Endnotes for Chapter XII
1 See Chapter IV.
2 See Chapter V.
3 For information about the organization for co-ordination of foreign sales see: (1) Memo, ASW and ASN for President, 30 Jun 39, SW 572; (2) Ltr, President to SW, 6 Dec 39, SW 676; (3) Memo, President for SW, 13 Dec 39, SW 681 (it was in this memo that the President overruled the objections of the Secre41taries of War and Navy to removing the co-ordination from ANMB); (4) U. S. Government Manual, March 1941 (Washington: GPO, 1941), P. 87.
4 Chapter V1.
5 For criticism of this transaction as a breach of international law see Edwin Borchard, "The Attorney General's Opinion on the Exchange of Destroyers for Naval Bases," The American Journal o/ International Law (Washington, D. C., October 1940), Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 690-97. Other aspects of the Attorney General's opinion are challenged in the same publication (pp. 569ff.) by Herbert W. Briggs, "Neglected Aspects of the Destroyer Deal." Quincy Wright, commenting editorially on the above articles (pp. 680-89), arrives at opposite conclusions. For text of the President's message to Congress on the destroyer transaction and accompanying papers, including the opinion of Attorney General Robert H. Jackson, see Cong Rec, 76th Cong, 3d sess, for September 3, 1940, pp. 17276-17279 (daily edition); also H Doc No. 943, 76th Cong. Note also Robert Sherwood's belief (in his Roosevelt and Hopkins (New York: Harper, 1948), especially p. 274) that Mr. Roosevelt was conscious of the possibility of impeachment for exceeding his Constitutional authority. Events leading up to the destroyers-for-bases transaction arc discussed in draft MS, Kittredge, U. S. Defense Policies, Ch. X, Sec. B.
6 Hull, Memoirs, I, 870.
7 Unused Memo, Actg ACofS J. W. A. (Col Anderson), WPD, for COPS, 13 Nov 40, sub: National Policy of the United States, WPD 4175-15.
8 See Chapter IV, latter part, for the events leading up to ABC.
9 This memorandum also listed the six designated British visitors, Maj. Gen. E. L. Morris, Rear Admirals R. M. Bellairs, former chief of plans, and V. H. Danckwerts, Air Commodore (later Vice-Marshal) J. C. Slessor, Capt. A. W. Clark, RN, and Maj. A. T. Cornwall-Jones. Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 26 Dec 40, sub: Army Representatives for Staff Conferences with Great Britain, WPD 4402. Canada, Australia, and New Zealand were represented at meetings of the British section but not in the joint meetings.
10 TAG Ltr to Maj Gen S. D. Embick, 30 Dec 40, sub: Army Representatives for Staff Conferences with Great Britain, WPD 4402.
11 Memo, Secy JB for JPC, 14 Dec 40, JB 325, ser 674.
12 Memo, JPC for JI3, 13 Jan 41, sub: Joint Instructions for Holding Staff Conversations, WPD 4402-1.
13 Rad, Military Attaché (Lee), London, to Military Intelligence Division, War Dept, 7 Jan 41, WPD 4402-1.
14 Notes of remarks by Col Truman Smith in office of CofS, 27 Jan 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 8.
16 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 14 Jan 41, sub: Staff Conversations with the British, WPD 4402-1.
17 Memo, President for SN, 26 Jan 41, WPD 4402-2.
18 Statement by CNO and CofS, 27 Jan 41. Copies in WPD 4402-94 and WPD 4402-89 (Gen Embick's set of Conference papers). Though dated 27 January there is evidence in accompanying papers to show that this was the statement actually presented two days later.
19 (1) Memo, President for SN, 26 Jan 41, WPD 4402-2. (2) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 27 Jan 41, WPD 4402-2.
20 Minutes of Plenary Meeting, British-United States Staff Conversations, 29 Jan 41, in Gen Gerow's papers relating to the Conference, WPD EX File, item 11 No. 4.
