Endnotes for Chapter X
1 Sec Chapter V for discussion of airplane supply in 1938-40. The history of foreign purchases of American-made munitions is complex, anti in this volume only phases pertaining to the Office of the Chief of Staff are mentioned. A useful record of events is provided in Historical Study "Activities of The Clearance Committee ANM19, and Defense Aid Division OUSW" in International Division Piles, Department of the Army, Drawer 3185.
2 Sec p. 304 below.
3 See n. 3, Ch. XII.
4 Memo, Executive WPD for Gen Kruger, 11 May 38, WPD 2091-36. See also OCS Tally Card 15270-428.
5 Sec Ch. V, p. 133, for account of this episode.
6 Senate Committee on Military Affairs, 76th Cong, ist sess, Hearings on HR 3791, pp. 127-28. This committee combed over every detail of the incidents relating to the French mission in hearings on six different days in January and February. It is remarkable that General Marshall, though Deputy Chief of Staff and intimately concerned with the matter, was not called upon to testity. In addition to the Herrings other sources are: (1) Edward R. Stettinius, Lend Lease: Weapon for Victory, pp. 14ff.; (2) Henry Morgenthau, "The Morgenthau Diaries," Colliers, 18 Oct 47, lip. 16-17; (3) Papers filed in envelope of CofS Conf files, marked "Statement before Senate Com. 1/28/38 French Air Mission"; (4) Papers filed in AG 452 (6-7-38).
7 Memo, DCofS (evidently for SGS), 22 Mar 39, sub: Joint Resolution on Sale of Ordnance to South American Republics, SJR 89, AG 400.3295 (22 Mar 39). See also OCS 21654, G-4/31317, and sources cited in n. 13 below.
8 Memo, DCofS for CofO, 3 Mar 39, OCS 15270-560.
9 Memo, Executive, ASW, for record, 11 Apr 39, sub: Prospective Procurement of Artillery from American Manufacturers by the French Government, SW files, 681.
10 (1) Memo, DCofS for ACofS G-2, 15 Apr 39, sub: Export of Allison Engines, OCS 15270-591. (2) Memo, Col J. H. Burns, Executive, ASW, for record, 19 Apr 39, sub: Prospective Purchase by the French of Allison Engines, SW files, 686. See also papers filed with the two documents here cited and papers filed in G-4/16494-313 and G-4/29070-2.
11 Memo, ASW and ASN for the President, 30 Jun 39, SW files, 811. For opinions in the Assistant Secretary's Office and in the Air Corps, see especially: (1) Memo, CofAC for Col H. K. Rutherford, OASW, 22 Jul 39, G-4/16494-47; (2) Memo, ACofAC for ASW, 26 Jul 39, sub: Proceedings of Aircraft Procurement Conference Held at Washington, D. C., July 10, SW files, 728a.
12 See Chapter IV.
13 Memo of conversation, 21 Feb 40, sub: Sale of Arms to Chile, SLC Min, 2 Feb 38-23 Dec 40, item 50. For other information on sale of arms to Latin American countries see items 19, 27, 33-35, 41, 45-50, and 63 in the same binder.
14 For papers relating to the drawing up of successive lists of surplus and the establishing of prices ace papers filed in: (1) AG 400.703 (2-20-40); (2) G-4/26057-2; (3) G-4/31654.
15 Endorsement of SW, 11 Mar 40, on Memo, ACofS G-4 for CofS, 9 Mar 40, sub: Sale of Surplus Ordnance Materiel to Foreign Governments, AG 400.703 (2-20-40) (conf).
16 Notes of conference in CofS office, 19 Mar 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3.
17 Notes of conference, 20 Mar 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3.
18 This policy statement was carried to the White House by General Marshall in company with Secretary Woodring and Mr. Johnson, and there approved, on 25 March 1940. Despite that date, the text of the policy and notes of the events are to be found in CofS files, Misc Conf, May 20-Sep 25, 1940, bndr 1.
