Bibliography Note and Guide to Footnotes
This volume was written from several groups of records kept by the War Department during World War II, interpreted with the help of a number of other sources, principally armed forces' histories and published memoirs. From these sources may be established long and fairly complete series of official transactions in 1943-44 dealing with strategic planning. Most of the material on which the account is based may be found in the massive collections of World War II records that are in process of transfer to the National Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration.
Primary Sources
Documents of several kinds were used in preparing this volume: (i) studies, plans, memoranda, reports, and other papers drawn up for use within the War Department; (2) correspondence of the War Department with the Navy and State Departments, with other U.S. Government agencies, and with the British Staff Mission; (3) messages to and from Army commanders in the field; (4) minutes of meetings of the Joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff and their subcommittees, and papers circulated for consideration at these meetings, including the bound volumes containing the papers and minutes of the plenary conferences-from Casablanca through OCTAGON-presided over by President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill; and (5) various records pertaining to the President-meetings at the White House, War Department correspondence with the President, and the President's own correspondence on military affairs with other heads of government. Each of the several groups of records in which these documents were found and consulted will be kept intact and in due course will be transferred to the National Archives of the United States. These records are described in detail in Federal Records of World War II, Volume II, Military Agencies, prepared by the General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Service, The National Archives (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1951) (hereafter cited as Federal Rcds).
While research ranged into every major category of the official records of the Department of the Army pertaining to strategic planning, most of the documents cited in this volume are in the records of the Office of the Chief of Staff (WDCSA) and of the Operations Division, War Department General Staff (OPD). Other records used include: (1) Office of the Secretary oŁ War (SW) and the Assistant Secretary of War (ASW) (Federal Rcds, pp. 68-77); (2) G-1, G-2, G-3, and G-4 of the War De-

partment General Staff (Federal Rcds, pp. 96-121); (3) Headquarters, Army Air Forces (AAF) (Federal Rcds, pp. 151-234); (4) Headquarters, Army Service Forces (ASF) (Federal Rcds, pp. 253-302); and (5) Office of The Adjutant General (TAGO) (Federal Rcds, pp. 63-67)
The files of the Office of the Chief of Staff covering the 1943-44 period are arranged according to the Army decimal system. Although the files are not large in comparison with those of other Army agencies, the collection contains many important documents that cannot be found elsewhere in Army files.
The records of the Operations Division in 1943-44 fall into four main categories:
(1) The official central correspondence file (OPD) is arranged according to the Army decimal system. In the field of strategy and matters of high policy, it is the most complete single collection of documents in the custody of the Army.
(2) The message center file is arranged chronologically in binders. This file is the most comprehensive collection of wartime radio messages outside the permanent file of the Staff Communications Office, Office of the Chief of Staff.
(3) In matters of joint and combined strategic planning, one of the most important collections. of World War II records is the Strategy and Policy Group (S&P Gp) file. It is arranged according to the Army decimal system and identified by the letters "ABC" (American-British Conversations). The file contains a virtually complete set of papers issued by the joint and Combined Chiefs of Staff and their subcommittees, with OPD drafts, comments,
and related papers. In addition to the Combined Chiefs of Staff (CCS) and Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) papers, those of the joint Strategic Survey Committee (JSSC), the Combined Staff Planners (CPS), the Joint Staff Planners (JPS), the Joint War Plans Committee (JWPC), and the Joint Logistic Plans Committee (JLPC) are the most valuable for the story of strategic planning in 194344. The ABC collection also contains the important studies on plans and strategy worked up by the Strategy Section of the Strategy and Policy Group.
(4) The Executive Office file (Exec) is an informal collection of papers on policy and planning compiled in the Executive Office of OPD, primarily for the use of the Assistant Chief of Staff, OPD. Since many of the documents in this file were considered of vital significance during the World War II period, their circulation was strictly limited and they cannot be found elsewhere in Department of the Army files. This file was informally arranged after the war into groups and assigned item numbers to permit easier identification.
The records of the Chief of Staff and of the Operations Division (with the exception of the Executive Office file) covering the 1943-44 period are located The Adjutant General's Office (DRB, in the Departmental Records Branch, TAGO), Federal Records Center, Alexandria, Virginia. The Executive Office file is at present located in the Office of the Chief of Military History.
A special group of records, invaluable for the story of high policy and strategy, is that contained in the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. In January 1942 there was established in the White House a communications center that came to