21 See Memos for CofS from Army representatives, 12 Feb, 20 Feb, 5 Mar 41., WPD 4402 to 4420.
22 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 5 Mar 41., sub: U. S. British Staff Conversations, WPD 4402-3. The quotation, above, is from the untitled accompanying enclosure.
24 (1) Memo, Secy Army Section (Lt Col W. P. Scobey) for members of the Army Section, 17 Mar 41, WPD 4402-3. (2) Memo, Secy Army Section for CofS, 19 Mar 41, sub: Staff Conversations, WPD 4402-3.
25 The United States-British Staff Conversations report (Short title ABC-1) with annexes, 27 Mar 41, and the air collaboration report (ABC-2), 29 Mar 41, are published as Exhibit 49, pages 1485-1550 of Part 15, the Hearings of the joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, 79th Cong, ist sess.
26 Ibid., p. 1488.
27 Ibid., p. 1489.
30 Summarized from text of ABC-1, paragraph 11, which is given in full on pp. 1489-90 of Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, Pt. 15.
31 Summarized from ABC-1, paragraph 12, given in full on pp. 1490-91 of Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, Pt. 15.
32 See Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, Pt. 15, p. 1491.
33 Msg, CNO to U. S. Naval Attaché at London, 20 Feb 41. Copy for information at CofS, U. S. Army, filed in WPD 4402-1. Also Memo of correction, ACof5 WPD to CofS, same date.
34 Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, p. 1491-92.
35 Ibid., p. 1492.
38 See n. 25.
39 Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, pp. 1494-95 and a 1497-1500.
40 Sec Chapter IV.
41 Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, Pt. 15, pp. 1501-02.
42 Ibid., pp. 1504-10. Note that on 1 October 1941 WPD was to report only one infantry division and no armored division ready (see Chapter XI, p. 358).
43 Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, Pt. 15, P. 1548 (ABC-2).
44 Ibid., p. 1548 (ABC-2).
45 Undated and unsigned memo prepared in WPD for use in connection with conferences of 16 April, WPD 4402-9.
46 Summarized, not quoted, from Memo, Col J. 'I'. McNarney for Gen H. H. Arnold, 7 Apr 41, sub: 'Staff Conversations, WPD 4402-7.
48 Ibid., summarized, not quoted.
50 Draft of Ltr, CNO and CofS to Special Naval and Army Observers in London, 4 Apr 41, sub: Tentative Approval of the Report of the United States-British Staff Conversations (ABC-1), WPD 4402-18. The substance of this letter, evidently drawn up at the time the appointment of observers was under con41sideraion, was subsequently delivered to the British Chiefs of Staffs Committee in London. Ltr, Special Naval (Ghormley) and Army (Lee) Observers to the Chiefs of Staffs Committee, 21 Apr 41, WPD 4402-14. A copy of the letter was handed General Chancy when he departed for London early in May. See notation on copy in WPD 4402-89, Part V.
51 Admiral King's order, in its relationship to larger aspects of strategy, will be referred to later in the chapter. This sequence of events at sea is recited by Samuel Eliot Morison, The Battle o/ the Atlantic (Boston: Little, Brown, 1947), pp. 56-58.
52 Ltr, CofS to CNO, 12 May 41, sub: Directive to Army Base Commanders, Newfoundland, Bermuda, and Trinidad, WPD 4351-98, copy in OCS 21160-67. Attached is the memorandum to WPD next referred to, signed " G. C. M." The t May memorandum is not on hand.
53 Ltr, Joint Secretaries Br JSM in Washington to U. S. Secretary for Collaboration, 9 Jul 41, sub: British Military Mission: Proposed Change in Nomenclature, WPD 4402-28.
54 Discussion of action leading to the establishment of the observers group is in: (1) Memo, Actg ACofS for CofS, 7 Apr 41, sub: United States Military Mission in London, WPD 4402-5. (2) Memo, Actg ACofS G-2 for CofS, 7 Apr 41, sub: United States Military Mission in London, WPD 4402-5. (3) Memo, Maj Gen S. D. Embick for Actg ACofS WPD, 5 Apr 41, sub: Military Mission, WPD 4402-5.
