Note on Sources
The word which best describes the source materials available on the post-World War II occupation of Germany is awesome. The combat operations of the war left well-structured, if often extensive, records and after the victory became the subject of interest primarily of two relatively small fraternities, the memoir writers and military historians. The occupation, on the other hand, involved the White House, the War Department, State Department, and Treasury Department, the EAC, the JCS and CCS, SHAEF, USFET, OMGUS, the tactical commands, military government in the field, and a bewildering array of commissions, committees, divisions, and branches. The records are massive. The published Monthly Reports o f the Military Governor, U.S. Zone, for instance, by themselves make a set the size of a major encyclopedia. Considering the scope of the subject, however, the amount of systematic history written about it is rather surprisingly small. The reason may be that it is considered not sufficiently military to fit into the military history genre and too military to be treated as general history. The dearth in that one respect, however, has been more than made up for by the flood of memoirs, semi-memoirs, commentaries, criticisms, polemics, prognostications, and reportage in book form, in periodicals, both popular and scholarly, and in newspapers. The experience in Germany encompassed many fields of popular and academic interest, and the occupation engaged as participants more professionals in more various disciplines and more persons who felt intense political, social, or moral commitment than, probably, any other undertaking of the war period. To the publications in English, some of which antedate the surrender, must be added the German literature on the occupation which has been growing apace since the mid-1950s.
Consequently, the following note does not in any way aim to be either complete or comprehensive. It lists the official records that the author consulted and the published works he used. Some other works deemed useful for a study of the period have been included.
The one general comment that can be made about the groups of records pertaining to the occupation is that they defy categorization. Individually and collectively they are an archival smorgasbord. Where information on a specific subject or time period is likely to be found is all but impossible to predict. Within record groups, the decimal system frequently provides only the roughest guidance to the contents of files. Taken as a whole, the records reflect nothing so well as the haphazard evolution of the occupation itself.
Among the Washington-based military agencies and offices the ones principally concerned with the occupation were the joint Chiefs of Staff ( JCS ) , Combined Chiefs of Staff ( CCS ) , Assistant Secretary
of War (ASW) , Operations Division of the War Department General Staff (OPD), War Department Civil Affairs Division (CAD), and Provost Marshal General (PMG). The PMG records are the best source for early military government planning, organization, and training. The others cover the later planning and operations in Germany, but the picture they present is not complete without reference to the State Department and European Advisory Commission (EAC) documents and, for crucial months in 1944 and 1945, the Morgenthau Diary (see published sources listed below).
The Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), records are the chief source for in-theater planning, organization, training, and operations to July 1945. The SHAEF G-5 index alone lists 296 decimal numbers relating in some way to the occupation of Germany. Each decimal number represents one or more folders containing as many as several hundred pages of documents apiece. The G-5 Information Branch historical files embrace the whole history of military government and the occupation before and during the SHAEF period. They include information on the agencies in Washington and London; histories and monographs written by G-5 historians; G-5 records of the Army groups, armies, and the European Civil Affairs Division (EGAD) ; and the army group and army monthly historical reports. The SHAEF G-1, G-2, G-3, and Secretary of the General Staff (SGS) files all contain substantial numbers of folders pertaining to the occupation. The G-1 and SGS files, for instance, are the prime sources for information on nonfraternization.
The European Theater, US Army (ETOUSA), records, while not nearly as voluminous as those of SHAEF, have some valuable items on military government in the Historical Division files and in the Administrative History Collection and on U.S.-conducted war crimes investigations and trials in the Theater Judge Advocate fides. The most pertinent Sixth and Twelfth Army Group documents appear to have been incorporated into the SHAEF records. The First, Third, Seventh, Ninth, and Fifteenth Army G-5 files contain reports on military government operations in the field not to be found elsewhere, as do also the V, XII, XIII, XV, and XXIII Corps G-5 files. The XV Corps records also include a headquarters diary for the period 8 October to 10 December 1945 that appears to be a mislabeled Third Army diary. The USFET General Board in its investigation of the conduct of the war made several studies having to do with military government and the occupation in general.