19 The "160 pursuit planes" referred, presumably, to late types regarded as fully ready for duty. The Air Force reported at that time 459 fighters of all types. For the handling of the British plane requests see especially the following documents in CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr. 4: (1) Memo, CofAC for CofS, 17 May 40, sub: Sale of P-36 Type Airplanes; (2) Memo, CofS for Secy Treas, 18 May 40, sub: Release of P-36 Type Airplanes, Now in Service, to the British Government; (3) Memo, CofS for Secy Treas, 22 May 40, sub: Release of Bombardment Aviation Now in Service to the British Government. Copies of some of these, as well as related documents, are filed under OCS 15270.
20 Notes of conference held in CofS office, 20 Aug 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3, and Foreign Sales, bndr 4. For more on this episode and for a comprehensive discussion of the destroyers-for-bases transaction as a whole, see Kittredge, U. S. Defense Policies cited in Chapter IV, specifically Chapter X, Section B of that manuscript.
21 Memo, CofAC for CofS, 17 Sep 40, sub: Release of B-17 Type Airplanes, AAG 452.1B Sale of Planes Abroad.
22 Notes of conference in CofS office, 17 Sep 40, sub: Release of Planes to British, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3.
23 Entry of 17 Sep 40 meeting in CofS office, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3. Two months later Assistant Secretary of War Patterson, opposing an increase in British priorities, referred to "the President's instruction in regard to production on a 1-1 basis." Entry of 16 Nov 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 6.
24 Senate Appropriations Committee, 76th Cong, 3d sess, Hearings on HR 9209, 30 Apr 40, p. 38.
25 (1) Notes on "Decisions Reached in Office of Chief of Staff September 27" with accompanying "Notes on B-17, B-24 Situation." (2) Memo, SW, on conference with the President, 12 Nov 40. (3) Notes of conference between CofAC and CofS in office of CofS, 13 Nov 40. (4) Notes of conference between representatives of Atty Gen and CofS in office of CofS, 13 Nov 40. (5) Notes of conference between CofS, CofAC, and Gen Brett in office of CofS, 14 Nov 40. (6) Memo, CofAC for CofS, 30 Sep 40, sub: Export-Heavy Bombardment Airplanes and Sperry Bomb Sights. (7) Memo, CofAC for CofS, 2 Oct 40, sub: Change in Delivery Schedules of B-24 Heavy Bombers and 1820 Engines for Installation in B-17 Heavy Bombers. (8) Memo, CofAC for CofS, 14 Oct 40, sub: Reallocation of B-24 Heavy Bombers to the British in Exchange for R-1820 Wright Aeronautical Engines. (9) Memo, Col W. F. Volandt, AC, for Secy ANMB, 2 Nov 40, sub: Reallocation of B-24 Heavy Bombers. This contains a "review of the essential steps and decisions in connection with the subject." (10) Notes on conference in office of CofAC, 19 Nov 40, sub: Transfer of Boeing B-17 Heavy Bombers-British Purchasing Commission. (11) Certificate of CofS, 5 Dec 40, relating to the release of the B-24's. (12) Certificate of CofS, 17 Dec 40, relating to the release of the B-17's. These last two documents were in accordance with the Act of 28 Jun 40, Pub 671, 76th Cong, and the opinion of the Attorney General, 27 Aug 40. Items 1-5 above are in CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 6; items 6-12 are in AAG 452.1 B.
26 Notes of conference between CofS, CofAC, and Gen Brett in office of CofS, 14 Nov 40, COPS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 6.
27 Notes of conference between CofAC and CofS in office of CofS, 13 Nov 40, COPS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 6.
28 Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 14 Nov 40, sub: Effect of Turning Over to the British, WPD 4323-6.
29 Notes of conference in office of CofS, 9 Jan 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 8.
30 General Marshall's report of a 2 Dec 40 conference, CofS files, Notes on Conf, Emergency, bndr 6.
31 Memo, Col R. H. Brennan for SGS, on remarks of Sen Rush Holt of W. Va., 22 Oct 40, CofS files, Notes on Conf, Emergency, bndr 6.
