Endnotes for Chapter XIII
1 Min, 53d mtg JCS, 17 Jan 43.
2 Memo, Roosevelt for SW, 6 Jan 43, no sub, WDCSA Russia (Secret).
3 (1) Memo, Handy, ACofS OPD, for CofS, 8 Mar 43, sub: Heavy Bombers for
Russia, WDCSA Russia (Secret). (2) OPD brief, title: Notes, 97th mtg JCS,
20 Jul 43, Third Soviet Protocol (JCS 322/1), with JCS 322/1 in ABC
400.3295 Russia (19 Apr
See especially, msg, Gen Hurley, Moscow, to President, 8 Dec 42, Case 4,
Book 7, Exec 8. The ally
message from General Hurley, sent via the State Department, was circulated
in the War Department. General Hurley had reported his visit to the Soviet
front and discussions with Soviet officers: "It was evident from
conversations with these officers that they were unfamiliar with our
transport problems. While discussing in great detail their own transport
shortage, they expressed surprise that Great Britain and the United States
were experiencing difficulties in getting , supplies to South Russia by
way of the Persian Gulf and to North Russia by way of the North Atlantic.
See, for example, OPD draft msg [CofS for President] [no addressee], 7 Apr
43, Item 20, Exec 1. The message was not sent.
6 "The Weekly Strategic Resume," 23 Jan 43, 23d mtg PC, ABC 334.3 PC (1 Aug 43), 3.
7 Memo, Handy, ACofS OPD, for CofS, 8 Mar 43, sub: Heavy Bombers for
Russia, WDCSA Russia (Secret).
8 (1) Memo, CofS, CinC U.S. Fleet, and CNO for President's Soviet
Lend-Lease Committee, 11 Apr 43, sub: Clause To Be Inserted in the Third
Soviet Lend-Lease Protocol, WDCSA Russia (Secret). (2) Ltr, Robert P.
Patterson, Actg SW, to Harry Hopkins, President's Soviet Protocol
Committee, 17 Apr 43, before JPS 28/D in ABC 400.3295 Russia (USSR), 8.
(3) Memo, Somervell for CofS [20 Apr 43], sub: Third Russian Protocol, WDCSA Russia (Secret).
9 Min, 88th mtg JCS, 22 May 43.
10 (1) Third Soviet Protocol, 19 Oct 43, Paper 89, Book 13, Exec
CCS Memo for Info, 161, 10 Nov 43, title: Third Soviet Protocol.
11 (1) Memo, Maj Gen James H. Burns, Exec, The President's Soviet Protocol
Committee, for CG AAF, 21 Sep 43, sub: Airplane Deliveries to Russia. (2)
Memo, Brig Gen Bennett E. Meyers, Actg .ACofS MM&D, for Chief, President's Soviet Protocol Committee, 28 Sep
Protocol Aircraft for the USSR. Both in AAF Foreign File, Russia No. 4521-B.
12 See Leighton and Coakley, Global Logistics and Strategy: 1943-45.
13 (1) State Department work sheets used in compiling Report on War Aid
Furnished by the United States to the USSR, November 28, 1945, Item
OPD Hist Unit File. (2) See also Motter, Persian Corridor and Aid to
Russia Table 1, App. A.
14 See, for example, ltr, Actg SW Patterson to President, 9 Dec 42, incl
to memo, Somervell for CON [7 Dec 42], sub: Dec Rpt to the President
Showing the Progress of the WD in Mtg the Second Russian Protocol, WDCSA
Russia 1942-43 (Secret).
15 The fascinating story of the U.S. Army experience in the Persian
Corridor-including relations of the Americans with the Russians, British,
and Iranians-is treated in Motter, Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia. For
the detailed story of lend-lease to Russia see Motter and also Leighton
and Coakley, Global Logistics and Strategy: 1940-1943, and Global Logistics and
16 Memo, Handy [for himself], 7 Apr 43, sub: Instrs from Marshall Prior to
Departure, Paper 51, Book 8, Exec 8. The instructions were given to
General Handy for transmission to Connolly shortly before Handy's
departure for an extended tour of the theaters.
17 (1) STM-30, 1 Jan 48. (2) See also, Motter, Persian Corridor and Aid to
Russia, Table 12, App. A.
18 (1) OPD Diary, 10 Dec 43. (2) OPD memo for rcd, appended to ltr,
Marshall to CG's AGF, ASF, etc., to Dec 43, sub: Establishment of Persian
Gulf Command, OPD 384 Middle East, 28.
