Department of the Army Historical Summary: FY 1987


Modernizing and Equipping the Army

During this year the U.S. Army continued modernizing and equipping its forces with the weapons systems designed to provide a qualitative edge over the Soviet threats. The current Army modernization effort began about fifteen years ago in response to Soviet development and deployment of new weapons systems. The rate of the Soviet effort indicated their intention to establish numerical superiority in modern battlefield weaponry over the United States and its NATO allies. Throughout the mid-1970x, Soviet forces and their Warsaw Pact allies held a numerical advantage over NATO, although the Pact's equipment remained technologically inferior to that of the western alliance.

To counter this potential threat and to refocus its effort after Vietnam, the U.S. Army embarked on an ambitious program to modernize five aging weapons systems that it identified as crucial to battlefield success. The results are the M1 Abrams tank, as replacement for the M60 tank; the M2 and M3 BFVs which will eventually displace the M113 Armored Personnel Carrier (APC); the AH-64 Apache and UH-60 Black Hawk attack helicopters to replace the AH-1G and the UH-1H helicopters, respectively; and the Patriot surface-to-air missile system which replaced the Nike-Hercules and will eventually displace the Hawk missile system. Development and fielding of these weapon systems and their complementary technology progressed in FY 1987.

The Army Staff recently concluded a brief study that identified those warfighting capabilities that are required to fight and win on any battlefield. The study established priorities for the Army's acquisition of weapons systems; identified the programs and technologies necessary as basic operational requirements to determine essential weapons systems, programs and technologies in accordance with the annual program, planning, budgeting, and execution cycles. Army leaders concluded that the essential operational capabilities for warfighting are reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition; command, control, and communications; battlefield lethality; battlefield sustainment; and soldier and unit performance enhancement. Based on this study, the Army developed


its policy for developing and fielding weapons into the year 2000 as doctrine led technology.

In 1982, the Army adopted the AirLand Battle doctrine to implement its operational capabilities in the joint nature of modern warfare. The doctrine emphasizes the importance of seizing the initiative by moving rapidly to destroy the enemy's second or follow-on echelons of attack through the use of sophisticated weaponry and technology. These so-called deep operations assumed greater significance because the Soviets pushed to equip their numerically superior forces with equally advanced weaponry. The U.S. Army relies on AirLand Battle doctrine to synchronize its combat effort and thereby offset the potentially devastating combination of being outnumbered in manpower and equipment and outmatched in technology. This unified effort is expected to harness the manpower and technological expertise needed to wage the close, deep, and rear operations that characterize all engagements. The following section focuses on several of the major weapons systems and technological developments that have reached fruition during this fiscal year in relation to their spatial employment in operations.

Close Operations

Close operations consist of the fight between the committed forces and the readily available tactical reserves of both combatants. Its principal elements are the coordinated plans for maneuver and fire support that rely on the integrated support of all arms and services. At the tactical level, corps and smaller units maneuver to attack the enemy's flanks, rear, or supporting formations while being covered by direct and indirect firepower. During such operations, the commander assigns the main effort of the attack to one of his subordinate elements, which he then supports.

The close combat mission area relates to weapons and equipment that are used to bring direct, line-of-sight fire upon the enemy. Usually infantrymen or frontline troops are assigned to this job and given the task of engaging and destroying the enemy. One way in which these soldiers accomplish their mission is with superior equipment that allows them to gain an edge over their adversaries. The weapons for the close combat mission include tanks, antitank and antiarmor weapons, helicopters, rifles, and mortar systems. Among these, the following major weapons systems have undergone improvements during this fiscal year.



The tank is the main offensive and defensive ground weapon of both the United States and the Soviet armies. In a combined arms effort, tanks can and are expected to dominate the battlefield by spearheading the offensive, destroying other tanks, devastating soft targets, and driving through defensive positions with massive momentum. The main battle tank is the Ml/MIA1 Abrams tank. Already in its eighth year of production, the sixty-ton Abrams is the most powerful combat vehicle ever fielded in the U.S. Army. Agility and mobility provide the four-man crew with greater protection than any other contemporary tank. If hit by enemy fire, the Abrams has a number of revolutionary safety features that enhance the survivability of the crew and the vehicle. These include an automatic fire detection and extinguishing system and armored compartments that separate the fuel tanks and main-gun ammunition from the crew. A thermal imaging laser sighting system allows the Abrams to locate targets at night and through dust, haze, fog, and smoke without disclosing the tank's position. The vehicle's 1,500 horsepower turbine engine doubles the speed of its diesel-powered predecessor, the M60. This year the MIA1 model continued to be improved by adding the German-designed, U.S. manufactured 120-mm. smoothbore gun and an improved nuclear, biological, chemical microclimatic cooling system. The addition of the 120mm. gun system ensures that U.S. tanks remain competitive with Soviet main-gun improvements over the next decade. This year the Army continued to field the Abrams to Regular Army units and began deliveries to the reserve components, a North Carolina National Guard armored battalion. This action underscored the Army's commitment to modernize its reserve units. The FY 1987 budget provides for 840 M1A1 Abrams tanks.

Bradley Fighting Vehicles

Complementing the Abrams on the battlefield is the Bradley fighting vehicle. The 25-ton Bradley has a top road speed of forty-two miles per hour while lending firepower and protection to the mechanized cavalry squad for its screening, reconnaissance, and security missions. Available in both infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) and cavalry fighting vehicle (CFV) models, the Bradley has the McDonnell Douglas M242 helicopter's 25-mm. automatic cannon as its primary armament. It fires either a high-explosive or armor-piercing round. The former is designed to destroy unarmored ground targets at distances of 2,500 meters, while the latter is intended for use against its most


likely target, the Soviet infantry fighting vehicle. Since the gun's dual-feed mechanism can accommodate any combination of ammunition, the gunner can switch instantly to the type best suited to destroying a particular target.