55 Ltr, CofS to Special Army Observer in London, 24 Apr 42, sub: Letter of Instructions, WPD 4402-5.
56 Cable, Special Observer, London, to TAG, 23 May 42, WPD 4402-5.
57 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 13 May 41, sub: Liaison with British Mission, WPD 4402-10.
58 For recital of this background see Morison, The Battle of the Atlantic, pp. 56-64. See also con41temporary newspapers.
59 Documents used for this summary narration are: (1) Notes of conference in office of CofS, 16 Apr 41 (early forenoon), CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 13; (2) Notes on later conference (11:25 A. M.) same day, place and file location. (3) Memo, CofS for SW, 16 Apr 41, same file; (4) Memo, J. W. A. (Col Anderson of WPD) for CofS, 16 Apr 41, sub: Strategic Considerations-Peace or War Status, WPD 4402-9.
60 Notes of conference in office of CofS, 16 Apr 41 (early forenoon), CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 13.
61 Memo initialed J. W. A. (Col. Anderson) for CofS, 16 Apr 41, sub: Strategic Considerations, WPD 4402-9. The "Digest of United States-British Staff Conversations" presented at the same time is the one recorded on P. 380 above.
62 From previously mentioned discussion of t 11:25 A. M. conference in office of CofS, 16 Apr 44, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 13.
63 Memo, CofS for SW, 16 Apr 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 13.
64 See Morison, Battle of the Atlantic, p. 61. Operation Plan No. 3 was mentioned earlier in this chapter in its relationship to the action of U. S. S. Niblack.
65 See Kittredge, U. S. Defense Policies, Ch. XIII, Pt. C, pp. 29-33.
66 Aide-mémoire, Rear Adm Danckwerts, 8 May 41, unaddressed, but bearing Gen Marshall's initials, WPD 4402-15. The inquiry to which it replied came from Admiral Turner, dated 25 April 41, President Roosevelt having previously asked the Navy Department for the information.
67 See personal Ltr, Admiral Stark to Admiral Hart, 22 Oct 40 (in Pearl Harbor Attack, Hearings, Pt. 16, p. 2448), and same to same, 12 Nov 40 (p. 2449).
68 Summarized Rpt of Conversations Held by Chief of Staff, U. S. Asiatic Fleet, with Netherlands East Indies Naval Authorities at Batavia, 10-14 Jan 41, WPD 4402-3.
70 Memo, U. S. Army Section for the CofS, 12 Feb 41, sub: Dispatch of U. S. Forces to Singapore, WPD 4402-1.
72 Later known as ABD.
73 Ltr, CofS to CG Philippines Dept, 2 Apr 41, sub: U. S.-British Staff Conversations. This letter is Tab B to Memo, Acts; ACofS WPD for CofS, 15 Apr 41, sub: Staff Conversations in the Far Fast, WPD 4402-8.
74 For an extended examination of this and other plans for the Philippine Islands see Louis Morton, The Fall of the Philippines, a volume now in preparation for this series.
75 Rad, CofS to CG Philippines Dept, 4 Apr 41. This is Tab C to Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 15 Apr 41, sub: Staff Conversations in the Far East, WPD 4402-8.
76 See n. 75.
77 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for TAG, 16 Apr 41, sub: Staff Conversations, W13D 4402-8.
78 Ltr, CG Philippines Dept to ACofS WPD, 2 May 41, sub: American-Dutch-British Conversations of April 21-27 1941, held in Singapore. This is incl B to Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 8 Jul 41, sub: Report of American-Dutch-British Conversations, Short Title-"A. D. B;' WPD 4402-18.
79 Incl with Ltr, Secy British Military Mission, without attached address, 3 May 41, WPD 4402-18.
80 (1) Memo, Gen Gerow, Actg ACofS WPD for COPS, 3 Jun 41, sub: U. S.-Dutch-British Staff Con41versations. (2) Grunert dispatch 1058 to TAG, 5 Jun 41. (3) Msg 993 WD AGO to CG Phil Dept, 7 Jun 41 (4) Msg 995 WD AGO to CG Phil Dept, 9 Jun 41. All filed in AG 380.3 (4-4-41 ).