For earlier suggestions along this same line, see memo, Wedemeyer for
Hull, 25 May 43, no sub, OPD 381 Security, 141; and msg, McNarney to
Eisenhower for Marshall, 27 May 43, CM-OUT 11444
19 For discussions of United States offer and Soviet reaction, see
especially Item 20, Exec 1 and OPD 381 Russia.
For a discussion of this episode and of the USSR in Anglo-American plans
and operations in 1942, see Matloff and Snell, Strategic Planning:
1941-42, Ch. XV.
20 Min, 56th mtg CCS, 14 Jan 43.
21 Quotation is from msg, Stalin to Roosevelt, 13 Jan 43, incl to memo,
Hammond, JCS, for Handy, 21 Jan 43, sub: Bradley Mission, Item 20, Exec 1.
See also: (1) OPD draft Msg [CofS to President], 7 Apr 43, Item 20, Exec
1; (2) min, 6th mtg CCS, President and Prime Minister at White House,
TRIDENT, 25 May 43, Official TRIDENT Conf Book; and (3) Ch. IV above.
22 (1) Msg, Roosevelt to Stalin, 8 Jan 43, Item 20, Exec 1. (2) OPD draft
msg [CofS to President], 7 Apr 43, Item 20, Exec 1. (3) Msg, Stalin to
Roosevelt, 13 Jan 43, incl to memo, Hammond, JCS, for Gen Handy, 21 Jan
43, sub: Bradley Mission, Item 20, Exec 1.
23 (1) William H. McNeill, America, Britain, and Russia, Their
Co-Operation and Conflict, 1941-1946 (London, Oxford University Press,
1953), pp. 27778, 324. (2) Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 734.
In August 1943 the State Department, in response to a request from Maj. Gen.
George V. Strong, G-2, forwarded to him a memorandum on the subject of
current indications of Soviet policy. The memorandum, not an official State
Department communication, was in General Hull's opinion an excellent paper.
It concluded that the Soviet Government was removing obstacles in the way of
a negotiated peace with a non-Nazi German government in the event that such
an act might be in accord with Soviet self-interest. From all indications
the paper was widely read by top Army planners. See memo, James C. Dunn,
Adviser on Political Relations, Dept. of State, for Gen Strong, 11 Aug 43, no sub, Paper 103,
Book 11, Exec 9, preceded by informal memo, Gen Hull for Gen Handy, 14
Aug 43, no sub, forwarding the State Dept. memo for General Handy, General Wedemeyer, and other top Army personnel.
24 Frederick C. Barghoorn, The Soviet Image of the United States (New York,
Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1950), pp. 60ff.
25 (1) OPD brief [for CofS, 7 Jun 43, sub: Revision of Current Military
Program, Item 18, Exec 1. The report of the Special Army Committee on
manpower, approved by the War Department, stated that if the USSR could
continue to contain the major portion of the German air and ground forces
and the Combined Bomber Offensive proved effective, the United States would
require about too combat divisions and supporting and service units, in addition to those of the other Allies, to bring about an unconditional
surrender of the Axis. See Ch. VIII, above. (2) Total Forces Required for
Completion of the War Size of the United States Army, Tab B to memo [OPD]
for ACofS OPD, 12 Jul 43, sub: Notes for Testimony before WD Procurement
Review Bd, Item 18, Exec 1.
26 Interim rpt by Sp Army Committee, 1 Jun 43, Revision of Current
Military Program, Item 18, Exec 1.
27 (1) SS tat [about 1 Jul 43], title: To Determine the Proper Course of
Action for the United Nations in the Event Russia and Germany Effect a
Compromise Peace in July or August 1943, Tab 131 in ABC 381 SS Papers,
Nos. 131-59 (7 Jan 43). (2) Memo, Embick for Marshall, 12 Jul 43, sub:
Informal Comments on OPD Paper on "Conduct of the War 1944-45," with Tab
111 in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos. 96-126/3 (7 Jan 43). (3) For similar
expressions on the joint level of reservations on Soviet policy, see JIC
129, 19 Aug 43, title: USSR Situation Capabilities and Intentions (as of 15
28 Paper, John Davies, 17 Sep 43, title: Policy Conflicts Among the United
Nations, with memo, Brig Gen John Magruder to Brig Gen Frank N. Roberts,
15 Dec 43, in ABC 092 (15 Dec 43).
29 Memo, G. C. M. for Handy, 30 Mar 43, no sub, WDCSA 381 Super
30 Memo, Col Ordway, .asst Exec OPD, for Col Roberts, 27 Aug 43, no sub,
Paper 107, Book 11, Exec 9.