The Bradley's secondary weapons consist of the 7.62-mm. coaxial machine gun and the TOW antitank missile launcher. The vehicle carries 800 ready rounds for the coaxial gun and stores 1,540, in addition to the 2,200 rounds M60 machine gun of the infantry squad transported in the Bradley.

Both the infantry and the cavalry models share identical missions and similar features, but vary slightly in their ability to bring firepower of the carried infantry to targets. For example, the infantry model has six 5.56-mm. firing ports that are positioned along the sides and rear of the vehicle. It carries a nine-man squad that consists of the vehicle commander, its gunner and driver, in addition to six squad members. The Bradley includes individual firing ports or vision blocks through which the squad members can survey the battlefield and fire their M16A1 rifles while on the move. Externally, the cavalry model is identical to the IFV, but the unit has internal modifications to accommodate its equipment and leave room for a crew of five. Both models are capable of swimming rivers at the rate of 4.5 miles per hour. They are also air transportable in either the C-141 or C-5A aircraft.

This year the Bradley underwent a major modification to add the more lethal TOW-2 missile system into models M2A1 and M3Al. To date, Bradleys have been delivered to the 2d Armored Division and the 1st Cavalry Division in Fort Hood, Texas; the 3d Infantry Division; the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment in Germany; and two ARNG battalions.

Attack Helicopters

The attack helicopter is another essential element of the U.S. Army combat capability. First used in force by U.S. forces during the Vietnam War, Army helicopters are now advanced sufficiently to provide a highly mobile, long-range, day/night lethal anti-armor fire capability that is coupled with the use of cannon and 2.75-inch rockets. Helicopters also offer heretofore undreamed of battlefield mobility. They assume increasing importance because of their ability to rapidly transport troops in Europe from one point to another in response to a potential Soviet attack as well as in inaccessible areas determined by contingency requirements.

The U.S. Army's primary attack helicopter, the AH-64, was fielded in April 1986. Currently, the Army has 184 Apache heli-


copters and plans to buy 573 more. The twin-engine helicopter is armed with laser-designated Hellfire missiles, 30-mm. cannon and Hydra 70 rockets. Its maximum flight speed is 188 miles per hour or 164 knots, endurance is 1.83 hours, service ceiling is 20,000 feet, and its self-deployment range is over 800 nautical miles. The aircraft is also equipped with the target acquisition designation sight and pilot night vision sensor that provides day/night laser designation and infrared night vision. These technologies allow the two-man crew to operate in adverse weather conditions to destroy, disrupt, or delay enemy advances with unprecedented accuracy.

Following a fatal crash at Fort Rucker, Alabama, on 21 August 1987, the Apache helicopter was temporarily grounded while the Army thoroughly investigated the cause of the accident. The evidence revealed that a defective bearing in the tail rotor swash plate, which regulates the rotor blades' pitch, caused the accident. The Army promptly ordered the Army Aviation Systems Command in St. Louis, Missouri, to replace the defective part on all airframes and to provide pilots with additional training designed to enhance flying safety. Priority repair was given to helicopters that were scheduled to be dispatched to Europe, and the remaining AH-64 helicopters were scheduled to have the swash plate assemblies in the tail rotors replaced and resume flying in early FY 1988.

Complementing the Apache is the AH-1S Cobra. This single-engine helicopter was mated with the TOW antitank missile in 1977. Since that time, the Army has continually upgraded the AH-1S to improve its operational capabilities, safety, and survivability rates in combat. The Cobra is also characterized by a 44-foot in diameter rotor with two fiberglass blades, as well as an 8.5-foot diameter tail rotor. The helicopter may optionally include a combination of the following weapons for a maximum weight of 3,402 pounds: 8 TOW missiles, 2.75-inch rockets, and 20-mm. cannons up to a maximum gross weight of 10,000 pounds. The Cobra can perform at a maximum sea-level speed of 171 knots or at a normal cruise speed of 123 knots for a maximum range of 362 nautical miles. The vehicle has an endurance capacity of 2.6 hours and can climb vertically at a rate of 1,580 feet per minute. Nevertheless, the Cobra is not regarded as optimally effective because it fires the wire-guided TOW missile. Wire guidance requires the helicopter to remain exposed to hostile fire while guiding the missile to the designated target. This also limits the Cobra to performing only during daylight and in fair weather. To increase its usefulness, the Army started the Cobra Fleet Life Extension Program (C-FLEX), which incorporates a number of helicopter life extension modifi-


cations, including rotor improvements, blue-green cockpit lighting, improved TOW, and upgraded radios. As part of the C-FLEX program, Army Chief of Staff Wickham temporarily grounded 750 of the 1,084 Cobra fleet in the Army inventory, pending inspection and possible replacement of the connectors that were on the main rotor blades in November 1986. Upon completion of inspection, the entire Army inventory of Cobras returned to operational status. Meanwhile the Army continues to equip approximately 500 Cobras with a forward-looking infrared system that allows the -helicopters to operate at night.

Scout helicopters seek and select targets which, in turn, enable attack helicopters to conserve their fuel and ammunition, while the commander concentrates his antitank capability at critical points. After locating targets, the scouts position the attack helicopters, determine the distribution of fires, laser-designate targets for the Hellfire missile, and coordinate artillery fires throughout the battle area. During the battle, scouts provide battlefield intelligence about the enemy and the targets destroyed. Scout helicopters also refine intelligence from other sources and integrate various types of firepower against the target.

