Endnotes for Chapter III

1 Initially from the Dick Act, 1903.

2 See Report o/ the Commission Appointed by the President to Investigate the Conduct o/ the War Department in the War with Spain (in 8 Vols. Senate Document 221, 56th Cong, ist less, Washington: GPO, 1899) and, among the compact and highly readable unofficial accounts, Walter Millis, The Martial Spirit (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1931).

3 Sherman's removal of his headquarters to St. Louis was announced in GO 108, War Department, Adjutant General's Office, 3 September 1874. In his Memoirs (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1931 ed.), II, 440ff., Sherman gives a detailed account of conditions in the War Department that impelled him to move away, with President Grant's sympathy. Set also Liddell Hart, Sherman, Soldier, Realist, American (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1929), p. 417.

4 Among accounts of the early period are the Annual Reports of the Secretary of War, 1899-1903; statement of Col John McAuley Palmer, 9 Oct 19, in Hearings . . . Subcommittee of the Committee on Military Affairs, United States Senate, 66th Cong, ist and 2d sess . . . on S 2691, S 2693, S 2715 (Washington: GPO, 1919), Vol. II (also published, together with historical documents relating to the reorganization plans of the War Department, in Hearings . . . Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, 69th Cong, 2d sess, Washington: GPO, 1927); Maj Gen Otto L. Nelson, Jr., National Security and the General Staff (Washington: Infantry Journal Press, 1946), Chs. I-IV. This last work, while typographically confusing, is itself admirably documented; it is particularly useful for reference guidance and unexcelled as a compendium.

5 The dispute between the Chief of Staff, Gen Leonard Wood, and The Adjutant General of that day, Mai Gen Fred C. Ainsworth, is recorded at length in Report 508, 62d Cong, 2d sess and more briefly in Henry L. Stimson and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service (New York: Harper, 1948). H. L. Stimson, then in his first period as Secretary of War, initiated the disciplinary measures.

6 Annual Report of Chief of Staff 1916, p. 168.

7 Army and Navy journal, 13 Sep 19, p. 51, quoted by Nelson, op. cit., pp. 225-26.

8 Nelson, op. cit., pp. 225-26.

9 See Peyton C. March, The Nation at War (New York: Doubleday & Co. Inc., 1932).

10 General March was denied his proper retirement rank as general until several years after General Pershing received his own well-merited and unique tribute as General of the Armies. General Pershing's My Experiences in the World War (New York: Frederick A. Stokes  Co., 1931) and General March's The Nation at War present their respective views on the matters in dispute.

11 General Order 80 was issued 26 August 1918. It construed the act of 12 May 1917 as bestowing these powers on the Chief of Staff.

12 March, op. cit., p. 52.

13 The correspondence with accompanying discussion is found in Pershing, op cit., pp. 185-92.

14 This was by General Order 14, dated 5 February 1918.

15 See Nelson, op. cit., p. 235, for "Causes of War Department breakdown in World War I"

16 The abiding respect that General Marshall had for Mr. Baker's services, nineteen years after his Secretaryship was closed, was recorded in 1940. Memo, CofS for Gen F. M. Watson. military aide to the President, 14 Jun 40, sub: Letter from Maj S. P. Simpson, ORC, Harvard University, to Justice Felix Frankfurter, OCS 21097-6. Disagreeing with one of the letter writer's views. General Marshall wrote: "Mr. Baker in my opinion was the most effective secretary of War we ever have had and probably ever will have."

17 Johnson Hagood, The Services of Supply (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1927), P. 21.

18 Ibid., pp. 22ff.

19 In General Order 48, War Department, 12 August 1920.

20 AR 10-15, 25 Nov 21, sec I, I.

21 AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36, sec I, Ib.

22 AR 1-15, sec 1 (2), as revised 12 Dec. 27.

23 The first phases of reorganization planning are discussed fleetingly in Chapter IX. Fuller treatment will he found in a later volume.