31 SS 90, 8 Atlg 43, title: Conduct of the War in Europe, Tab 90 in ABC 381
SS Papers, Nos. 2-95 (7 Jan 43). A copy of this paper was distributed to
all U.S. officers who attended QUADRANT.
32 A brief description of these difficulties is given by Deane in
Strange Alliance, p.10. For an account of Admiral Standley's service in the USSR,
see William H. Standley and Arthur A. Ageton, Admiral Ambassador to Russia
(Chicago, H. Regnery Company, 1955)
The differences between General Faymonville and General Michela, and
General Michela's difficulties with the Soviets are reflected in the
exchange of messages between General Michela in Moscow and General Strong,
G-2, in Washington. See Item 20, Exec 1.
33 (1) Memo, Harriman for Marshall, 23 Sep 43, no sub. (2) OPD memo, CofS
for Harriman, 24 Sep 43, no sub. Both in Item 21, Exec 1. (3) Memo, CofS
for Harriman, 25 Sep 43, no sub, OPD 336 Russia, 28.
34 (1) Memo, Harriman for Marshall, 23 Sep 43, no sub, Item 21, Exec 1.
(2) See also msg, Harriman to Marshall, 2 Nov 43, CM-IN 1946.
35 Ltr, CofS to Deane, 1 Oct 43, sub: Letter of Instrs, Tab 1, Item 12,
General Deane actually knew of his appointment earlier. He himself drafted
an early version of his letter of instructions, which closely resembled
the final product. See: (1) informal memo, Deane for Handy, 28 Sep 43, no
sub, and incl draft ltr of instrs; and (2) memo, Deane for Handy, 29 Sep
43, no sub; both in Item 21, Exec 1.
36 (1) JCS 506/1, 5 Oct 43, title: Instrs for Members of U.S. Military
Mission to USSR. (2) Deane, Strange Alliance, p. 12.
37 Msg, Hamilton to Secy State, 3 Oct 43, Tab 9, Item 12, Exec 5.
38 For a
discussion of the work of the Deane mission and Soviet-American
collaboration during 1943-45, see Deane, Strange Alliance.
39 (1) Sherwood,
Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 749. (2) Churchill, Closing the Ring, pp. 277-83,
contains a discussion of the background of the Moscow Conference including
exchanges of messages among the three heads of government. (3) Hull,
Memoirs, 11, 1247-80, discusses in detail the political background of the
conference from the U.S. point of view.
40 Churchill, Closing the Ring, p. 278.
41 (1) JCS 506, 18 Sep 43, title: Instrs Concerning Duty as Military
Observer at American-British-Soviet Conf. (2) Deane, Strange Alliance, pp.
9-10. Deane learned of his own and Ismay's designation from a message sent
to London by the Prime Minister from Washington, shown to him
confidentially by the British secretary of the CCS, his colleague.
It was not unusual for members of the JCS to obtain information about the
contents of communications between the President and Prime Minister
informally from British sources. What was clone here by Deane and his
counterpart was often repeated by Marshall and Dill and exemplified the
close working arrangements that developed between the two staffs.
42 (1) JCS 506, 18 Sep 43, title: Instrs Concerning Duty as Military
Observer at American-British-Soviet Conf. (2) Min, 115th mtg JCS, 21 Sep
43. At this meeting the JCS approved JCS 506 with some modifications and
ruled that the paper was not to be taken from the United States. Its
contents were to be carried mentally by the military observer.
43 Admiral King was reluctant to have either Deane or Harriman reveal the
United States' Pacific plans. He felt that since the USSR and Japan were
at peace, discussion of Pacific plans was undesirable and unnecessary at
that time. See JCS 506/1, 5 Oct 43, title: Instrs for Members of U.S.
Military Mission to USSR.