The Army Helicopter Improvement Program (AHIP) aims to upgrade part of the Scout fleet into improved observation helicopters. Enhanced engine performance and rotor refurbishments now allow the AHIP to operate on very hot days and at high altitudes. The mounted sight incorporates a laser designator and a forward-looking, infrared capability for use at night and during adverse weather conditions. The sight also allows the helicopter to hover behind hills or other elevations while the sight remains exposed and tracks targets. The AHIP uses artillery fire to locate and destroy enemy forces. It can also acquire and designate targets for Copperhead and other Army or Air Force precision-guided munitions. During this fiscal year, the AHIP programs will finance the conversion of forty-eight aircraft.

Among the Army's major design projects for the next century is the Light Helicopter Family (LHX), the Army's general rotocraft. The LHX will replace the current fleet of some 7,000 aging (Vietnam vintage) AH-1, UH-1, OH-58, and OH-6 helicopters, which were becoming expensive to maintain and repair. The LHX design will consist of two basic configurations in the 8,000-pound class-a scout/attack (SCAT) and a transport/utility (UTIL) design-to replace and or complement the UH-1, AH-1, OH-58, OH-6A and OH-64A Apache, and the UH-60. Plans for the SCAT model envision the aircraft with the Hellfire antitank missile system, air-to-air


Stinger missiles, and an automatic gun that features multiple target acquisition. The LHX also will have a minimum cruise speed of 170 knots and possess the ability to climb vertically at a rate of 500 feet per minute even in inclement weather.

Except for its minimum dash speed of 160 knots, the assault aircraft will have the same capabilities as the SCAT. The assault version is scheduled to carry eight fully equipped combat troops, plus internal and external cargo. SCAT currently requires two crew members, but is being redesigned for operation by a single pilot. As a result of its advanced technology and sophisticated weaponry, the LHX will conduct effective close and deep operations. Completion of this program, however, carries a high price tag. Anticipating a period of fiscal austerity, Under Secretary of the Army James R. Ambrose recommended that the Army delay the LHX program. No substantive action has been taken to eliminate the system during FY 1987.

Missile and Weapon Systems

Hellfire is an anti-armor missile guided by a laser seeker. It is the main armament of the AH-64 Apache helicopter. The missile weighs 99 pounds, is 64 inches long, and has a 7-inch diameter warhead. Hellfire homes in on a laser spot projected onto the target by ground observers, other aircraft, or the launching aircraft's own designator. This enables it to attack targets indirectly, in some situations without ever having seen the target.

Initially the ground laser designator was designed for use on a stationary tripod; however, lasers have been gaining mobility since their incorporation into the Army's fire support vehicles, where these highly mobile forward observers can direct the Army's second category of Hellfire missiles, which consist of modular laser equipment. To date these Hellfire missiles have been used exclusively by the Marine Corps. Hellfire's greater lethality, increased firing rates, improved range, versatility, and greater speed make it a marked advancement over the older TOW missile.

In spite of more advanced technology, TOW remains the most powerful antitank weapon available to the infantry. TOWS can destroy enemy armor, bunkers, and crew-served weapons. They also have a limited self-defense capability against helicopters. With a range of 3,750 meters, TOW automatically corrects the missiles' flight course through two thin wires that unwind from the missiles while linking them to the launcher.

The TOW program has four distinct missiles: the basic TOW, Improved TOW (ITOW), TOW-2, and TOW-2A. Each can be


launched from BFVs, the High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV), M113 armored personnel carriers, M151 jeeps, and the AH-IS Cobra helicopter.

The basic TOW first appeared in the Army in 1970 and was later adopted by the Marine Corps and thirty-nine foreign countries. Since 1970 various improvements have enhanced the weapon. Phase I produced the ITOW to meet current and near-term threats. Phase II introduced TOW-2, and it is continuously being redesigned to meet armor threats of the future. The latest improvements to TOW-2 include a six-inch warhead with an extended probe and an improved missile guidance system. They permit a gunner to track targets despite poor visibility caused by smoke, fog, and other battlefield obscurants. Ongoing improvements to the TOW-2 produced the TOW-2A. This enhanced TOW-2 has a tip and main charge added to the probe that is designed to detonate a tank's reactive armor and thus allow the warhead to penetrate the tank's main armor.

In September 1987, development began on a warhead and sensor system that allows the missile to fly over its intended target and fire down into the more vulnerable tank turret. Called TOW-2B, it includes a completely new warhead section with sensor and associated hardware.

This year Army officials are considering procurement of a heavy advanced antitank weapons system (AAWS-H) and a medium advanced antitank weapons system (AAWS-M), to replace the TOW and the Dragon, respectively. The AAWS-H is a joint U.S. Marine Corps and U.S. Army program. The weapon will replace the current TOW antiarmor system as the mainstay of the infantry against tanks. The Army is also considering AAWS-H on the BFV, the HMMWV, the ITOW and as a possible replacement on the Cobra and attack helicopter fleet.

Other weapon system concepts under consideration for antitank roles are the kinetic energy missile, an advanced missile system-heavy, and the dual-purpose fiber optic-guided missile (FOG-M), which is both an air defense and an antitank missile. Extensive, realistic testing of these proposed weapons will allow the Army to select the best weapon based on test results and research data. AAWS-H development promises to alter radically existing tank warfare doctrine, thereby completely revamping the nature of the modern battlefield.

