Bibliographical Note

The authors have obtained the bulk of the information used in the preparation of this volume from original records of the Army accumulated before and during World War II. Most of the Army records when consulted were in the custody of The Adjutant General's Office, but they either have been moved or eventually will be moved to the National Archives. The Army, Navy, and joint service records of the war period are described in Federal Records of World War II, Volume II, Military Agencies, prepared by the General Services Administration, National Archives and Records Service, The National Archives (Washington, 1951), to which the interested reader is referred for more detailed information about the numerous agencies concerned and their accumulation of records.

The files of the War Plans. Division (WPD) of the War Department General Staff, extending chronologically from 1921 to March 1942 (more or less), proved the most valuable single collection for the preparation of this work. The principal plans made and measures taken for hemisphere defense were developed in the period before Pearl Harbor, and the WPD files not only contain the broadest variety of information on the subjects treated but they also provide a key to other relevant collections. The WPD files, which have an excellent subject index, have been kept physically associated with those of the Operations Division (OPD), the general staff division that became the War Department's principal agency for planning and directing military operations from March 1942 to the end of the war. The OPD decimal files have been consulted extensively, and associated with them are many other records that proved to be especially useful, including two binders of Notes on Conferences in the Office of the Chief of Staff, the OPD Diary in many volumes, and particularly a group of miscellaneous files relating to military negotiations with the Latin American nations from 1940 onward (OPD Misc)-and among the latter the files of the joint Advisory Board (JAB) on American Republics that first became active in January 1941. A separate OPD Executive Office file (OPD Exec) contains much valuable data that supplements the regular series of WPD and OPD files, including a copy of a Diary kept by Brig. Gen. Leonard T. Gerow while Chief of the War Plans Division in 1941. The Army files relating to matters considered by the joint Board (JB), kept by the successor agency to OPD when the-authors consulted them, were also of some use.


The records accumulated by the Office of the Chief of Staff (referred to as OCS to March 1942, and WDCSA thereafter) have been second in importance only to the WPD-OPD collections. Although the three series of numerical OCS files are incomplete, and fragmentary indeed before 1940, they contain much useful data not readily found in other groups. The WDCSA files, arranged in two series (1942-43 and in 1944-45), are more voluminous but of less value for this work because they postdate the principal events recorded herein. In the Chief of Staffs records there are also about thirty-three binders of conference and miscellaneous notes for the 1939-42 period, separate binders on the emergency action measures of 1939-40, two binders of Notes on the Secretary of War's War Council meetings beginning in May 1941, and four binders that represent the Army file relating to Standing Liaison Committee (SLC) meetings between 1938 and 1943.

The central decimal files maintained by The Adjutant General's Office (AG) have been searched by the authors as a major supplement to the two groups of War Department General Staff records described in the preceding paragraphs. The theory that all official action papers eventually reach the AG files broke down in practice to a considerable extent after 1939,. but the AG files are nevertheless the most voluminous and comprehensive group of War Department records for the World War II period. Other departmental records used included those of the Secretary of War (SW) and of the Supply or G-4 Division of the General Staff. Besides the records of strictly War Department headquarters agencies, the authors have made some use of the files of General Headquarters United States Army (GHQ), pertaining to the planning and launching of operations before early 1942; of the records of the Army Ground Forces (AGF), which inherited GHQ's training functions; and to a small extent of those of the Army Service Forces (ASF). A few items were drawn from the papers of the Army War College (AWC), which suspended operations in June 1940. For the period after March 1942 the minutes of War Department General Council meetings were of some help, and a fairly complete set of these minutes has been kept in the General Reference Office of the Office of the Chief of Military History (OCMH). During work on this volume a good many records of tactical commands in the United States and elsewhere in the Western Hemisphere were examined, principally for use in preparation of a sequent volume to this one, and a few records of the Pacific coast's Western Defense Command (WDC) are cited herein.

To supplement the information available in Army records, the small blocks of files kept by American service members of the Permanent Joint Board on Defense, Canada-United States (PJBD), and of the Joint Mexican-


United States Defense Commission (JMUSDC or MDC) were examined in the preparation of Chapters XIII-XV. Some helpful gleanings were obtained in the Calendar of Hopkins Papers, prepared in connection with the writing of Sherwood's Roosevelt and Hopkins; the papers themselves are now in the Franklin Delano Roosevelt Library (FDRL) at Hyde Park, New York. There the authors obtained much greater help from pertinent records in the papers of Mr. Roosevelt, relating to the President's exercise of his broad powers as Commander in Chief of the U.S. Army. Permanent locational symbols are not yet available for use in citing individual documents in the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library. Such documents are therefore cited only as being in the Roosevelt Papers. Finally-and very important-the authors had access to relevant portions, for the years 1940-42, of the voluminous Diary kept by Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson.

German attitudes and actions toward the United States and the rest of the hemisphere were studied in the extensive collection of postwar interviews and statements of leading German participants, in OCMH files. The seven-volume translation of the Private Journal of General Franz Halder, the German Army's Chief of Staff until late 1942, was also valuable. Translations of contemporary entries by Dr. Helmuth Greiner in the War Diary kept by the German Armed Forces Operations Staff, National Defense Branch, and monographs by Dr. Greiner on the projected invasion of England (SEA LION) and capture of Gibraltar (FELIX), illuminated German plans during the latter half of 1940. Copies of the Halder and Greiner items have also been kept in OCMH files.