For the period after July 1945, the main collections are those of the US Forces in the European Theater (USFET) and the Office of Military Government (US) (OMGUS). The USFET SGS file is possibly the best single source for the period before mid-1946. In addition to important post-July 1945 records, it contains significant 1944 and 1945 documents taken over from the SHAEF files. The OMGUS collection, which reportedly filled over 1,400 footlockers when it was shipped to the United States, is overwhelming in bulk and difficult to research. It has no indexes, and the shipping lists often convey only the vaguest impressions of the actual contents of the folders. Furthermore, in spite of its bulk it is limited as a source on policy- and decision-making. Nevertheless, it contains an enormous quantity of information, principally in the form of OMGUS divisional histories and monthly and annual detachment reports.
Long-standing gaps in the documentation of US planning and policy development for the occupation were filled in the late 19606 when the State Department published the 1944-1946 volumes of the Foreign Relations of the United States series and the US Senate Committee on the judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, put into print the Morgenthau Diary (Germany) (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967) . The Morgenthau Diary is not a diary in the conventional sense but a massive collection of minutes, transcripts, notes, and documents. The specific volumes in the Foreign Relations series referred to above are 1944, Volume I, General (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1966) ; 1945, Volume III, European Advisory Commission; Austria; Germany (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968) ; 1945, Volume V, Europe (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1967) ; and 1946, Volume V, The British Commonwealth; Western and Central Europe (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1969). Also essential to the history of the planning for the postwar treatment of Germany are the Foreign Relations series volumes Conferences at Washington, 1941-1942 and Casablanca, 1943 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968) ; Conferences at Washington and Quebec, 1943 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1970) ; Conferences at Cairo and Tehran, 1943 (Washington Government Printing Office, 1961) ; Conferences at Malta and Yalta, 1945 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1955); The Conference at Quebec, 1944 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1972) ; and The Conference of Berlin (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1960) .
The following are additional volumes of documents pertinent to the occupation:
Pollock, James K., et al., eds. Germany Under Occupation. Ann Arbor: G. Wahr
Publishing Co., 1949.
Ruhm von Oppen, Beate. Documents on Germany Under Occupation, 1945-1954. New York: Oxford University Press, 1955.
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. Selected Documents on Germany and the Question of Berlin, 1944-1961. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1961.
Taylor, Telford. Final Report to the Secretary of the Army on the Nurenberg War Crimes Trials Under Control Council Law No. 10. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1949.
US Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations. Documents on Germany 1944-1959. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1959.
US Senate, Committee on Foreign Relations. Documents on Germany, 1944-1970. Washington Printing Office, 1971.
Von der Gablentz, O. M., ed. Documents on the Status of Berlin, 1944-1959. Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1959.
Von der Gablentz, O. M., ed. Dokumente zur Berlin-Frage, 1944-1966. (Munich: R. Oldenbourg Verlag, 1967..
US Official Histories
A number of volumes in the US ARMY IN WORLD WAR II series bear directly on the occupation or on matters related to it. Harry L. Coles and Albert K. Weinberg, Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1964) , a compilation
of documents, is at once a major source on early military government organization and a history of civil affairs-military government operations in Europe outside of Germany. Charles B. MacDonald, The Last Offensive (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1973) , covers the military operations in Germany in 1945. Other volumes in the series that bear on the occupation are the following:
Cline, Ray S. Washington Command Post: The Operations Division. Washington:
Government Printing Office, 1951.
Coakley, Robert W. and Richard M. Leighton. Global Logistics and Strategy, 1943-1945. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1968.
Cole, Hugh M. The Ardennes: The Battle of the Bulge. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1965.
MacDonald, Charles B. The Siegfried Line Campaign. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1963.
Matloff, Maurice. Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1943-1944. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1959.
Pogue, Forrest C. The Supreme Command. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1954.