32 Memo, Gen Arnold for Gen Marshall, 7 Nov 40, COB files, Notes on Conf, Emergency, bndr 6.
33 Ibid. Conference note is dated 13 November, though recording event stated to be on 7 November 1940.
34 Memo, Gen Arnold for Gen Marshall, 8 Jan 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, Emergency, bndr 8.
35 Memo, CofOrd for CofS, 22 May 40, sub: Availability of Ordnance Materiel for Release Without Adversely Affecting National Defense. The original, bearing notations of Generals Wesson, Moore, and Marshall and of President Roosevelt, is in CofS files, Emergency, bndr z. The basic list prior to this date was that of t March, a copy of which is filed with OCS 15270-896. That list mentioned 100,000 Enfield rifles (instead of 500,000), no .3o-caliber ammunition (instead of 100,000,000 rounds), 300 of the 75-mm. guns (instead of 500), 237 3-inch mortars (instead of 500). The figures for machine guns and mortar shells are not strictly comparable for the two lists. For General Marshall's reckoning of the surplus see his memorandum (April 49) for Historical Division, previously cited.
36 (1) Memo, CofS (presumably for the record), 25 May 40, sub: Regarding Release of Ordnance Materiel to the Allied Purchasing Agent, CofS files, Emergency, bndr 2. (2) Memo, CofS for WPD, ACofS G-4, and Gen Wesson, 23 May 40, sub: Sale of Airplanes and Ammunition to Allied Purchasing Agents, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4.
37 Memo, CofS for WPD, 23 May 40, sub: Sale of Airplanes . . . Ammunition, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4.
38 Laws relating to the sale, lease, or exchange of War Department property are systematically cited and summarized in papers filed in G-4/33184. General Moore's opinion on the legal question is in Memo, ACofS G-4 for CofS, 27 May 40, sub: Release of Certain Equipment and Munitions for Use by Foreign Governments, CofS files, Emergency, bndr 2. While this document is dated 27 May, General Marshall, in a memorandum of 25 May, indicated that General More had earlier prepared a similar memorandum that had been given to the Secretary of the Treasury. See Memo, CofS, 25 May 40, sub: Regarding Release of Ordnance Materiel to the Allied Purchasing Agent, CofS files, Emergency, bndr 2. Copies of the opinion of Green H. Hackworth for Secy State, 29 May 40, with related papers, are in AG 400.703 (5-28-40). The basic documents relating to the orders of the Secretary of War to proceed are: (1) Memo, SW for President, 31 May 40, AG 400.703 (5-28-40), and (2) Memo, SW for CofOrd, 5 Jun 40. Ord 400.3295 Misc. The legal basis for transfer of arms is discussed in a limited way in: (1) International Division, ASF, Lend-Lease as of September, 1945, Chapter II, and (2) Ordnance Historical Section: How the Ordnance Department Aided Britain after Dunkerque. A copy of (1) is in the files of Historical Division, SSUSA, and of (2) in the Ordnance Historical Section.
39 (1) Memo, AG for Cof0rd, 11 Jun 40, sub: Surplus Ordnance Materiel Available for Sale to Foreign Governments, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4. (2) Memo, SGS for CofS, 21 May 40, sub: Foreign Purchases of 75-mm. guns, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4. Contrary to the statement made in William L. Langer, Our Vichy Gamble (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1947), p. 6, it appears that the French were not granted any 75-mm. guns in 1940. Sec Disposition Slip, G-4, 11 Jul 40, sub: Replacement of Field Guns Shipped to Allies. G-4/29485-95, and Memo, ACofS G-4 for CofS, 6 Jun 4.0, sub: Surplus Ordnance Materiel Available for Sale to Foreign Governments, G-4/26057-2. There are related papers in the same file. See also Reports of the the Chairman of the Clearance Committee, ANMB, on Foreign Inquiries for Production of Munitions, particularly Nos. 32 and 38, AG 400.3295 (10-20-39).