The AAWS-M will replace the current Dragon and remedy deficiencies of that older system. Modifications promise greater lethality, extended range, and decreased gunner vulnerability. The


goal of AAWS-M is to enable the soldier to destroy the heavily armored, modern battlefield tanks that are expected to characterize future battlefields. This portable system will consist of a missile and throwaway launch tube with a reusable command and launch unit (CLU). The CLU will include a day/night sight capability and remain operable for several hours before the batteries that power it need replacement. The U.S. Army Missile Command (MICOM) has awarded contracts to two companies to test laser beam and infrared seeker technology. The laser beam riding concept permits the gunner on the AAWS-M to direct the flight of the missile to its target along the path of the beam. The FOGM employs the infrared seeker. In this instance, the CLU is connected to the seeker through a fiber optic cable. The fire-and-forget missile locates and destroys targets, allowing the gunner freedom of movement while the missile is in flight.

The Lightweight Multipurpose Weapon M136 (AT4) is a portable, short-range assault weapon that fires an 84-mm. cartridge from an expendable tube that also serves as the weapon launcher. It is a Swedish-manufactured shoulder-fired recoilless weapon used against light armor and materiel targets. It incorporates a disposable launcher and a cartridge case that contains a fin-stabilized, high-explosive, shaped-charge projectile. The weapon weighs 14.6 pounds and has a lethal effective range of more than 300 meters. It replaces the less powerful and shorter range Light Antitank Weapon (LAW) M72. Production is under way in Sweden, and initial fielding to U.S. Army units began in early 1987. Production in the United States is expected to commence during FY 1988.


The Army has a new standardized combat rifle. The newcomer is the M16A2 rifle, the improved version of the M16A1 The latest model of the semiautomatic rifle is a lightweight (8.9 pounds), air-cooled weapon that has already become the Army's primary combat rifle. Its improvements include iron sights; pistol grip; and optical, infrared, and thermal sights on the same visual axis as the iron sights. The weapon's accuracy was improved by replacing the full automatic capability with a three-round burst control; incorporating an improved muzzle compensator and heavier barrel; and using heavier 5.56-caliber ammunition. The Army issued the M16A2 to frontline troops in November 1986. The remainder of the Army will continue to use the earlier model M16A1 until stocks are depleted or the older weapons wear out. Henceforth the Army will purchase only the M16A2, and in FY 1987 the Army purchased 76,235 such rifles.


In April 1985, the Beretta-USA Corporation of Accokeek, Maryland, received an Army contract to produce 315,930 9-mm. pistols to replace the older .45- and .38-caliber pistols and revolvers of the military services. The Beretta-manufactured 9-mm. Personal Defense Weapon (PDW) began replacing the older handguns in 1986. Improvements in the semiautomatic pistol included increased firepower of fifteen rounds and improved accuracy at ranges of 50-100 meters.

This year the Army fielded the 120-mm. mortar program as a non-developmental (procured off the shelf) item to replace the obsolete M30 4.2-inch mortar system. The 120-mm. will be added to the 60-mm. and 81-mm. mortar systems currently in units. The 120-mm. mortar system will be available in both a towed carriage and in a carrier version. The system improves range, weight, mobility, smoke and illumination performance, and high explosive lethality. Total procurement will be slightly over 2,600 weapons. Fielding this program includes development of an enhanced family of 120-mm. mortar ammunition.

The United States and the United Kingdom agreed to collaborate in producing an improved version of the M252, 81-mm. mortar system for both the U.S. Army and the U.S. Marine Corps. The M252 provides indirect fire capability for armor, mechanized infantry, airborne, and light infantry forces. Most notable are its increased range and greater lethality compared to the older M29 system, 81-mm. mortar. Nevertheless, recent reductions in the Army budget may prevent the service from meeting its agreement with the British to purchase 4,000 mortars and 2.1 million high explosive rounds or their monetary equivalent for use in establishing a domestic production base. Procurement delays will deny the Army indirect fire support at the company level in standard and mechanized infantry units in the new light infantry divisions. Since training exercises at the present rate will deplete war reserves by the next fiscal year, the effect of the delayed production cycle is expected to retard significantly both training and combat readiness.

Deep Operations

Deep operations project combat power behind enemy lines to destroy or disrupt the second- and third-echelon enemy reinforcements. Deep attacks isolate the battlefield and confine the battle to participants who are engaged actively in close combat. They accomplish this through the use of weapons that deny the enemy the ability to reorganize, move reserves, or escape. The major objectives of


these deep operations are to separate and disrupt attacking echelons, to protect the defender's freedom to maneuver, and to degrade the enemy's fire support, command, control, and communications capabilities as well as his combat support and combat service support.

At present, U.S. Army forces do not have the full capability to execute the deep operations as envisioned by the AirLand Battle doctrine. Thus the Army and the Air Force are jointly developing programs that are designed to fulfill the two services' war requirements for such operations.

The first requirement for deep operations is that of surveillance and target acquisition in enemy rear areas. To accomplish this, the Army and the Air Force have entered full-scale development of the joint Surveillance and Target Attack Radar System (Joint STARS). It is a battle management and target attack control system that will detect, track, classify, and assist in attacking moving and stationary targets beyond the forward line of troops. Joint STARS will share information with other intelligence and fire support systems.

The Air Force has sole responsibility for the development of the prime mission equipment that consists of an airborne platform as well as radar and data links. Target information will be transmitted through the secure data links that are mounted on a militarized Boeing 707 airframe to multiple ground stations. The Army is responsible for the Ground Station Module (GSM) and the Downsized Ground Station Module (DGSM). The GSM/DGSM are tactical data processing and evaluation distribution centers that link the airborne radar to various Army command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I) systems at corps and division headquarters, corps and division artillery headquarters, and multiple launch rocket battalion headquarters. In theory these commanders will be able to act on near-real-time data.

