; kinetic energy weapons; directed energy weapons; systems analysis/battle management; and survivability, lethality, and key technologies. In September 1987 the Defense Acquisition Board directed that Phase I of the Defense Department's strategic defense system proceed from concept validation to demonstration and validation. Army components include the exoatmospheric


reentry vehicle interceptor system; the ground based surveillance and tracking system; and the battle management, command, control, and communications support for these systems. The Air Force has developmental responsibility for the other Phase I devices the boost surveillance and tracking system, the space based interceptor, and the space based surveillance and tracking system. Active development of the Army's strategic defense system elements continued throughout FY 88.

Manpower and Personnel Integration Program

The Manpower and Personnel Integration (MANPRINT) program, which stresses the soldier as a user in all phases of the materiel development and acquisition process, received increased emphasis in the Army's modernization effort in FY 88. MANPRINT evaluates manpower, training, system safety, health hazards, and human factors engineering in the development of new materiel systems. This process helps the Army to equip the soldier rather than merely to man the equipment. The Army has placed MANPRINT on the same level with technical, management, and cost factors in materiel acquisition. Membership by the DCSPER on the Army Systems Acquisition Review Council further reinforces the role of MANPRINT in evaluating materiel acquisition. These developments have alerted private industry producers of Army materiel to the Army's firm commitment to MANPRINT.

MANPRINT Joint Working Groups continued to function in an effective manner during FY 88. Army officials utilized the System MANPRINT Management Plans, generated by these groups, in the formulation of Requests for Proposal (RFP). As a result, RFPs were based on the most current MANPRINT data and reflected more accurately what the soldier required of an equipment or weapon system. During the year the Army conducted MANPRINT assessments on a variety of systems. They included the Light Helicopter, Forward Area Air Defense System-Non Line of Sight, Army Digital Data System-Enhanced Position Location Reporting System, and the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System. A sample result, the MANPRINT assessment of the Light Helicopter helped to determine the optimum crew size for the aircraft. Army and private industry personnel jointly participated in several seminars on MANPRINT issues in FY 88, while a series of Army-sponsored MANPRINT training courses improved the job skills of personnel who work with the program.



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Last updated 17 November 2003