40 Memo for CofS, 21 May 40, CofS files, Misc Conf and Info.
41 Memo, ACofS G-4 for CofS, 11 Jun 40, sub: Sale of 75 mm. Guns, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4.
42 Memo for Information of CofS, 11 Jun 40, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4.
43 Memo, SW for CofOrd, 11 Jun 40, sub: Surplus and Exchange Materiel, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4.
44 Disposition Slip, G-4, 11 Jul 40, sub: Replacement of Field Guns Shipped to Allies, G-4/29485-95. See also papers in Al. 472.1 (6-12-40) (conf).
46 Unused Memo, SW for President, with note, 17 Jun 40, WS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4.
47 Memo, SGS for AC'sofS, 14 Aug 40, WS files, Misc Conf and Info, May 20-Sep 25, 1940.
48 Notes on meeting in DCofS office, 20 Sep 40, CofS files, Emergency, Misc Conf, bndr 3. The following are listed as additional sources for information on the transfer of small arms ammunition in mid1940: (1) Memo, CofOrd for CofS, 22 May 40, sub: Availability of Ordnance Material for Release without Adversely Affecting National Defense, CofS files, Emergency, bndr 2. (2) Status of Caliber .30 Ball Ammunition (Pencil note: "Used by CofS 6/6/40"), CofS files, Emergency, bndr 2. (3) Memo, ACofS G-4 for CofOrd, 6 Jun 40, sub: Exchange of Deteriorated Ammunition (under Act of June 1, 1926), G-4/ 16110-6. This contains an accompanying 3-page Memo for the record and a copy of SW Memo of 5 June. (4) Ltr, Secy Gen Anglo-French Purchasing Commission to Chairman, Presidents Liaison Committee, 17 Jun 40, sub: Small Arms Ammunition, AG 400.3295 (6-17-40). Papers in the same file summarize all the transfers up through July. (5) Notes on conference in DCofS office, 23 Jul 40, COPS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3. (6) Memo, SGS for Gen Bryden and Gen Moore, 9 Aug 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3. (7) Memo bearing initials OCS, WBS, GCM, 16 Aug 40, sub: British Arms and Ammunition, CofS files, Foreign Sales, bndr 4. (8) Two sets of notes of conference held in CofS office, 20 Aug 40, CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3, and Foreign Sales, bndr 4. (9) Notes of conference in DCofS office, 17 Sep 40, COPS files, Misc Conf, bndr 3. (10) Memo, DcofS for CofOrd, 23 Sep 40, sub: Production of Small Arms Ammunition, G-4/31773 (likewise in OCS/13951-152). There arc two accompanying papers in this file. (11) Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for ASW, 3 Oct 40, sub: Production of Small Arms Ammunition, G-4/31773. (12) Office of CofOrd, Small Arms Ammunition, Vol. 2, pp. 321-32. Copy in files of Hist Div, SSUSA.
49 Entry for 16 Nov 40 in CofS files, Misc Conf, bndr 6.
50 Entry for 19 Feb in CofS files, Notes on Conf, Feb 1941, bndr 10.
51 Ibid., 6 Feb 41 and 25 Feb 41 entries.
52 An aide-mémoire was left with the President on 8 July 1940, the subject was discussed with the Cabinet, and the proposal was approved on 11 July. WPD 4340-3. For the rich fruit of this discussion see the joint Board's recommendations in October 1940 for full interchange of scientific and technological information JB 310, ser 661) and the corresponding agreement affecting Army, Navy, and National Defense Research Committee on 25 October, dealt with in James P. Baxter, Scientists Against Time, pp. 119ff.
53 Included in Memo, Gen Strong for CofS, dated only "October, 1940," WPD 4340-3. Also in records of the President's Liaison Committee, Record Group 169 in National Archives. See particularly folders labeled "Munitions Program" (Box 16) anti "Reports by Sir Walter Layton" (Box 11).
54 General Moore, as Deputy Chief, warmly supported the Chief of Ordnance in his insistence upon retaining the toy, the 155, and the 90-min. weapons. This stand arrayed him against the British consultants -and also against the Secretary of the Treasury who for some reason supported the British argument. General Moore won.