Today's battlefield requires the commander to survey enemy rear reinforcements and weaponry that acquire the data necessary to assess the operational situation, identify targets, and designate appropriate weaponry to annihilate or dissipate the enemy's force. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) improve the commander's ability to accomplish these missions. The UAVs generally fall into three categories: Tactical Acquisition/ Designation Aerial Reconnaissance System (TADARS), General Purpose, and Expendable. The latter two UAV members are now operational in the U.S. Army and are included in the General Purpose Corps Intelligence Electronic Warfare UAV.

The Aquila is a militarized system that identifies targets and adjusts artillery and laser designators during heavy combined arms


engagement where electronic jamming and countermeasure are one. The Aquila can also fly over heavily defended enemy zones and collect intelligence on the strength of the enemy, thereby conserving manned reconnaissance aircraft. Aquila began full-scale flight testing in July 1982. Since that time, there have been more than 278 flights testing for launch, recovery, and navigation ability, as well as telemetry of TV video, endurance, and long-range free flight between ground control stations. Additionally, Aquila has laser designated stationary and moving targets. The success rate of these tests has averaged 92 percent.

Army leaders anticipate developing a UAV system consisting of air vehicles, modular mission payloads, data link systems, mission planning control station, and ground support equipment. When operational the UAV will allow Army commanders to make decisions based on the latest information gained through aerial reconnaissance and surveillance over enemy terrain.

The Army is also bringing its sensor system into the twenty-first century. Although contemporary sensors are capable of providing massive volumes of raw intelligence data, this information is still being collected, correlated, integrated, and interpreted manually. This slow dissemination of the data to the tactical commander hinders him from providing a rapid analysis of the enemy battlefield and determining appropriate courses of action. In brief, manual processing of intelligence data is too time-consuming for an airland battle deep attack environment where effective employment of new weapons systems depends on timely and accurate information on enemy activity. The Army and the Air Force's cooperatively produced automated tactical intelligence fusion system, the joint Tactical Fusion Program (JTFP), remedies this situation. The Army system, the All Source Analysis System (ASAS), will provide automated assistance to intelligence processing (fusion) and support related areas, such as target development, collection, and mission management of intelligence and electronic warfare systems and operational security. The Air Force's Enemy Situation Correlation Element (ENSCE) will perform similar tasks. Both services plan to share the technology and intelligence information derived from tactical and strategic sensors, including a number of smart munitions that use microelectronics to identify, locate, and attack specific targets behind enemy lines.

Joint STARS will provide wide area surveillance of the battlefield. Specifications call for a moving and a fixed target capability that will permit commanders to detect and locate such targets as stationary and mobile vehicles, command posts, assembly areas,


and low-flying helicopters and fixed-wing aircraft. Joint STARS will broadcast the intelligence simultaneously to multiple ground stations at division and corps levels. The ground modules that precede the deployment of the Joint STARS are being delivered to Europe during this fiscal year.

The MLRS is another Army weapon that fires smart munitions during deep operations. MLRS uses a thirteen-foot-long, nine-inch-wide rocket that may be mounted on a mobile tracked vehicle. Each rocket has twelve multiple warheads to strike enemy artillery, armored vehicles, or troops in open areas. The MLRS tracked carrier vehicle is a derivative of the BFV with the same mobility and armor protection for its three-man crew. The MLRS launcher can fire rockets either individually or in rapid succession to a range of more than thirty kilometers in less than a minute. Besides the multinationally produced M77 warhead, the MLRS also can deliver the West German-developed AT2 scatterable mine warhead. The MLRS is being delivered on schedule, with batteries already fielded in Europe and South Korea as well as to active and ARNG units within the United States.

Recognizing the need to engage in and/or be prepared for NBC warfare, Congress and the U.S. Army continue to address this issue. While the United States is generally committed to the policy of no first use, the devastating potential of such weapons must be considered. In spite of its decision to limit the defense budget, the House and the Senate continued funding for an NBC requirement as deterrence. The Senate bill approved the limited production of binary chemical weapons, including the Bigeye nerve-gas bomb, while the House bill continued the restrictions on the production of new chemical weapons, but required the U.S. to retain its existing stocks of nerve gas that were already in West Germany. Under the terms of a fiscal 1986 budget accord, Congress agreed not to fund binary weapons until the administration certified that NATO allies agreed on the deployment of such weapons to their respective nations.

The U.S. had halted the production of chemical weapons in 1969, but on 22 May 1987, NATO defense ministers approved a U.S. plan to resume the production of chemical weapons. The binary weapons are composed of two chemicals that are nontoxic by themselves but, in combination, create a lethal nerve gas for bombs or artillery shells.

The basic plan required that the binary weapons be stored in the United States and transported to West Germany only in the event of a military crisis in Europe. When critics of the plan complained that U.S. resumption of nerve-gas production would en-


courage the Soviets to increase their own production, Congress compromised by authorizing $35 million for the Bigeye binary chemical bomb, but prohibited production of this weapon before the beginning of the next fiscal year on 1 October 1987. Congress also agreed to fund the binary artillery shell, but banned its production before the first day of the new fiscal year.

Rear Operations

Rear operations include all actions that occur behind the friendly lines and in support of forces that are in direct contact with the enemy. These include assembling, moving, and positioning reserves; positioning long-range fire support and field artillery; moving, stockpiling, and distributing war materiel; maintaining field services; establishing and maintaining lines of communication; defending against air, ground, and missile attacks; and regulating and controlling traffic. In effect, they are the defense against the enemy's deep operations. Several of the more important systems that the U.S. Army is retaining and modernizing for use in rear operations are discussed below.

