CMH Museum Artifacts - Pieces of History
Armistice Day, 1918
Daily Situation Map
Veterans Day, November 11
Below is the Daily Situation Map of the U.S. First Army, Allied Expeditionary Force, at 1700 hours on 11 November 1918. The war had ended six hours earlier.
The Meuse-Argonne Campaign that concluded that day was the greatest battle in which the U.S. Army ever fought. More than 1,250,000 American troops were involved in the 47-day campaign along an 83-mile section of France.
The jump-off line began east of Verdun, at the center of the map. First Army's northward thrust paralleled the Meuse River. It drove forty-three German divisions back thirty miles across the most difficult and well-fortified terrain of the entire Western Front.
The Last Two Minutes of Fighting
Veterans Day through the Years
AEF GHQ General Order 203, 12 November 1918 - General Pershing's address to the American Expeditionary Forces
(Select image to view PDF.)
World War I, then normally referred to simply as The Great War (no one could imagine any war being greater!), ended with the implementation of an armistice [temporary cessation of hostilities-in this case until the final peace treaty, the Treaty of Versailles, was signed in 1919] between the Allies and Germany at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of November, 1918.
November 11, President Wilson proclaims the first Armistice Day with the following words: "To us in America, the reflections of Armistice Day will be filled with solemn pride in the heroism of those who died in the country's service and with gratitude for the victory, both because of the thing from which it has freed us and because of the opportunity it has given America to show her sympathy with peace and justice in the councils of the nations." The original concept for the celebration was for the suspension of business for a two minute period beginning at 11 A.M., with the day also marked by parades and public mettings.
On the second anniversary of the armistice, France and the United Kingdom hold ceremonies honoring their unknown dead from the war. In America, at the suggestion of church groups, President Wilson names the nearest Sunday Armistice Day Sunday, on which should be held services in the interest of international peace.
Congress passes legislation approving the establishment of a Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Arlington National Cemetery. November 11 is chosen for the date of the ceremony. Accordingly, on October 20, Congress declares November 11, 1921 a Federal holiday to honor all those who participated in the war. The ceremony was conducted with great solemnity.
Congress adopts a resolution directing the President to issue an annual proclamation calling for the observance of Armistice Day. Throughout the 1920s and 1930s, most states establish November 11 as a legal holiday and at the Federal level, an annual proclamation is issued by the President.
Congress passes legislation on May 13 making November 11 a legal Federal holiday, Armistice Day. The United States has no 'actual' national holidays because the states retain the right to designate their own holidays. The Federal government can in fact only designate holidays for Federal employees and for the District of Columbia. But, in practice, the states almost always follow the Federal lead in designation of holidays. Kate Smith sings Irving Berlin's "God Bless America" on national radio.
World War II and the Korean War create millions of additional war veterans in addition to those of the First World War already honored by Armistice Day.
Select image to view.
On June 1, President Eisenhower signs legislation changing the name of the legal holiday from Armistice Day to Veteran's Day.
Congress passes the Monday Holiday Law which established the fourth Monday in October as the new date for the observance of Veteran's Day. The law is to take effect in 1971.
The Federal observance of Veterans Day is held on the fourth Monday of October. Initially all states follow suit except Mississippi and South Dakota. Other states changed their observances back to November 11 as follows: 1972- Louisiana and Wisconsin; 1974- Kentucky, Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Maine, South Carolina, West Virginia; 1975- California, Florida, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, West Virginia, Wyoming
Legislation passed to return the Federal observance of Veteran's Day to November 11, based on popular support throughout the nation. Since the change to the fourth Monday in October, 46 states had either continued to commemorate November 11 or had reverted back to the original date based on popular sentiment. The law was to take effect in 1978.
Veteran's Day observance reverts to November 11.
Additional Links and Resources