55 Memo, DCofS (Moore) for CofS, 25 Feb 41, JB 325, ser 692.
56 AG 381 (2-17-41) M-F-M. See related documents filed under OCS 21145- 13 and G-4/31752-1.
57 Ibid. The statement of objectives carrying this approval was circulated to the chiefs of arms, services. and divisions of the War Department General Staff in accordance with a 17 Feb 41 Memo, SGS for TAG, sub: Defense Objectives, OCS 21145-13.
58 Memo, Gen Moore for CofS, 25 Feb 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, Emergence, bndr 10, with related papers in JB 325, ser 692.
59 Approval noted in document attached to previously mentioned Memo of 25 Feb 41 also mentioned in 25 Feb 41 entry, CofS files. Notes on Conf, bndr 10.
60 In same conference of 25 Feb 41.
62 Memo (signed Gen Reybold) from SW to TAG, for transmission to CofOrd, 10 Mar 41. CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.
63 Office Order SW, 8 Apr 41, JB 325, ser 692. See also Ltr, SW to Chiefs of Divisions, 10 Apr 41, AG 020.1 (3-29-41) MM, Tab A.
64 In July 1940 the President had restricted the export of machine tools (SLC Min, 12 Aug 40, SLC bndr 1, item 55), but the domestic shortage continued SO acute as to be a factor in the Chief of Staff's call for the Strategic Estimate of 25 September 1940 and an ensuing warning from General Burns. Memo, Ex ASW for CofS, 4 Oct 40, sub: Plan for Coordinating . . . Machine Tool Requirements, AG 004 (10-4-40).
65 Meeting in CofS office, 9 Jan 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 8.
66 Meeting in DCofS office, 24 Jan 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 8.
67 Memo. Col R. H. Brennan, B&LP Br, for Col Ward, SGS, 7 Jan 41, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 8.
68 (1) Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for CofS, 13 Jan 41, sub: Report on HR 1776, G-4/32417. (2) Ltr, SW to Bloom, Chairman Committee on Foreign Affairs, HR, 14 Jan 41, G-4/ 32417.
69 See Memo, Col Aurand for Gen Moore, 12 Feb 41, sub: Conference with British Representatives, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 10. The memorandum was initialed by the Chief of Staff.
70 Meeting of 13 Feb 41 in office of DCofS, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 10.
71 Ltr, SW to President, 13 Feb 41, AG 400.3295 (2-13-41).
72 Memo, Secy Treas for Gen Watson, White House, 13 Feb 41, AG 400.3295 (2-13-41). This file also contains copy of the British list.
73 Memo, Col Aurand for Gen Moore, 15 Feb 41, sub: Conference on Method of Appropriation for Lend-Lease Bill, G-4/32697-1.
74 Notation on CofS tally card 21210-3.
75 The New York Times, 19 Feb 41, p. 6.
76 The negotiations are recorded in summary in Memo, Col Aurand for Gen Moore, 25 Feb 41, sub: Discussion with Regard to British Requirements, G-4/32247. The agreements on weapons types are discussed in Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for CofS, 19 Feb 41, sub: British Proposals Concerning Production, G-4/32575; Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for AG, 10 Mar 41, sub: Production for British Requirements, G-4/32575 ; and entry of 13 Mar 4l in CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.
77 Entry of 10 Mar 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.
78 Entry of 14 Mar 41 in CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.
79 Entry of 17 Mar 41, sub: Lend-Lease Bill, CofS files, Notes on Conf, bndr 11.
80 Memo, CON for SW, 20 Mar 41, OCS 17840-320.
81 Memo, Actg ACofS G-4 for DCofS, 7 Apr 41, sub: War Department Lend-Lease Policies and Action to Be Taken, G-4/32697 or AG 008 Lend-Lease (4-15-41). The latter contains the DCofS note of approval, 11 Apr 41. Also in JB 325, ser 692.