The organization and activities of the occupation forces are described in Oliver J. Frederiksen, The American Military Occupation of Germany, 1945-1953 (Karlsruhe: Historical Division, Hqs., USAREUR, 1953) . The planning for the postwar treatment of Germany is compactly presented in Harley A. Notter, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1949) . While not an official publication, William M. Franklin, "Zonal Boundaries and Access to Berlin," World Politics, 16:1, October 1963, written by the Director of the State Department Historical Office, is an excellent summary of the State Department view of the subject.
Manuscript histories are scattered throughout the records, particularly those of SHAEF, ETOUSA, and OMGUS. The Land detachment histories of the first year of the occupation, in the OMGUS files, are complete, detailed works. The others, valuable as they often are, are for the most part fragments. A notable exception is James L. Snyder, "The Establishment of the US Constabulary," in the Historical Division, ETOUSA records (apparently misfiled), which is, very likely, as authoritative an account of the subject as can ever be written.
Among the manuscripts held by the Center of Military History are thirty-eight monographs in the USFET-EUCOM (European Command) Occupation in Europe series. Written in Germany in the 1940s by Army historians, they range in subject matter from the planning for the occupation to PX operations. The Occupation Forces in Europe series also includes a set of multivolume annual histories. A most useful work is "The History of the Civil Affairs Division, War Department Special Staff, World War II to March 1946," written in the late 1940s from the division's files by CAD historians. Book I and Book VI, Edwin J Hayward, "Overall Civil Affairs History," and Richard M. Welling "Germany," are essential to the study of the occupation. Additional pertinent manuscripts in the CMH files are Edgar L. Erickson, "An Introduction to Military Government and Civil Affairs in World War II," and R. A. Winnacker, "The Office of the Secretary of War Under Henry L. Stimson."
British Official Histories
S. F. V. Donnison, Civil Affairs and Military Government Central Organization and Planning (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1966) and Civil Affairs and Military Government North-West Europe, 1944-1946 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1961) , in the United Kingdom History of the Second World War military series, deal from the British point of view with the same time period and many of the same events that the author has covered in the present volume. The Grand Strategy volumes in the United Kingdom series and C. R. S. Harris, Allied Military Administration of Italy, 1943-1945 (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1957 ), provide valuable collateral information.
Memoirs and Other Works
The World War II memoirs of nearly every high-level US or British military and political figure address themselves at some point to the question of postwar Germany. Those that touch most closely on the subject matter and time span of this volume are Henry L. Stimson and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1948) ; William, Lord Strang, Home and Abroad (London: Andre Deutsch, 1956) ; Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, 2 vols. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1948) ; Sir Frederick E. Morgan, Overture to OVERLORD (London: Hodder, 1950) ; and Harry S. Truman, Memoirs, Year of Decisions (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1955) . Lucius D. Clay, Decision in Germany (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1950) and Robert D. Murphy, Diplomat Among Warriors (Garden City: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1964) are especially notable because of General Clay's and Ambassador Murphy's positions in the occupation.
Among the works concerned specifically with the occupation it is frequently difficult to distinguish between types. Frank L. Howley, Berlin Command (New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1950) and Saul Padover, Experiment in Germany (New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1946) are clearly memoirs. John J. Maginnis, Military Government Journal, Normandy to Berlin (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1971) is an abridgment of a diary General Maginnis kept as a lieutenant colonel in World War II military government. On the other hand, B. U. Ratchford and W. D. Ross, Berlin Reparations Assignment (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1947) and John H. Backer, Priming the German Economy (Durham: Duke University Press, 1971) are books in which the author's personal experience is reinforced by research. Harold Zink, American Military Government in Germany (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947) is a history drawn from and colored by the personal experience of a professional historian who was a SHAEF G-5 and OMGUS historian.
