ANNUAL REPORT OF MAJ. GEN. FITZHUGH LEE, COMMANDING
SEVENTH ARMY CORPS.
[Extracted from the Annual Report of the Secretary of War for 1898, 2:218-223]
HEADQUARTERS SEVENTH ARMY CORPS,
OFFICE COMMANDING GENERAL,
CAMP CUBA LIBRE, Jacksonville, Fla., September 1,1898.
The ADJUTANT-GENERAL, Washington, D.C.
SIR: In compliance with telegraphic instructions, dated A. G. O., Washington, D. C., August 30, 1898, I have the honor to submit the following report of the operations of this corps from organization to date:
On May 26, 1898, I assumed command at Tampa, Fla., in accordance with G. O. 46, A. G. O., current series. On May 27 the following troops, having been assigned to me, were organized as follows, by paragraph 4, G. O. No. 2, Headquarters Seventh Army Corps:
FIRST DIVISION, TAMPA, FLA.
BRIG. GEN. GUY V. HENRY, U. S. VOLUNTEERS, COMMANDING.
First Brigade.—Brig. Gen. Hamilton L. Hawkins, U. S. Volunteers, commanding. Third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry, Second Georgia Volunteer Infantry.
Second Brigade.—Col. William T. McGurrin, Thirty-second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, commanding. Thirty-second Michigan Volunteer Infantry, First Florida Volunteer Infantry.
SECOND DIVISION, JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
BRIG. GEN. ABRAHAM K. ARNOLD, U. S. VOLUNTEERS, COMMANDING.
First Brigade.—Brig. Gen. Andrew S. Burt, U. S. Volunteers, commanding. Second Illinois Volunteer Infantry, First North Carolina Volunteer Infantry.
Second Brigade.—Col. D. V. Jackson, Fiftieth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, commanding. Fiftieth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, First Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry.
As authorized by telegraphic instructions from the War Department, the headquarters of the corps were, on May 31, transferred to Jacksonville, Fla. The organization of the Second Division was then continued by the assignment of regiments as follows:
June 3, Second Virginia, Third Brigade. June 4, Second New Jersey, First Brigade. June 5, Fourth Illinois, Second Brigade (transferred Third Division, August 5). June 6, Fourth Virginia, Third Brigade. June 14, Forty-ninth Iowa, Third Brigade. August 9, Ninth Illinois, Second Brigade.
Brig. Gen. A. K. Arnold was assigned to the command of this division by special orders No. 1, headquarters Fifth Army Corps, relieving Brig. Gen. H. W. Lawton, U. S. Volunteers, in command United States forces at Jacksonville, Fla. Brigadier-General Arnold has continued in this command from that date.
The brigades of this division have been commanded as follows:
First Brigade.—Brig. Gen. A. S. Burt, since May 29, 1898.
Second Brigade.—Col. D. V. Jackson, Fiftieth Iowa Volunteer Infantry, from May 28, 1898, to June 13,1898. Brig. Gen. W. A. Bancroft, from June 13,1898, to August 1,1898. Brig. Gen. H. T. Douglas, since August 16, 1898.
Third Brigade.—Col. J. C. Baker, Second Virginia Volunteer Infantry, from June 7, 1898, to July 1,1898. Brig. Gen. H. C. Hansbrouck, since July 2, 1898.
BRIG. GEN. THEODORE SCHWAN, U.S. VOLUNTEERS, COMMANDING.
Telegraphic instructions, dated A. G. O., Washington, D. C., June 27, l898, transferred the First Division, as previously organized, to the Fourth Army Corps, and assigned me the division then stationed at Miami, Fla. These troops were, by General Orders, No. 10, Headquarters Seventh Army Corps, constituted as the First Division, in the place of the one transferred, and their organization continued as follows:
First Brigade.—Brig. Gen. Lloyd Wheaton, U. S. Volunteers, commanding: First Texas Volunteer Infantry, First Louisiana Volunteer Infantry, First Alabama Volunteer Infantry.
Second Brigade.—Brig. Gen. W. W. Gordon, U. S. Volunteers, commanding: Second Texas Volunteer Infantry, Second Louisiana Volunteer Infantry, Second Alabama Volunteer infantry.
The regiments of this division were originally at Mobile, Ala., and on June 4, 1898, were constituted as the First Division of the Fourth Army Corps, commanded by Brig. Gen. Theodore Schwan. On June 20, 1898, the division was transferred to Miami, Fla., which place it reached about June 25, and was transferred to this corps June 27. On July 1, in compliance with telegraphic instructions from the War Department, Brigadier-General Schwan was relieved and ordered to report to the commanding general of the Fourth Army Corps.
On July 4, Maj. Gen. J. Warren Keifer was assigned to the command of this division, which he assumed on July 7, and has since exercised, excepting from August 14 to August 21, during which time General Keifer was in temporary command of this corps, I being in Washington, D. C., in accordance with instructions from the War Department.