This year the Army has continued modernization of the various combat and combat support systems necessary to achieve its goal of assembling, moving, and positioning the reserves for commitment to the battle at the proper time and place. Two of the major weapons systems are the UH-60 Black Hawk and the CH-47D Chinook helicopters. The 20,250-pound Black Hawk can carry its three-man crew plus eleven fully equipped combat troops or an equally heavy cargo load into most geographical environments. Recent improvements to the Black Hawk enhance overall mobility; for example, the helicopter can reposition a 105-mm. howitzer, its six-man crew, and thirty rounds of ammunition in a single mission. Critical components and systems are armored so that the helicopter can withstand multiple small arms hits while performing its mission. The airframe is designed to deform gradually, not burst apart on impact. This affords the crew better protection in a crash. Eventually the Black Hawk will replace the UH-1 Huey and shoulder its air assault, air cavalry, and aero-medical evacuation missions. The Black Hawk has been employed successfully under demanding tactical conditions in field exercises and was used extensively in combat in Grenada. The Army has fielded Black Hawks to units within CONUS, Korea, Panama, Europe, and the U.S. Army Western Command (WESTCOM). At present the Army is delivering Black Hawks to the ARNG and USAR units and


to the U.S. Army, Europe (USAREUR), and FORSCOM. This year the Army purchased seventy-eight Black Hawks.

Like several other weapons systems, the medium-lift CH-47D Chinook helicopter serves several purposes including transporting, positioning, and distributing reserve troops and war materiel. The CH-47D has two T55-L-712 turboshaft engines and tandem three-blade counter-rotating fiberglass rotors that are sixty feet in diameter. The helicopter weighs 23,149 pounds when empty; has an overall length of 98 feet, 11 inches; height of 18 feet, 11 inches; and a fuel capacity of 1,034 gallons. At its full-mission weight of 50,000 pounds, the Chinook can transport 33 soldiers and a 15,000-22,000 pound payload at speeds above 150 knots. With the D model in its seventh year of production, the Army continued the Chinook modernization program by redesigning 472 CH-47A, B, and C models to conform to the D configuration. At the end of this fiscal year, 190 CH-471)s had been delivered to Army units in the field.

To defend the rear area and support the forward-deployed troops, the Army is improving its long-range fire support or field artillery systems. Besides the aforementioned MLRS, these weapons include the Army tactical missile system; the joint tactical missile system; the Pershing II; and several classes of howitzers.

The Army tactical missile system (TACMS) is a semiballistic missile system designed to be fired from a modified MLRS launcher. TACMS gives fire support for deep attacks into the enemy second-echelon forces conducted at ranges beyond the capability of existing cannon and rocket firepower. A truck carries the launcher and two missiles. TACMS relies on an inertial system to guide the missile accurately over the target area where it dispenses submunitions from its warhead. Originally TACMS was intended to strengthen conventional forces and U.S. Army units in Europe, but Congress is considering an Army request to arm the missiles with nuclear warheads.

The Pershing II missile system is a modular, revolutionary improvement to the earlier Pershing la (Pla) ballistic missile. The United States and the FRG developed the older version and deployed it to NATO forces in 1965. The newest system, the Pershing II, improves accuracy tenfold over the PIa and doubles the previous range. Greater accuracy results from radar area correlation. It adjusts the missile's flight path by comparing radar reflections from the target area with the images that were stored in its computer prior to missile launch. This truck-mounted system is highly mobile and capable of rapid deployment and missile launch. Under terms of the recent U.S.-Soviet Intermediate Range Nuclear


Forces (INF) Treaty, both the Pershing II missiles and the launchers are currently in the process of being withdrawn from Europe for supervised destruction.

The M109A2/A3 Self-Propelled Howitzer/Howitzer Improvement Program (HIP) improves the M109 self-propelled howitzer that the Army fielded in the early 1960s. The M109A3 is a modified M109AI with the same capabilities as the M109A2. The M109 is the primary indirect fire support weapon available to the maneuver brigades of armored and mechanized infantry divisions. A G-5 can fly the M109A2/A3 to its destination. The howitzer fires both conventional and nuclear munitions. In October 1985, the Army initiated HIP. Modifications to the howitzers include adding new cannon tubes and mounts, automotive improvements, crew nuclear/ chemical/biological protection, drivers' night vision capability, secure communications, ballistic computer and navigation systems, and built-in test equipment. The additions will significantly improve the howitzer's responsiveness, survivability, reliability, and range; for example, the howitzers' range will be increased by at least thirty kilometers. The vehicles will also be lighter (total weight of 55,000 pounds fully loaded), therefore easier to transport by air. The Army took final delivery of this improved howitzer this fiscal year.

Rear area combat operations also require the same timely communications support as areas of the battlefield. In short, staff elements, headquarters, and units must be able to communicate with each other. To improve the communications system, Under Secretary of the Army Ambrose and Army Chief of Staff Wickham gave tentative approval to a plan to standardize approximately $29 billion in tactical communications systems into a system based on a single computer terminal. Army officials downplayed the risks of relying on a single computer terminal by asserting that the lack of competition could be offset by the many advantages the common terminal offered. Advocates suggest that advantages include increased training opportunities, ease of operation, and maintenance of the system plus enhanced readiness capability.