Philip E. Moseley's articles, "Dismemberment of Germany, The Allied Negotiations from Yalta to Potsdam," Foreign Affairs, 28:3, April 1950, and "The Occupation of Germany, New Light on How the Zones were Drawn," Foreign Affairs, 28:4, July 1950, present the judgments of an eminent historian drawn from his experience as Chief of the State Department Division of Territorial Studies and as Ambassador Winant's political adviser in the EAC. Walter L. Dorn relied both on his
skill as a professional historian and on extensive personal knowledge acquired through service in the upper levels of military government in writing "The Debate Over American Occupation Policy in Germany in 1944-1945," Political Science Quarterly, 72:4, December 1972.
Two recently published histories of the occupation are John Gimbel, The American Occupation of Germany (Stanford Stanford University Press, 1968) and Franklin M. Davis, Come as Conqueror: The United States Army's Occupation of Germany, 1945-1949 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1967). Gimbel's thoroughly researched study is concerned primarily with policy and policy development. In an earlier book, A German Community under American Occupation, Marburg, 1945-1952 (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1961) , he described the effects of the occupation at the local level. Come as Conqueror, its author a former Army officer, is a popular account combining research and reminiscence. Some earlier works are Carl J. Friedrich, ed., American Experiences in Military Government in World War II (New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1948) , which gives the views of scholars who were also closely involved with the problems of military government and occupation; Eugene Davidson, The Death and Life of Germany (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1959); Hajo Holborn, American Military Government (Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1947) , which is a study by a distinguished historian who had first-hand experience with nazism and with the occupation; Edward H. Litchfield, ed., Governing Postwar Germany (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1953) ; Arthur Settel, ed., This is Germany (New York: William Sloane Associates, Inc., 1950) ; and John
L. Snell, Wartime Origins of the East-West Dilemma Over Germany (New Orleans Hauser Press, 1959) . Walter Rundell, Jr., Black Market Money (Baton Rouge Louisiana State University Press, 1964 ) and Constantine Fitz-Gibbon, Denazification (New York: W. W. Norton Company, 1969) treat in detail two aspects of the occupation that are also principal concerns of this volume. Henry Morgenthau, Jr., Germany is Our Problem (New York Harper & Brothers, 1945) and John Morton Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries: Years of War (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1967) shed light on the pre-surrender planning for the occupation.
Among the many Germans who have published memoirs dealing in some way with the occupation, the most prominent is Konrad Adenauer, whose Erinnerungen, 4 vols. (Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 1965-1968) , span the postwar period to 1963. Aside from the memoirs, the publications in German fall into three categories: histories, polemics, and--surprisingly-nostalgia. The histories, except for general works covering the whole postwar period, such as, Gerhart Binder, Deutschland Seit 1945 (Stuttgart: Seewald Verlag, 1969) , for the most part are intensively researched monographs. Examples are Karl-Ernst Bungenstab, Umerziehung zur Demokratie? Re-education-Politik im Bildungswesen der U.S.-Zone, 1945-1949 (Duesseldorf: Bertelsmann Universitaetsverlag, 1970) and Justus Fuerstenau, Entnazifizierung (Neuwied : Luchterhand Verlag, 1969) . Some of the works in the first category are also at least partial candidates for inclusion in the second. Otherwise, the second category is small, but it does include probably the most widely read book on the occupation published in Germany, Caspar Schrenck-Notzing, Charak-
terwaesche (Stuttgart: Seewald Verlag, 1965). Schrenck-Notzing freely interpreted a wide variety of secondary sources to attempt to demonstrate that the Roosevelt New Deal, having abandoned its liberal principles before the war began and turned to raw power politics, used psychoanalytic methods to "character wash" the Germans. The literature of nostalgia, by describing "how bad it was" seems to attempt to provide the Germans with a vicarious escape from the sameness of prosperity. Examples of the form are Ingeborg Drewitz, ed., Staedte 1945 (Duesseldorf: Eugen Dietrichs Verlag, 1970) ; Madlen Lorei and Richard Kirn, Frankfurt and die drei wilden Jahre (Frankfurt a. M.: Verlag Frankfurter Buecher, 1968) ; and Bernd Ruland, Geld Wie Heu and nichts zu fressen (Bayreuth: Hestia-Verlag, 1968) .
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