44 JCS 506, 18 Sep 43, title: Instrs Concerning Duty as Military Observer at
American-British-Soviet Conf. As to arrangements for the post-hostilities
period, the JCS instructed the U.S. military observer that U.S. military
resources would be available and adequate to implement any organization
for maintaining international peace upon which the United States might
45 In this connection, see also the statements on the wartime role of the
Soviet Union contained in the document, "Russia's Position," taken by
Hopkins to the QUADRANT .Conference and quoted in Sherwood, Roosevelt
Hopkins, pp. 748-49. This document also advances the view that the Soviet
Union's position in postwar Europe would be "a dominant one" and that,
with Germany defeated, no power in Europe could oppose Soviet military
might successfully. No copy of the document, evidently representing an
informal, unofficial position, has been found in Defense Department files.
46 Memo, Handy for Deane, 24 Sep 43, sub: Difficulties of
Establishing a Second Front, OPD 381 Security, 217. The memo, and the
appended inclosure, grew out of the Chief of Staff's instructions to
General Deane to collect such data in advance of his trip. General Deane
requested OPD to prepare a short study covering bottlenecks in landing
craft, transportation, shipping, and so forth.
47 (1) Msg (originator OPD) to Hamilton for Faymonville and Michela, 2 Oct
43, CM-OUT 904.
48 For a description of General Deane's trip, see ltr, Deane, Moscow, to
Marshall, 29 Oct 43, before Tab 22, Item 12, Exec 5.
For the exchange of messages between the War Department and the theater
commanders in the course of the delegation's trip to Moscow, see the
series of exchanges filed with Tab 10, Item 12, Exec 5.
49 Other U.S. military representatives besides General Deane in the U.S.
delegation included General Vandenberg of the AAF Washington staff and
Cols. Harry H. McBride and Charles W. McCarthy, War Department liaison
officers with the State Department. State Department officials and
consultants included Green Hackworth, James C. Dunn, Dr, Matthew W. Perry,
and Charles E. Bohlen, the department's Soviet expert. See: (1) list,
Military Members of U.S. Delegation to Three-Power Conf [early Oct 43],
Tab 6, Item 12, Exec 5; (2) msg, Marshall to Connolly, 6 Oct 43, CM-OUT
2564; (3) msg, Marshall to Eisenhower, 6 Oct 43, CM-OUT 2345; and (4) msg,
Marshall to Royce, 12 Oct 43, CM-OUT 5200.
50 (1) Msg, Deane, Moscow, to JCS, 19 Oct 43, CM-IN 11822. (2) Ltr, Deane,
Moscow, to Marshall, 29 Oct 43, before Tab 22, Item 12, Exec 5. (3) JCS
Memo for Info 146, 13 Nov 43, title: Tripartite Conf, Moscow, 19-30 Oct
51 Deane, Strange Alliance, p. 19.
52 Rec of Mtg of Tripartite Conf Held at the Guest House of the People's
Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, Moscow, 20 Oct 43, Tab 20, Item 12, Exec
53 In connection with the disclosure of information on the OVERLORD
.build-up, delicate questions were soon to arise as to the extent of the
detail to be furnished the Russians, as well as the amount of
collaboration of the U.S. military mission with its British counterpart in
Moscow on such data. The problem of maintaining security, as well as
Soviet confidence in British and American intentions, was to concern War
Department, joint, and combined military authorities in late 1943, See:
(1) informal memo, T. T. H. [Handy] for Hull and Roberts, 24 Oct 43, no
sub, with CPS 61/D in ABC 381 BOLERO (3-16-42), 3; (2) memo, Gen Handy, ACofS OPD, for Capt Royal, USN, Secy JCS, 27 Oct 43, sub: Deane's Request for Periodic Rpt on OVERLORD, Item 69, Exec
10; (3) min, 125th mtg CCS, 29 Oct 43; and (4) memo, Sexton, SGS, for Secy JCS, 5 Nov 43, sub: Information Furnished to Russians, Item 69, Exec
54 Ltr, Deane, Moscow, to Marshall, 29 Oct 48, before Tab 22, Item 12,
55 (1) Rec of Mtg of Tripartite Conf Held at the Guest House of the
People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs, Moscow, 20 Oct 43, Tab 20, Item
12, Exec 9. (2) JCS Memo for Info 146, 18 Nov 43, title: Tripartite Conf,
Moscow, 19-30 Oct 43. (3) Msg 3, Secy State to President [21 Oct 43], Incl
B to JCS 546, 25 Oct 43, title: Swedish and Turkish Participation in the
56 Deane, Strange Alliance, pp. 20-21.
57 Msg, Deane to JCS, 22 Oct 43, CM-IN 13360.
58 See: (1) "Proposed Cable to General Deane (re CM-IN 13360, 22 Oct 43)"
by Gen Arnold, Incl B to memo, Capt Royal, USN, JCS for Adm Leahy, Gen
Marshall, and Adm King, 25 Oct 43, sub: Proposed Reply to General Deane's
Msg No. 7, 22 Oct, Tab 14, Item 12, Exec 5; (2) min, 120th mtg JCS, 26 Oct
43; and (S) msg, JCS to Deane, Moscow, 26 Oct 43, CM-OUT 11636.