Improving rear area communication links is also expected to be enhanced by the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System, (SINCGARS). As the Army's latest secure VHF-FM combat net radio, SINCGARS operates in voice and data transmission modes despite enemy jamming. The radio hops across 2,320 channels in a frequency range of 30-87 megahertz and has a range of 8-25 kilometers. SINCGARS are available in vehicular, pack, and airborne models, and all the services are procuring the communications system.


Recently the Army reviewed its communications architecture to ensure that it was obtaining the proper combination of equipment for its battlefield requirements. In particular, experts studied the joint Tactical Communications Program (TRI-TAC), a joint service and DOD program for developing and fielding tactical, multichannel switch communications. The TRI-TAC family consists of automated digital telephone and message switches, secure and unsecured telephones, multichannel radio transmission equipment, automated control facilities, tactical data and facsimile terminals, and a variety of associated items that are required to replace the obsolete, unsecured, manpower-intensive, manual communications equipment currently in the field.

To achieve a measure of interoperability with TRI-TAC, combat net radios, commercial telephone, and NATO systems, the Army is fielding a secure static and mobile voice/data/facsimile service to principal commanders and key staff officers. The system, the Mobile Subscriber Equipment (MSE), is an area communications system that will enable division commanders to communicate with command and control troops on the battlefield on a secure, flexible, mobile communications system. The FY 1987 MSE request is for equipment destined for the first operational corps and division units at Fort Hood, Texas. The MSE acquisition program shortens the acquisition cycle by using a nondevelopmental strategy. Instead of an extensive research and development (R&D) effort, full use is made of existing, proven technology developed by our NATO allies. This avoids the significant costs in time and money involved in the R&D phase of acquisition.

The Army is updating its Maneuver Control System (MCS) for its deep operations. This automated command and control system allows tactical commanders and their staffs to employ computers in their decision-making process. With secure, automated assistance, the intelligence officer and other principal staff members will be able to meet the informational needs of commanders expeditiously.

The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) was established to provide global transmission media to satisfy unique and vital communications requirements. DSCS is acquiring automated equipment to implement the DSCS operational control segment (DOCS), which will enhance overall system performance. The Army's contribution to the joint program will consist of developing and procuring ground terminals, control systems, and ancillary equipment.

The Army is modernizing its air, ground, and missile systems to defend corps and theater areas and protect the forward-deployed


units. The cancellation of the division air defense (DIVAD) program resulted in a major reassessment of air defense requirements in the forward area. The lessons learned from the DIVAD experience indicated that one weapon alone, or even multiple weapons acting independently, cannot defeat the air threat. The Forward Air Defense System (FAADS) is an integrated program of complementary systems which will provide Army divisions with dedicated air defense artillery (ADA) and integrated joint and combined arms efforts to counter the threat. Ongoing Army programs are being combined with new technology to blend weapons, sensors, and a command, control, and intelligence architecture in a single system designed to counter the entire spectrum of the air threat to the forward area into the next century. The FAADS concept is designed to fortify the division area by depriving the enemy of its preferred attack options. The strategy relies on nondevelopmental items (NDI) and preplanned product improvements (P31) to compensate for deficiencies in air defense.

FAADS consist of five components: Line of Sight-Forward Heavy (LOS-F-H), the Air Defense Anti-Tank System (ADATS); Line of Sight-Rear (LOS-R), the Avenger missile system; NonLine of Sight (NLOS); FAAD command, control, and intelligence (FAAD C21); and combined arms initiatives (CAI). The LOS-F-H is designed to destroy enemy fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft before they can engage friendly forces. Martin Marietta's ADATS was selected through competitive testing to fill the LOS-F-H role.

LOS-R is a missile/gun system mounted on the HMMWV. LOS-R provides a weighted, area defense against the air threat to the brigade and division rear areas. Also known as Pedestal Mounted Stinger, this system uses the proven Stinger missile and a .50-caliber machine gun. Boeing's Avenger, selected to perform this role, provides a shoot-on-the-move, soldier-friendly solution to the LOS-R requirements.

The NLOS weapon is a precision guided missile that depends on a fiber optic cable to transmit seeker images to aid and control the vehicle and transmit commands to the missile. The FOG-M enables the system to operate its long-range antihelicopter, antitank system that can eliminate hidden targets.

FAAD C21 integrates FAADS components into a synergistic system by providing targeting information, air situational intelligence, and information on air/battle management.

CAI provides ground and aerial combat elements an enhanced capability for self-defense against enemy helicopters. Air-to-air Stinger is in production for the OH-58C/D. The BFV sight reticle


enhancement was incorporated into production in May 1987. Engineering development continues to concentrate on upgrading 120 tank ammunition to provide it with antihelicopter capability.

Stinger is a shoulder-fired, infrared homing missile system. Its mission is to provide air defense coverage to combat units. The basic Stinger model weighs approximately thirty-five pounds and replaces the older Redeye missile system because of its ability to attack faster moving targets and destroy aircraft by homing in on the heat emitted from the target. Like the Redeye, the Stinger is issued as a certified round of ammunition in a sealed, disposable launch tube requiring neither field testing nor maintenance.

A Stinger crew visually locates its target, electronically interrogates it to ascertain its status as friend or foe, and transmits the information to the gunner who locks in on the target. Ejecting Stinger from the launch tube is accomplished by pulling a trigger and activating a small launcher motor. Stinger travels a safe distance from the gunner, ignites the main engine, and propels itself toward the target.

Stinger variants are the Stinger-POST (passive optical seeker technique) and Stinger-RMP (reprogrammable microprocessor). The former has improved capabilities against infrared countermeasures. Produced in FY 1983, Stinger-POST was fielded September 1986. Stinger-RMP enhances further Stinger's infrared countermeasure capabilities and permits the guidance algorithm to be changed in response to the target. Stinger-RMP was developed in September 1984 and delivered in July 1987. This fiscal year, the Army purchased 4,000 Stinger-RMP missiles and completed development.