be known as the Map Room. Here were filed most of the messages sent or received by the President and his immediate staff concerning the conduct of the war and relations with Allies. The so-called Map Room papers are one portion (though an extremely important portion) of the papers of Franklin D. Roosevelt that are now in the Roosevelt Library. Also in that library are the papers of Harry Hopkins. The Roosevelt Library is administered by the National Archives and Records Service of the General Services Administration. Since permanent locational symbols are not yet available for use in citing individual documents contained therein, such documents are cited as being in the Roosevelt Papers or the Hopkins Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. Microfilm copies of some of the Roosevelt and Hopkins documents cited are in the possession of the Office of the Chief of Military History.
In the annotation of these sources, the type of communication is always indicated. Normally four other kinds of descriptive information are presented: originator, addressee, date, and subject. A file reference is not given for documentation that may be readily located and positively identified without one AG letters, messages in the Classified Message Center series, and minutes and paper of the JCS and CCS and their subordinate committees. AG letters can best be located by the decimal file classification and basic date; the classified messages can be located by the date and CM-IN or CM-OUT number in several file series; and the JCS and CCS papers and minutes can be found by the numbers assigned them by the TCS and CCS. The official files of the JCS and CCS are still under the control of the JCS (Federal Rcds, pp. 2-14).
Secondary Sources
There are few secondary sources that treat in great detail the topics covered in this volume, with the exception of the service histories and the memoirs written by the various participants in the events described. For this reason, no full formal bibliography of secondary works is presented. When such sources supplement or give evidence missing in official files, confirm or expand points of special significance, or provide background material of more than passing interest, they are cited in the footnotes.
Among the most valuable of the secondary sources consulted are the multivolume officially sponsored historical series dealing with the United States armed forces in World War II. These include published and unpublished works.
The author has often used the work of his colleagues who are writing the history of the U.S. ARMY IN WORLD WAR II. Among the most useful volumes, insofar as the history of strategic planning in 1943-44 is concerned, are the following, either published or in preparation:

In addition the author made use of the following manuscripts, now in the files of the Office of the Chief of Military History:
The U.S. Navy has not undertaken comparable research into strategic planning, but valuable work has been done on Navy plans in the classified monographs prepared in the Historical Section

of the joint Chiefs of Staff. The manuscript by Lt. Grace Persons Hayes, USN, on the war against Japan has been especially helpful. The following narratives of naval operations written by the skilled hand of Samuel Eliot Morison in the semiofficial series History of United States Naval Operations in World War II have also been consulted:
Army Air Forces
For the operations of the Army Air Forces, the indispensable secondary source is the series published by the Air Force, The Army Air Forces in World War II. The following, which contain concise summaries of the strategic planning back of the operations described, have been used to advantage:
  • Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate (ed.), Europe-TORCH TO POINTBLANK: August 1942 to December 1943, II (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1949)
  • Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate (ed.), Europe-ARGUMENT TO V-E Day: January 1944 to May 1945, III (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1951)
  • Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate (ed.), The Pacific-Guadalcanal to Saipan: August 1942 to July 1944, IV (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1950)
  • Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate (ed.), The Pacific-MATTERHORN to Nagasaki: June 1944 to August 1945, V (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1953)
  • Craven, Wesley Frank, and James Lea Cate (ed.), Plans and Early Operations: January 1939 to August 1942, I (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press, 1948)
On the British side, special mention should be made of the well-written and illuminating work by John Ehrman on grand strategy, August 1943-August 1945, to which the author had access in manuscript form. This work has been published in the official British History Series of the Second World War as Grand Strategy, Vol. V (August 1943September 1944) and Volume VI (October 1944-August 1945) (London, H. M. Stationery Office, 1956).
The volume could hardly have been written without the help of published works drawing on the recollections of prominent participants and official rec-

ords to which the author did not have access, notably:
  • Arnold, Henry H., Global Mission (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1949) Bradley, Omar N., A Soldier's Story (New York, Henry Holt and Company, 1951)
  • Butcher, Harry C., Capt., USNR, My Three Years With Eisenhower (New York, Simon and Schuster, 1946)
  • Chennault, Claire L., Ways o f a Fighter (New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1949)
  • Churchill, Winston S., The Second World War: Closing the Ring (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1951)
  • Churchill, Winston S., The Second World War: The Grand Alliance (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950)
  • Churchill, Winston S., The Second World War: The Hinge of Fate (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950)
  • Churchill, Winston S., The Second World War: Triumph and Tragedy (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953)
  • Clark, Mark W., Calculated Risk (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1g5o) Deane, John R., The Strange Alliance (New York, The Viking Press, 1947) Eisenhower, Dwight D., Crusade in Europe (New York, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1948)
  • Halsey, William Frederick, Admiral of the Fleet, and J. Bryan, III, Lt. Comdr., USN, Admiral Halsey's Story (New York, Whittlesey House, 1947)
  • Hull, Cordell, The Memoirs o f Cordell Hull, 2 vols., (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1948)
  • Kenney, George C., General Kenney Reports (New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1949)
  • King, Ernest J., and Walter M. Whitehill, Fleet Admiral King, A Naval Record (New York, W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1952)
  • Leahy, William D., I Was There (New York, Whittlesey House, 1950) Montgomery, Field Marshal Viscount of Alamein, Normandy to the Baltic (London, Hutchinson and Co., Ltd., 1947)
  • Morgan, Lt. Gen. Sir Frederick, Overture to Overlord (New York, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1950)
  • Sherwood, Robert E., Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (rev. ed., New York, Harper & Brothers, 1950)
  • Standley, William H., and Arthur A. Ageton, Admiral Ambassador to Russia (Chicago, H. Regnery Co., 1955)
  • Stilwell, Joseph W., The Stilwell Papers (New York, William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1948)
  • Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1948)
  • Vandenberg, Arthur H., Jr., The Private Papers of Senator Vandenberg (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1952)
For the purposes of this volume, the most useful of these memoirs and biographies are those dealing with grand strategy and high policy. On the British side, the volumes written by the masterful hand of Churchill are of enormous value to the student of war strategy and statesmanship. Not the least of their contributions are the primary material, especially on the British side, not readily available elsewhere. On the American side, Sherwood's book on Roosevelt and Hopkins, a vivid, often firsthand account, remains one of the best of the