24 AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36, sec 1, 2.

25 (1) Memo, ACofS G-1 for CofS, 3 Mar 39, sub: Additional Officers for WDGS, G-1/15466-12. (2) Gen Craig's Statement Made in Hearings on HR 5971, 76th Cong, in G-1/15466-12B. (3) Pub 172, 76th Gong, 14 Jul 39. Lesser rank did not hamper work within the division, it would seem, for in the years just before the war Col. (later Brig. Gen.) E. R. W. McCabe as Assistant Chief of Staff, G-2, initiated far reaching improvements in organization, planning, and procedure. Inadequate training regulations were replaced by a new series of Field Manuals, Special and Army Regulations systematizing combat and counterintelligence, mapping, technical intelligence, and psychological warfare. (See basic Field Manual: Military Intelligence, FM 30 series, 1940 issue; MID-SR 30-30; AR 380-5.) These had a deep influence on Army schools and training and became the guide for field intelligence activities in World War II.

26 Office Memo, OCS (signed by SGS at direction of CofS), 1 Nov 40, no sub, OCS 15758-53. This should be read in connection with matters discussed at length in Chapter IX, which deals with the progress of the air establishment.

27 AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36, sec 1, 3.

28 Among those serving as Secretary of the General Staff or associated in that office just prior to American entry in World War II were the following (with rank later attained): Gen. Omar N. Bradley, Gen. J. L. Collins, Lt. Gen. Walter B. Smith, Lt. Gen. Robert L. Eichelberger, Lt. Gen. Harold R. Bull, Lt. Gen. Edward H. Brooks, Maj. Gen. Orlando Ward, Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, Maj. Gen. John T. Lewis, Brig. Gen. Paul McD. Robinett, Brig. Gen. William T. Sexton, Brig. Gen. Robert N. Young, Brig. Gen. Stanley R. Mickelsen.

29 AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36, sec 1, 4.

30 Ibid., sec I, 7.

31 Condensed from AR 10-15, 18 Aug 3G, sec 1, 8.

32 Ibid., sec 1, 9.

33 Ibid., sec 1, 10.

34 Ibid., sec 1,II . The procurement of supplies, it must be remembered, was by statute a function of the Assistant Secretary (later the Under Secretary). For discussion of the origins of the division of supply responsibilities between Staff and Assistant Secretary see, in this series of histories, John D. Millett: The Role of the Army Service Forces, Pt. I, Ch. I, "The War Department Organization at the Beginning of World War II," awaiting publication.

35 AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36, sec I, 12. The several sections' purposes arc set forth in a summary of "definitions" in Memo, Col Ward, SGS, for the ASW, 8 Nov 40, OCS 15313/19.

36 For a full discussion not only of this point, but of how WPD worked, and how this whole Staff set-up was devised and altered to meet new needs, the reader is referred to Washington Command Post: The Operations Division, by Ray S. Cline, a volume now under preparation in this series.

37 WPD Memo, 24 Oct 36, sub: Duties of WPD of the War Department General Staff in War, WPD 1199-211.

38 Memo, ACofS WPD for ACofS G-1, 24 Feb 39, sub: Increase in Allotment of Commissioned Personnel for WPD, WPD 3354-25 or G-1/15466-12-B.

39 See n. 4.

40 See Chapter IX.

41 Nelson, op. cit, PP- 302-03.

42 GO 107, Hq of the Army, 30 Jul 03, Washington, and its Navy counterpart.

43 WD GO 94, 25 Jul 19, and its Navy counterpart. Sec Appendix B, Suspension of the Joint Board, in Jesse Douglas draft manuscript, Original Development of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Pt. I, JCS Hist Sec.

44 History of this is available in WPD Memo for ASW, 27 Aug 37, sub: Relations Between Army and Navy, WPD 3740-1. The air appointment is noted in JB 301, set 702, as having taken place on 9 July 1941 with approval by the President on 10 July.

45 JB Min for 1940, 21 Feb 40 entry.

46 Ibid.

47 Ibid.

48 Nelson, op. cit., pp. 328-29. On the other hand the student who examines the committee reports laid before the Army War College as late as 1939 will encounter extended studies leading to the conclusion that "the present War Department organization for supply, hospitalization, and transportation is sound and adaptable w wartime operation." Course at the Army War College 1939-1940, G-4, Report of Committee No. 1 on Organization of the War Department for Supply ..., 30 Nov 39, p. 4.

49 Memo, Gen Gerow for CofS, 19 Jun 41, sub: Enlargement of Functions of GHQ, WPD 3209-10.

50 Nelson, op. cit., p. 334.

51 Greenfield et al., The Organization of Ground Combat Troops; also Palmer et al., The Procurement and Training of Ground Combat Troops.

52 See Chapters V and VI, this volume.

53 Annual Report of CofS, 30 Jun 39, cited in Chapter II, p. 30.

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