The Patriot is the Army's newest air defense system and the centerpiece of air and tactical ballistic missile defense. Patriot's fast reaction capability, great firepower, and ability to operate despite severe electronic countermeasures are the most innovative features of the missile system. The Patriot's simpler design allows it to fulfill its mission with less equipment and fewer people and repair parts than existing air defense systems. The automated system combines high-speed digital processing with various software to control airspace over the battleground. The single radar, using phased array technology, functions for airspace surveillance, target detection and tracking, and support of missile guidance. The only manned element of the fire unit during an air battle is the engagement control station, which provides for manual adjustment of automated operations. Each launcher contains four missiles, sealed in canisters, that serve as both shipping containers and launch tubes.


To date, five Patriot battalions have been deployed with the Army in Europe with a sixth scheduled to deploy in early 1988. Germany and Holland acquired Patriots in a NATO-sponsored program to improve overall air defense. The first Patriots delivered to NATO units arrived in 1986, and discussions continue with other NATO allies who are interested in the system. A memorandum of understanding was concluded with Japan, which requested twenty-six fire units. The Japanese received their first deliveries in June 1987.

The mainstay of the Army's low- to medium-altitude air defense is the Hawk missile system, although Patriot will replace some Hawk units. Hawk is a mobile, all-weather, medium-range, surface-to-air guided missile that uses pulse and continuous-wave radar, navigation guidance, and semiactive terminal homing to defend against low- to medium-altitude enemy aircraft. First fielded in 1960, Hawk is a mobile, all-weather missile system providing vital air defense for critical installations and maneuver forces. Hawk units are being reorganized into a more streamlined and efficient fighting organization. Each firing platoon is composed of a platoon command post, an acquisition radar, a tracking radar, an optical tracking system, an Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system, and three or four launchers each with three missiles. Hawk's latest improvement will provide a low-altitude, simultaneous engagement capability and enhanced electronic counter-countermeasures. Modifications to the Hawk have resulted in redesigned acquisition, tracking, and fire control equipment to enhance operator control. The revamped Hawk operates better than its predecessor against electronic countermeasures. The supply of data to the AN/TSQ-73 Missile Minder air defense command and control system has been improved to make target tracking more accurate. Increased firepower and reduced requirements for logistics support result from the modifications.

Chaparral is one of the Army's short-range air defense (SHORAD) surface-to-air missile systems. The self-propelled system is effective against all types of aircraft at low altitudes and provides protection for corps, theater rear, and division areas. Initially fielded in 1969, the Chaparral has been the beneficiary of an extensive improvements program, particularly a forward-looking, infrared (FLIR) night sight or a target acquisition device. The FUR gives the gunner day, night, and some adverse weather acquisition capability at significant ranges. Its tracked carrier provides excellent cross-country mobility. The launch station can be removed from the carrier and operated from a ground emplacement. The


missile itself has undergone frequent improvements, the latest of which is the rosette scan seeker (RSS) missile, which entered production this fiscal year. The RSS improved guidance system makes it 50 percent more effective against infrared countermeasures. Other improvements include a target-detecting IFF subsystem, smokeless rocket motors, hardened optics, and reliability improvements. In 1985 a towed version for the light forces was introduced. During the interval the ARNG received Chaparral as a part of its modernization program. Improvements to the system are continual, and the system is expected to remain in the inventory into the twenty-first century.

The Product Improved Vulcan Air Defense System (PIVADS) was developed to enhance tracking, correct sight anomalies, and increase maintainability and availability of the existing 20-mm. Vulcan air defense gun. Improved director sights and the analog computer with digital fire control electronics enhance weapon performance. A contract for 2,585 PIVADS kits was signed, and modifications began this fiscal year.

The M9 Armored Combat Earthmover (ACE) is a highly mobile tracked, amphibious, armored earthmoving vehicle that can move, survive, and work with the flow of battle. In rear area operations, ACE assembles and moves troops and prepares positions on the modern battlefield. Empty, the M9 ACE weighs 36,000 pounds; loaded 54,000 pounds, with a speed of thirty miles per hour. The C-130, C-141B, or C-5B aircraft can transport the earthmover.

The ACE can destroy enemy obstacles, create obstacles to enemy maneuver, prepare fighting positions for combat forces, and maintain roads and supply routes for friendly forces. ACE's role is to assure that friendly force momentum is maintained, that enemy forces are slowed, channelized, and more susceptible to friendly fire in the defense, while providing protected positions from which troops can fight. The mobile (tracked), amphibious, light armored capabilities empower the earthmover with the ability to fight with the infantry while maintaining the speed required to move with the tanks. This fiscal year, the Army purchased 21 ACES, deploying 3 to TRADOC in September 1986 and 7 to the 7th Infantry Division (Light) in November 1986. The full complement of vehicles is scheduled to be delivered in February 1988.

Using the variety of technological innovations described in this section, the Army has continued its quest to equip itself with a balanced program in preparation for warfare with its most formidable rival, the Soviet Union. No attempt has been made to out-produce the USSR. Instead the Army has striven to improve the quality of


its weapons to equip its personnel with state-of-the-art weaponry. Thus, the Army has improved the lethality, mobility, surveillance, and target acquisition of its weapons and, in the process, has moved toward an electronic battlefield that demands that the individual soldier's responsibilities increase together with a greater, yet more effective, span of control.


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Last updated 17 November 2003