Pursuant to telegraphic instructions, dated A G. O., Washington D. C., July 29, l898, the First Division was, on July 31, ordered to Jacksonville, Fla. This movement was completed August 13,1898.
The brigades of this division have continued under the command of the general officers originally assigned until the departure of Brig. Gen. W. W. Gordon, as a member of the Porto Rican Commission. The Second Brigade has since been commanded by Col. L. M. Oppenheimer, Second Texas Volunteer Infantry.
The Fourth United States Volunteer Infantry reported, and was assigned to this division August 19, 1898, and the First Ohio Volunteer Infantry August 28, 1898. These two regiments on August 28, 1898, constituted the Third Brigade of this division, Col. C. B. Hunt, First Ohio Volunteer Infantry, commanding.
Brig. Gen. Lucius F. Hubbard was, on July 4, assigned to the temporary command of the Third
Division. The organization of this division had been already begun by the assignment of the Second Mississippi Volunteer Infantry on June 21, and the Second United States Volunteer Cavalry on June 28. The Third Nebraska Volunteer Infantry reported, and was assigned on July 22, and the First South Carolina Volunteer Infantry reported, and was assigned on July 31. The division was, on August 5, 1898, organized in part as follows, by General Orders, No. 22, Headquarters Seventh Army Corps:
First Brigade.. Gen. Lucius F. Hubbard U. S. Volunteers, commanding: Second Mississippi Volunteer Infantry, Third Nebraska Volunteer Infantry.
Second Brigade.—Brig. Gen. James H. Barklay, U. S. Volunteers commanding: Fourth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, First South Carolina Volunteer Infantry.
The One hundred and sixty-first Indiana Volunteer Infantry reported and was assigned to the First Brigade, August 14,1898.
The Sixth Missouri Volunteer Infantry reported and was assigned to the Second Brigade August 15,1898.
Upon reorganization of the Third Division the Second United States Volunteer Cavalry was detached, and ordered to report direct to corps headquarters. This is an excellent cavalry regiment, consisting of 44 commissioned officers and 946 enlisted men, under the command of Col. Jay L. Torrey, Second United States Volunteer Cavalry.
The signal companies and detachments reported for duty as follows:
June 28,1 commissioned officer, with 14 men of the regular United States Signal Corps and 5 men of the Volunteer Signal Corps; on July 4, 3 commissioned officers and the Second United States Volunteer Signal Company, 54 strong; on August 31, 3 commissioned officers with the Fourteenth Company, United States Volunteer Signal Corps, 46 strong. These companies were organized as a battalion, under the command of Capt. H. C. Giddings, United States Volunteer Signal Corps.
The equipment of the Signal Corps Battalion is reported as complete, comprising a most liberal supply of heliographs, flags, signal lanterns, field glasses, telescopes, and all other necessary apparatus. The principal work of the Signal Corps thus far has been the installation and operation of the telephone and telegraph system throughout the camp. Instruction in signaling with flags, heliographs, flash lanterns, and the other practical duties required of the signalist in the field has been given.
The Seventh Army Corps on September 1 consisted of three infantry divisions, one cavalry regiment, one Signal Corps battalion of two companies and one detachment, three hospital and four ambulance companies—a total of 1,252 commissioned officers and 30,119 enlisted men.
The health thus far has been good, all things considered, as shown by the proportion of sick in hospital, as taken from morning reports on the dates given:
Every effort has been made by the chief surgeon, Lieut. Col. L. M. Mauss, U. S. Volunteers, to organize an efficient hospital service, and special attention is invited to his report appended hereto, showing what has been accomplished in this respect.
Capt. R. E. L. Michie, assistant adjutant-general U. S. Volunteers, reported for duty May 26, 1898, at Tampa, Fla., and has since performed the duties of adjutant-general of this corps. The laborious clerical duties repaired in this department have been performed under his supervision by untrained clerks, detailed from volunteer regiments. In order that the necessary routine business in this office may be properly conducted, a competent, skilled, clerical force must lie available for a corps of over 30,000 men. Application was made to the War Department for trained clerks, but as yet none has been supplied or even authorized. The adjutant-general of the corps should be allowed at least three trained civilian clerks, and the adjutant-general of a division one.
Lieut. Col. William R. Livermore, chief engineer U. S. Volunteers, reported for duty June 5, and was assigned as chief engineer of this corps. No engineer troops have been furnished, and only one other commissioned officer, Maj. Hugh J. McGrath, who has been assigned as chief engineer of the Second Division.
The chief of this department, Lieut. Col. Oliver E. Wood, reported and was assigned to duty May 28,1898. Commissary supplies have, on the whole, been sufficient in quantity and of good quality. Upon first arrival here, there being no facilities for baking, regimental commissaries exchanged the flour ration with local bakeries for fresh bread, and the coffee ration was exchanged for ground coffee on a basis of 10 pounds of green for 8 pounds of roasted and ground. The commissarygeneral soon supplied portable bake ovens (Blodgett), also coffee roasters and mills. Fresh meat and vegetables are regularly furnished. With fairly good cooks and proper attention from company and regimental officers, all troops should have an abundance of good, wholesome food. One great trouble is to secure trained cooks. The inducement offered being not sufficient for the hard world imposed, the pay proper of a company cook should be not less than $25 per month.