81 This summary originally accompanied a to May Memo from Brig Gen Harry J. Malony, Actg ACofS WPD, to CofS, WPD 4402-18. It is a condensation of various points in the British telegraphed summary previously noted.
82 Memo, CofS (prepared in WPD by Col Bundy) for SW, 20 May 41, sub: Paper Presented by S. K. Hornbeck, Department of State, WPD 4402-18.
83 Ltr, Secy for Collaboration (Comdr L. R. McDowell) to Secy British Military Mission (Capt A. W. Clarke), 7 Jun 41, sub: Report of the Singapore United States-British-Dutch Conference April 1941. WPD 4402-18.
84 These British Chiefs of Staff suggestions appear as inclosures A and B attached to a note of the Secretary to the British Military Mission in Washington, 20 May 41, sub: Report of the Singapore American-Dutch-British Conference April 1941, WPD 4402-18.
85 This brief, filed in AG 380.3 (4-4-42 ), is attached to copy of a Ltr, CofS and CNO to Special Army and Navy Observers, London, 3 Jul 41, sub: Comment on the Report of the American-Dutch-British Con41versations, WPD 4402-28. While this letter was drawn up 3 July, it was not actually dispatched until 26 July. See notations on copies of Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for COPS, 21 Jul 41, sub: Report of American41Dutch-British Conversations, original in AG 380.3 (4-4-41) and copy in WPD 4402-18. The letter was six pages long. On 8 July General Gerow, WPD, forwarded to the Chief of Staff a letter from General Grunert, with which he agreed in opposing the Singapore report. Sec Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS. 8 Jul 41, sub: Report of American-Dutch-British Conversations, WPD 4402-18.
86 Ltr of 3 Jul 41, cited in n. 85.
87 Ltr, Special Army Observer, London, to CofS, 1 Sep 41, sub: Draft Agreement ADB (Revised), WPD 4402-18.
88 Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 17 Nov 41, sub: Draft Agreement ADB (Revised), WPD 4402-18.
89 Cable from Admiralty, London, to B. A. D. (British Admiralty Delegation), Washington, 5 Nov 41, WPD 4402-18 and AG 380.3 (4-4-41).
90 Cable, CNO to SPENAVO. London, 6 Nov 41. WPD 4402-18.
91 Ltr, U. S. Secy for Collaboration to the Joint Secretaries to British Joint Staff Mission, Washington, 11 Nov 41, sub: United States-British Commonwealth Cooperation in the Far East Area, WPD 4402-18 and AG 380.3 (4-4-41).
92 Acually the Admiralty set in train the necessary arrangements for producing detailed joint operating plans, but the action came too late. See Ltr, Joint Secretaries to British Joint Staff Mission in Washington to U. S. Secy for Collaboration, 26 Nov 41, sub: U. S.-British Commonwealth Co-operation in the Far East Area, AG 380.3 (4-4-41). For the development of PLENAPS see Louis Morton, The Fall of the Philippines, Ch. 1.
93 Eight bases for world peace following "destruction of the Nazi tyranny" were stated by Roosevelt and Churchill. See The New York Times, 15 Aug 41, p. 1.
94 Memo, Lt Col C. W. Bundy for CofS, 16 Aug 41, sub: Notes on Speech by the Prime Minister on USS Augusta, 9 Aug 41, WPD 4402-62.
95 General Strategy Review by the British Chiefs of Staff, 31 Jul 41. This was an inclosure to a letter from Col C. C. Hollis, Secy Chief, of Staff Committee, to CofS, 10 Aug 41, WPD 4402-62, revised copy in JB 325, ser 729, in ABC 381 (9-25-42) Section I.
96 Summary of selected parts of Strategy Review cited in n. 95.
97 Quotation from same Strategy Review.
98 The group included Harry Hopkins, W. Averell Harriman, Admiral King, and General Burns. See The New York Times, 17 Aug, p. 3.
99 Ltr, Col C. C. Hollis, Secy Chiefs of Staff Committee, to CofS, 10 Aug 41, WPD 4402-62. Duplicates were sent to Admiral Stark and General Arnold.