Through the courtesy of Capt. Tracy B. Kittredge, USN, the authors were able to use his incomplete but invaluable manuscript narrative, with extensive documentary annotation, entitled U.S.-British Naval Cooperation, 1939-1942, which permitted them to gain some appreciation of the naval background of hemisphere defense planning without undertaking a formidable additional research task. The service historical programs during and after World War II, both in Washington agencies and in field commands, left a huge record in the form of unpublished narrative histories, many of them still restricted as to use. Copies of most of them have been kept in the General Reference Office, OCMH. A number of these narratives have been cited in this work, and more of them have been studied for general background information. Those produced within the Caribbean Defense Command and its subordinate agencies have been particularly helpful. In respect to Brazil, the war history program produced two narratives, a one-volume ground Army History of the United States Army Forces South Atlantic, and a seven-vol-


ume Official History of the South Atlantic Division, Air Transport Command. Similar though less comprehensive monographs helped in preparing the chapters on military relations with Canada and Mexico.

Among printed sources, the natural starting points for almost any Army history of events before and during World Wax II are the Annual Reports of the Secretary of War to the President and the Biennial Reports of General George C. Marshall as Chief of Staff. On what happened before 7 December 1941, the thirty-nine volumes of testimony and documents printed as Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings Before the, joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack (Washington, 1946) contain a wealth of data that-has fascinated and frustrated a good many historians ever since its publication. The President's positions before and during the war are frequently indicated if not fully revealed in the ten volumes of The Public Papers and Addresses of Franklin D. Roosevelt, compiled by Samuel I. Rosenman (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1938-50), and in the two volumes entitled F.D.R.: His Personal Letters, 1928-1945, edited by his son Elliott Roosevelt (New York, Duell, Sloan, and Pearce, 1950). On the German side, the series entitled Fuehrer Conferences on Matters Dealing With the German Navy, reproduced in translation by the Office of Naval Information in 1947, helped considerably in understanding Hitler's as well as the German Navy's plans and attitudes in the period 1939-42.

A considerable amount of secondary material bearing on the defense of the Americas has been published in book, periodical, and newspaper form. The authors note here only the works most important and useful to their effort. In the series in which this volume is published, THE UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II, special mention is due to the following: Mark Skinner Watson, Chief of Staff Prewar Plans and Preparations (Washington, 1950); the study entitled "Origins of the Army Ground Forces: General Headquarters United States Army, 1940-42," by Kent Roberts Greenfield and Robert R. Palmer, in The Organization of Ground Combat Troops (Washington, 1947); Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, 1941-1942 (Washington, 1953); and Richard M. Leighton and Robert W. Coakley, Global Logistics and Strategy, 1940-1943 (Washington, 1955); and Stanley W. Dziuban, Military Relations Between the United States and Canada, 1939-1945, (Washington, 1959).

Very nearly as useful for the air and naval aspects of the story have been the first volume of the series The Army Air Forces in World War II, edited by Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, entitled Plans and Early Operations: January 1939 to August 1942 (Chicago, The University of Chicago Press,


1948); and two volumes in the History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, by Samuel Eliot Morison, Vol. I, The Battle of the Atlantic, September 1939-May 1943 (Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1947), and Vol. III, The Rising Sun in the Pacific, 1931-April 1942 (Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1948). Two volumes issued by the Navy's Bureau of Yards and Docks, Building the Navy's Bases in World War II (Washington, 1947), also helped to illuminate the Navy's participation in hemisphere defense. Military historians engaged in describing the involvement of the United States in World War II can obtain useful guidance from two volumes published by civilian agencies, one by the Civilian Production Administration, Industrial Mobilization for War: Program and Administration (Washington, 1947), and the other by the Bureau of the Budget, The United States at War (Washington, 1946).

The volumes published under the historical programs of the British and Canadian Governments parallel and supplement those of the United States at many points. The story of North American defense efforts would be indeed incomplete without Col. Charles P. Stacey's The Canadian Army, 1939-1945 (Ottawa, E. Cloutier, King's Printer, 1948) and Six Years of War: The Army in Canada, Britain and the Pacific, Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War (Ottawa, E. Cloutier, Queen's Printer, 1955). The most relevant of the United Kingdom histories are: J. R. M. Butler, Grand Strategy, Volume II: September 1939 June 1941 (London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1957); Capt. S. W. Roskill, RN, The War at Sea, Volume I: The Defensive and Volume II: The Period of Defense (London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1954-1957); and H. Duncan Hall, North American Supply (London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1955).

On the diplomatic background of the war the authors have used most extensively the solid volumes by William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, The Challenge to Isolation, 1937-1940 (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1952) and The Undeclared War, 1940-1941 (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1953). Robert E. Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins: An Intimate History (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1948), and Herbert Feis, The Road to Pearl Harbor (Princeton, Princeton University Press, 1950) have been helpful on many points. Among studies of United States relations with particular countries should be noted: John B. Brebner, North Atlantic Triangle (Toronto, Ryerson Press, 1947), and Howard F. Cline, The United States and Mexico (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1953). The two quasi-autobiographical works, Henry L. Stimson and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York, Harper & Brothers, 1947), and Cordell Hull, Memoirs, 2


volumes, (New York, The Macmillan Company, 1948), present honest if not always exhaustive accounts by two of the principals of this story. The first three volumes of Winston S. Churchill's The Second World War: The Gathering Storm, Their Finest Hour, and The Grand Alliance (Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1948, 1949, 1950) have been extremely useful as well as readable, although their autobiographical character must constantly be borne in mind. Edgar McInnis, The War, 6 volumes, (Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1940-46) and Dr. Roger W. Shugg and Maj. Harvey A. DeWeerd, World War II: A Concise History (Washington, The Infantry journal, 1946) are useful chronological accounts based on contemporary published sources.

Since Army records provided the authors' principal sources of information, a lengthier note of published works, including periodical and newspaper references of which no note is taken here, would be misleading.


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