Lieut. Col. Oliver E. Wood performed the duty of acting chief quartermaster from May 27 until relieved, June 7, by Maj. Frederick Von Schrader, quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers, who was on August 25, 1898, relieved by Lieut. Col. George E. Pond, chief quartermaster, U. S. Volunteers. All the quartermasters of this corps are volunteer officers, and only two have had any previous experience in this department. During June there was a considerable delay in securing necessary clothing, tentage, and transportation. These articles are now being furnished as required.
Lieut. Col. Curtis Guild, jr., reported for duty at Tampa, Fla., on May 26, 1898, and has since lolled the position as inspector-general of this corps.
Maj. Russell B. Harrison, inspector-general, U. S. Volunteers, was on duty as assistant to the inspector-general from June 9 to July 4, and acting chief ordnance officer until July 21, when he was appointed provost marshal of the corps.
The other officers on duty in this department are: Maj. John G. Evans, inspector-general, First Division; Maj. B. H. Cheever. inspector-general, Second Division.
A great difficulty with volunteer troops is to make the regimental and company officers appreciate their responsibilities, and carry out orders when properly issued. To accomplish this each division and brigade headquarters should have an experienced officer assigned as inspector general.
Lieut. Col. Curtis Guild, jr., was in addition to his other duties appointed acting chief ordnance officer on May 27, 1898, and served in that capacity until relieved by Maj. Russell B. Harrison, inspector-general, U. S. Volunteers. July 21 Major Harrison was relieved by Lieut. Col. Rogers Birnie, the present chief ordnance officer.
Regular appointments of the ordnance staff officers were first authorized by act of Congress approved July 7, 1898. The officers at present serving in that capacity, in addition to the chief ordnance officer, are, to wit: First Division, Maj. John L. Chamberlain, chief ordnance officer, U. S. Volunteers; Third Division, Maj. F. H. Edmunds, chief ordnance officer, U. S. Volunteers.
Maj. Benjamin Alvord, chief ordnance officer, U. S. Volunteers, has been on duty as acting adjutant-general of the First Division since July 7, 1898. Maj. John McClellan, chief ordnance officer, U. S. Volunteers, reported for duty August 18, 1898, and was assigned to duty as assistant to the chief ordnance officer in charge of ordnance depot, Seventh Army Corps. Maj. Godfrey H. Macdonald, chief ordnance officer, U. S. Volunteers, recently assigned, has not yet reported. The depot building was completed on August 13, 1898. It now contains a reserve of about two thousand of each of the articles necessary for the equipment of an infantry soldier; also a small supply of articles for cavalry, and for sale to officers. Prior to the establishment of the depot, ordnance stores were issued to regiments direct from arsenals; now requisitions are filled promptly from the depot.
No judge-advocate has ever reported for duty with this corps. Capt. W. S. Scott, assistant adjutant-general, U. S. Volunteers, was assigned to duty as acting in this capacity, August 30, pending the regular assignment.
On August 3, Maj. Russell B. Harrison, inspector-general, U. S. Volunteers, was assigned to duty as provost-marshal of the Seventh Army Corps. The necessary number of companies was detailed under his command for the maintenance of order and discipline in the city of Jacksonville and vicinity. The work has been most successfully performed, and the citizens of Jacksonville speak in the highest terms of the good conduct of troops of the Seventh Army Corps.
DISCIPLINE, DRILL, ETC.
Discipline, with few exceptions, has been excellent, and all regiments show marked improvement in drill and guard duty. Target practice has so far been conducted only by troops of the Second Division for the lack of suitable range sites. A site was under consideration for another range when the mustering out of twelve regiments was ordered.
The natural facilities of this place for a large encampment of troops I consider unsurpassed. The water supply is excellent and abundant for all purposes, coming from artesian wells about 1,000 feet deep, and piped to every company. One great difficulty has been the proper disposition of fecal matter. Every effort has been made to adopt the most sanitary method. Three have been employed, as follows: (1) The tub system; (2) the pit system; (3) the trough system.
The former had been adopted for the camp of the Second Division before my arrival, pits being prohibited by local ordinances. The removal of this night soil has been performed by contract labor; it is expensive, and not otherwise satisfactory. Connection with the city sewerage would have been much better for this division, but owing to the very considerable expense involved, and the uncertain time the camp would be occupied, it was not adopted.
Lumber has been furnished as required for the construction of tent floors, bakeries, bath houses, sinks, and drains, and every effort exerted for the comfort and welfare of the command. The number of trained staff officers has been entirely inadequate in all departments to accomplish the best results. My Third Division has not a single Regular Army officer for this duty.
The list of staff officers now serving with the corps is hereto appended.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Major-General, Commanding Seventh Army Corps.