published volumes on wartime strategy and policy. Equally meritorious, but less extensive, is the treatment of American strategy and policy in the midwar years, as viewed by the Secretary of War, contained in the account by Stimson and Bundy. Deane's volume, The Strange Alliance, is an accurate, interesting, and the most informative of the eyewitness accounts of Anglo-American and Soviet wartime collaboration that has yet appeared. Volume II of Secretary of State Hull's Memoirs is especially useful for topics of which the Secretary had firsthand knowledge, for example, the Moscow Conference of October 1943- Unfortunately, it is often not as full as the student would wish on war diplomacy in the midwar period, doubtless because President Roosevelt often functioned in these years as his own Secretary of State.
Useful, related accounts by the wartime members of the joint Chiefs of Staff are the memoirs of Arnold, Leahy, and King-the first especially informative on the Air side, and the latter two on the Navy side. Unfortunately, the memoirs of the fourth member, General Marshall, have yet to be written. Of the memoirs of the theater commanders, the most useful bearing on the European theater of operations is that of Eisenhower. The personal accounts by Bradley, Butcher, Clark, Montgomery, and Morgan are also helpful for phases of European and Mediterranean planning. For the war against Japan, the vivid accounts of Chennault and Stilwell proved valuable, as did, to a lesser extent, those of Kenney and Halsey.
Other useful secondary sources include published unofficial histories, official reports of the Chief of Staff and of the theater commanders, documentary reports, statistical reports, and special monographic studies. Some of the more valuable of these miscellaneous sources include:
  • Army Air Forces, Statistical Digest 1945 (Washington, 1945)
  • Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, July 1, 1943 to June 30, 1945 to the Secretary of War (Washington, 1945)
  • Bureau of the Budget, The United States at War, Development and Administration of the War Program by the Federal Government (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1946)
  • Department of Defense Report, The Entry of the Soviet Union into the War against Japan: Military Plans, 19411945 (Washington 1955)
  • Feis, Herbert, The China Tangle (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1953)
  • McNeill, William Hardy, America; Britain, and Russia, Their Cooperation and Conflict, 1941-1946 (London, Oxford University Press, 1953)
  • Mountbatten, Vice-Admiral the Earl, Report to the Combined Chiefs of Staff by the Supreme Allied Commander, Southeast Asia, 1943-1945 (London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1951)
  • STM-30, Strength of the Army, 1 January 1948 (Washington, 1948)
  • U.S. Air Force, Statistical Digest, 1947 (Washington, 1957)
  • Wilmot, Chester, The Struggle for Europe (London, Collins, 1952)
Among the growing list of unofficial published histories useful as background studies of special phases of the general

subject of strategy, policy, and international relations are the volumes by Feis, Wilmot, and McNeill. Feis's work is a straightforward, balanced effort to unravel the China tangle. Wilmot's account of European strategy and diplomacy, presenting a postwar version of the British wartime strategic case, is highly readable and provocative, though its use of evidence and its interpretations are sometimes questionable. McNeill's work represents an interpretative approach to the wartime relations of the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union-in their political, military, and economic aspects. The resultant synthesis is somewhat uneven-brilliant use of secondary materials and challenging interpretations at some points, but suffering from an obvious lack of access to primary materials at others.
A useful review of the War Department's activities in the later war years is contained in the Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff for 1943-45, with its helpful supplementary atlas. Mountbatten's Report is a postwar account by the Supreme Allied Commander in Southeast Asia in the later war years, shedding light on British plans and operations in that area. The Department of Defense Report is an informative, documentary survey of the problem of Soviet entry into the war against Japan in military planning from Pearl Harbor to the surrender of Japan in August 1945. The United States at War is a valuable survey of the administration of U.S. war programs, particularly in the various phases of economic mobilization. Indispensable tools for the study of wartime military manpower and aircraft and troop deployment are the USAF statistical digests and the strength of the Army reports-particularly the Air Force Digest of 1947 and STM-30, 1 January 1948, both of which contain corrected series of statistics of the war years.

Return to the Table of Contents

Search CMH Online
Last updated 1 June 2004