100 The notes referred to arc in a Memo of Lt Col C. W. Bundy for CofS, 20 Aug 41, sub: Notes on Staff Conferences, August 11-12, 1941, on Board Prince o/ Wales, WPD 4402-62.
102 On 9 August General Gerow had sent a radiogram to General Chaney in London informing him that the War Department was considering establishing groups in the British Isles and the Near East to administer Lend-Lease aid and to observe the use of American equipment. Chaney agreed it would be useful and Maj. Gen. George H. Brett of the Air Corps was sent to discuss the matters with General Chaney and thereafter to proceed to Egypt. See (1) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for TAG, 9 Aug 41, sub: Proposed Administrative Mission in Great Britain and the Middle Fast, WPD 4402-51; (2) Paraphrase of gable from Special Army Observer, London, 26 Aug 41, WPD 4402-51; (3) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for TAG, 2 Sep 41, sub as in (1), WPD 4402-51; (4) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 4 Sep 41, sub as in (1), WPD 4402-51; (5) Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for Mai Gen Chas. M. Wesson, 2 Sep 41, as in (1), WPD 4402-54. At about this same time General Burns, Lend-Lease Executive Officer, was urging that Lend Lease representatives be sent to England and the Middle East to supervise and assist in the handling of defense aid supplies. See (1) Memo. Gen Burns for SW, 8 Sep 41; (2) Memo, Gen Burns for SW, 13 Sep 41. Both in WPD 4402-72. Thereafter there came from representatives of the State Department, the Army, and the Air Forces a series of reports on wasteful British methods in Egypt. These (notably from Kirk, Fellers, and Gerow) were assembled as Tabs A to I accompanying Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, 10 Oct 41, sub: Unity of Command, British Forces in Middle East, WPD 4402-84.
103 Col Bundy's notes on Staff Conferences of Aug 11-12, as cited in n. 100.
104 Ibid. The 12 August notes, however, were based on Commander Sherman's recollection.
105 The New York Times, 15 Aug 41, p. 1.
106 The memoranda, undated, informally prepared, and in some instances unsigned, appear, along with General Gerow's recommendations, as inclosures to accompany a note for record by Col. Clayton Bissell, 31 Oct 42, sub: General Strategy Review by British Chiefs of Staff, WPD 4402-64. Included in the binder is a copy of the approved joint Planning Committee report directing final action on the Strategy Review, 25 Sep 41. The report was forwarded to the Special Naval and Army Observers with appropriate instructions for presenting its substance to the British Chiefs of Staff. See JB 325, ser 729.
107 Draft Memo, Actg ACofS WPD for CofS, Sep 41, sub: General Strategy-Review by British Chiefs of Staff, WPD 4402-64.
108 Sec paragraph 3d of Tab 2, Sec. II, p. III, Appendix II (Ultimate Requirements Air Forces Supporting Study) to Army and Navy Estimate of United States Overall Production Acquirements, 11 Sep 41, JB 355, ser 707. copy in AAG 381 (Bulky).
109 Memo, JB to Special Naval and Army Observers, London, approved 25 Sep 41, sub: Comment on "General Strategy Review by the British Chiefs of Staff," JR 325, ser 729, copy in WPD 4402- 64.
110 Memo, Mai H. S. Hansell, AC, for Gen Arnold, through Gen Chancy, 11 Aug 41, sub: An Air Estimate of the Situation for the Employment of the Air Striking Force in Europe (ABC-1, WPD 4402-61.
111 ist ind on 11 Aug 41 Memo of Maj Hansell (cited in preceding note) to CofS, 19 Aug 41, WPD 4402-61.
112 See Instructions from CofS and CNO to Observers in London, 12 Sep 41, WPD 4402-88. For history of negotiations on the use of code words see Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 23 Feb 42, sub: Code Name Index-Agreement with Great Britain, WPD 4402-88.
113 Rad, Special Naval and Army Observers to CofS and CNO, 10 Dec 41, WPD 4402-64.
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