59 Deane, Strange Alliance, p. 21.
60 For the following discussion on Turkey and Sweden at the conference,
see especially Msg 3, Secy State to President [21 Oct 43], Incl B to JCS
546, 25 Oct 43, title: Swedish and Turkish Participation in the War.
61 (1) The President directed that the Secretary of State's message be
turned over to the JCS for preparation of a reply. In turn, the JCS directed
the JSSC to draft a reply. See memo, Col Lemuel Mathewson for Adm Leahy, 21
Oct 43, no sub, Paper 37, Book 13, Exec 9. (2) On 22 October General Handy instructed
Colonels Roberts and Todd -Army planners-to study the Secretary of State's
message for matters to be brought to the attention of the JSSC. See memo,
T. T. H. for Roberts, 22 Oct 43, no sub, with Tab 14, Item 12, Exec 5.
62 (1) Memo, Roberts, Actg Chief SS OPD for ACofS OPD, 23 Oct 43, sub:
Studies on Sweden and Turkey, with Tab 164 in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos.
160-95 (7 Jan 43). (2) OPD Notes on JCS 546, [n.d.], prepared for JCS mtg,
26 Oct 43, Paper 84, Book 13, Exec 9. Similar points of view are contained
in the paper "Notes on JCS 546" filed with Tab 165 in ABC 381 SS Papers,
Nos. 160-95 (7 Jan 43). (3) See Ch. XI, above.
63 JCS 546, 25 Oct 43, sub: Swedish and Turkish Participation in the
War. Inclosure A of JCS ,46 is a report by the JSSC on the message of 21
October from the Secretary of State to the President.
64 (1) SS 164, 23 Oct .13, title: Sweden, Tab 164 in .ABC 381 SS Papers,
Nos. 160-95 (7 Jan 43). (2) OPD notes on JCS ,46, [n.d.J, prepared for JCS
mtg, 26 Oct 43, Paper 84, Book 13, Exec 9.
65 JCS 546, 25 Oct 43, title: Swedish and Turkish Participation in the
66 Memo, Col Todd for Capt Royal, USN, 26 Oct 43, no sub, Folder Oct
1944-USSR and Oct 1913Turkey, Item 22, Exec 17.
For .JSSC disagreement with the proposed War Department draft reply from
the President to Secretary of State, giving a definitive negative on
Turkey, see memo, Adm Willson for JCS, 26 Oct 43, sub: Entry of Turkey
into the War, Folder Oct 44-USSR and Oct 43-Turkev, Item 22, Exec 17.
67 (1) For the discussion in the JCS on Army and JSSC drafts of proposed
replies, see min, 120th mtg JCS, 26 Oct 43. (2) The draft of the JCS proposed reply from the
President to the Secretary of State is contained in JCS 546/1, 27 Oct 43,
title: Swedish and Turkish Participation in the War.
68 Hull, Memoirs, II,
1301. No copy has been found in Army files of the President's reply to
Cordell Hull. According to Admiral Leahy, the President had tentatively
approved the JSSC draft reply of 21 October 1943. Presumably, he also saw the final
draft prepared for him by the JCS (JCS 546/1) on the basis of revised JSSC
and Army views. See min, 120th mtg JCS, 26 Opt 43.
69 This description of the Soviet reaction is based on Deane,
Strange Alliance, pp. 22-23.
70 The Chinese Ambassador to the USSR, Foo Ping-sheung, was empowered by
the Chinese Foreign Office to sign for China. See Hull, Memoirs, II, 1306.
71 For a summary of political understandings reached at the
Moscow Conference, see: (1) Hopkins Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library; (2)
Annex to Secret Protocol of Conf, circulated as Annex 2 to Incl A of JCS
Memo for Info 146, 15 Nov 43; (3) Department of State, Publication 2423,
The Axis in Defeat: A Collection of Documents on American Policy Toward
Germany and Japan (Washington, Government Printing Office, n.d.), pp. 2-9;
and (4) Hull, Memoirs, II, 1280-1307. The Hull volume contains a detailed
first-hand account of the political discussions and agreements at Moscow.