82 AG Ltr to Chiefs of Supply Arms and Services, 18 Apr 41, sub: War Department Lend-Lease Policies and Action to Be Taken, AG 008 Lend-Lease (4-15-41) M-D-M.
83 Memo, G-4 for Gen Moore, 7 Apr 41, JB 325, see 692.
84 G-4 Memo, 28 Apr 41, to which is attached WPB comment, both accompanying CofS recommendation to JB dated 14 May 41, JB 325, see 692.
86 Discussed at length in the succeeding chapter.
87 See Chapter XII.
88 Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 24 Sep 41, sub: Military Mission in the Middle East, appd by CofS same day, OCS 213261-1. See Memo, Gen Burns for SW, 4 Sep 41, no sub, G-4/32697-11. See also Memo, President for SW, 13 Sep 41, At; 400.3295 (8-9-41) sec 1. For dispatches from U. S. Minister Alexander C. Kirk, General Brett, and Col. Bonner Fellers, urging necessity of American personnel to supervise proper maintenance of American equipment then going to Egypt, see tabs of Memo, Gerow for CofS, 10 Oct 41, WPD 4402-84. For extension of Gen. Russell L. Maxwell's responsibilities to include naval projects in Red Sea area, see Memo, ACofS WPD for CofS, 20 Oct 41, sub: Responsibility of Chief of North African Mission, WPD 4511-15; also same for same on same subject, 21 Oct 41. Copies of both in OCS 21329-2. The work of the several missions here mentioned is related at length in other volumes of this series on the Mediterranean, Middle East, anti China-Burma-India Theaters.
89 See Joint Rpt of Clagett, George, McDonnell, to CofS, through CG Phil Dept, sub: Air Mission to China Covering 17 May-6 Jun 41, AG 380.3 (4-4-41) Staff Conference at Singapore. See also McDonnell's later Rpt, 24 Jun 41; Rad, Marshall to Grunert 1056, 25 Jun 41; Grunert reply, 28 Jun 41; Adams (TAG) to CG Phil Dept 1148, 19 Jul 41; Memo, Arnold, DCofS for Air, for CofS, 15 Jul 41, sub: Aid for China; Memo, R. P. Patterson, USW, for CofS, 19 Jul 41, sub: Co-ordination of Chinese Defense Aid, and many related papers, filed in Drawer 3187 of International Aid Division.
90 Memo, Actg SW (Patterson) for Gen Magruder, 27 Aug 41, sub: Instructions for Mil Mission to China, WD 334.8 Mil Mission to China (8-26-41) MC, OCS 21300-5.
91 Instructions of OAS to Gen Stilwell, 2 Feb 42, sub: Instructions as U. S. Army Rep in China, OCS 21367-7, with reference to Ltrs of SW to T. V. Sang, 23 and 29 Jan 41, and latter's reply of 30 Jan 41.
92 (1) Memo, ACofS W PD for CofS, 24 Sep 41, sub: Military Mission in the Middle East, OCS 21326-1. (2) Ltr, SW to Gen Maxwell, 21 Oct 41, sub: Ltr of Instructions, prepared in WPD anti appd by CofS, OCS 21329-3. (3) Ltr, SW to Secy State, 29 Oct 41, prepared in WPD, aped by CofS, OCS 21329-6 (this refers to President's directive to SW, 13 Sep 41).
93 Ltr, SW to Gen Greely, 5 Nov 41, sub: Ltr of Instructions, prepared by WPD and appd by CofS, OCS 21316-9. See account of mission by T. H. Vail Matter, The Persian Corridor anti Aid to Russia, awaiting publication in this series of volumes.
94 Memo, CofS for SW, 29 Aug 41, no sub, OCS 21302-10-B.
95 (1) Memo, Brig Gen S. P. Spalding, OEM, to SW, 8 Oct 41, no sub. (2) Memo, DCofS (Moore) for CofS, 13 Oct 41, no sub. (3) Memo, CofS for SW, 14 Oct 41, sub: Ordnance and Air Corps Mechanics for Russia, signed by Marshall. All in OCS 21302-19A.
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