72 (1) Msg, Secy State, Moscow, for President, 2 Nov 43. (2) Msg, Br COS
to Br Joint Staff Mission, Washington, and CinC Middle East, 8 Nov 43.
Both in Folder Oct 44-USSR and Oct 43-Turkey, Item 22, Exec 17.
73 (1) Msg, President to Harriman and Prime Minister, 4 Nov 43, Folder Oct
44-USSR and Oct 48-Turkey, Item 22, Exec 17. The appended penciled
notation, bearing General Marshall's initials, indicates that the message
was sent. (2) Msg, Marshall to Eisenhower, 13 Nov 43, CM-OUT 5480.
74 The question of the resumption of the convoys is treated in detail in Churchill,
Closing the Ring, pp. 256-96. See
also JCS 517, 2 Oct 43, title: Convoys to North Russia, containing the
Prime Minister's plan.
75 Msg, Harriman to Marshall, 2 Nov 43, CM-IN 1946.
76 Secretary Hull has since recorded that at a banquet on the last day
of the conference, 30 October, Stalin "astonished and delighted me by saying
clearly and unequivocally that, when the Allies succeeded in defeating
Germany, the Soviet Union would then join in defeating Japan." The statement
was "entirely unsolicited, and he asked nothing in return." So secret did
Hull regard this information that he sent it to the President, one half over
the Army code, and the other half over the Navy code. Hull, Memoirs,
77 Msg, Secy State to President, 31 Oct 43, Item 63c (2d part), Exec
For further references to the Soviet position on the relationship of the
Italian operations to the second front, see also, Harrison, Cross-Channel
Attack, p. 121.
78 Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, p. 439.
79 Churchill, Closing the Ring, pp. 289-93.
80 OPD draft memo, CofS for President, 8 Nov 43, sub: Conduct of the
European War, with Tab go in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos. 2-95 (7 Jan 43). This
sixth draft of a Strategy Section memo was taken by General Handy to the
SEXTANT Conference. An earlier version, dated 29 October 1943, is also
filed with Tab 90 in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos. R-95 (7 Jan 43).
81 Msg, Deane to JCS, 9 Nov 43, CM-IN 5951.
82 Msg, Deane to Marshall, 11 Nov 43, CM-IN 7461.
83 Memo, OPD for CofS, 10 Nov 43, sub: Message From Gen Deane With
Reference to Possible Russian Desire for Increased Activity in the
Mediterranean, Tab SS 181/1 in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos. 160-95 (7 Jan 43).
A notation, appended to the memo by Col. G. A. Lincoln of the Operations
Division, indicated that the OPD planners did not know whether General
Handy had discussed the memo with the Chief of Staff. General Handy had,
however, directed that the memo be taken by General Roberts, Chief of S&P
Gp OPD, and Army planner, to the SEXTANT Conference.
84 SS Study, 11 Nov 43, title: Operations in the Mediterranean, with Tab
173 in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos. 160-95 (7 Jan 48).
85 OPD draft memo for CofS, 12 Nov 43, sub: U.S. Course of Action at
SEXTANT in Case Conf Decisions Do Not Guarantee OVERLORD, With JWPC 103/D
in ABC 384 Europe (5 Aug 43), 1-A.
86 For Case C of RANKIN, see above, Ch. X.
87 (1) SS Study, 11 Nov 43,
title: Operations in the Mediterranean, with Tab 173 in ABC 381 SS Papers,
Nos. 160-95 (7 Jan 43). (2) OPD draft memo for CofS, 12 Nov 48, sub: U.S.
Course of Action at SEXTANT in Case Conference Decisions Do Not Guarantee
Overlord, with JWPC 105/D in ABC 384 Europe (5 Aug 43), 1 -A.
88 The observation was made by Colonel Lincoln, Acting Chief Strategy
Section, OPD, in reviewing changes since the Quebec conference. See memo,
Col G. A. Lincoln, for Col Roberts, 3 Oct 43, sub: JWPC Review of Adequacy
of QUADRANT Strategy, with JPS 253 in ABC 384 Europe (5 Aug 43), 1-A.
89 OPD draft memo, CofS for President, 8 Nov 43, sub: Conduct of the
European War, with Tab 90 in ABC 381 SS Papers, Nos. 2-95 (11 Jan 43).
This paper was taken to SEXTANT.
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