Endnotes for Chapter X
1 As Rennell continued in his position as CCAO, 15 Army Group, he enjoyed a formal jurisdiction over Headquarters AMG in one of his two roles. This headquarters, however, reported to MGS, AFHQ, administratively. At this time the name AMGOT was superseded by AMG.
2 AFHQ and CCS thus agreed on the early merger of the Allied Commission with rear AMG, although AFHQ wanted it, as long as separate, to be under the military governor rather than the Control Commission. The idea of placing the rear zone of military government territory under the control commission apparently originated in September when MGS Outline Plan No. 7 was being considered. Spofford, together with Chanler, then proposed that in the second phase of military government the authority of the tactical commander be passed directly to ACC rather than to a National Headquarters under AFHQ as proposed by MGS. This plan, he considered, would make for better continuity of administration when the area was eventually transferred to the Italian Government. Memo, Spofford for Gen Holmes, MGS, 18 Sep 43, G-5 AFHQ Papers, in MTO, HS files.
3 On 23 October the CCS cabled that it agreed to let forward AMG continue under tactical authority.
4 The body of interested United Nations first envisaged at the Moscow Conference but not actually established until later, when it was called the Advisory Council for Italy. In contrast to the Allied Control Commission, the Advisory Council was from the outset envisaged as including the Soviet Union. The Soviet's preference for the latter is thus understandable.
5 The United States accepted Mr. Eden's proposals (see below, page 260, Note 10).
6 The message began by restating the expectation of ultimate merger of AMG and ACC as in the CCS message of 14 October, section 2 above. It added, however, as stated in note 3, that only rear AMG would be merged with the control commission.
7 Joyce was an American, thus providing a counterpart to the assignment of the military governorship to a British general.
8 On 1 November Murphy was made U.S. Political Adviser and U.S. member of the Advisory Council.
9 At the end of December 1943 the Council decided to give membership also to the Greek and Yugoslav Governments.
10 CCS Paper 453 points out that the United States representatives who were at the Moscow Conference considered that no understanding was reached at that conference substantiating Soviet claims to the right of representation on the Control Commission. Both the British and the Department of State believed it politically advisable, however, to defer to Soviet wishes, and the War Department had no objection. The question of representation for the French National Committee required longer consideration because it was not, like the Soviet Union, a party in behalf of the United Nations to the full armistice terms. CCAC files, 334, Contl Corn (9-17-43), sec. 1.
11 At this time, AMG Forward (AMG 15th Army Group) was responsible for all territory north of the provinces of Salerno, Potenza, and Bari (Region Three) and the small part of Region Four then in Allied hands. AMG Rear (Headquarters AMG) was in command of all territory (including Sicily) south of the northern boundaries of the above-mentioned provinces. It had not proved possible to develop a joint ACC/AMG headquarters at Headquarters AMG as was originally contemplated. AMG Admin Memo 2, 4 Dec 43.
12 It is interesting that Rennell is here questioning, from the vantage point of hindsight, the division of AMGOT which he himself recommended. (See above, section 1, his memorandum of 24 September.) To be sure, as he points out, his original recommendation was based upon the assumption that with an early capture of Rome extensive territory could be transferred to an Italian Government functioning effectively in the capital. Had there been this early transfer of territory, the areas of military government to be co-ordinated would have been much smaller.
13 The proposed directive here referred to is reproduced in the following document, dated 1 January 1944.
14 This advanced echelon of AFHQ was established at Naples in the middle of October and operated in economic matters through a so-called Central Economic Committee. See AFHQ Admin Memo 92, 19 Dec 43, above.
15 Fifteenth Army Group was brought on 18 January 1944 within the newly formed Allied Central Mediterranean Force. On 9 March 1944 the name was to change once again, to Allied Armies in Italy.
16 Wilson had succeeded Eisenhower as Allied CinC on 8 January, when the latter left for England to assume charge of Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, in preparation for the cross-Channel invasion. General Wilson's title was, on 9 March, changed to Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean Theater (SACMED).
17 The version of the issue in AFHQ was quite different. It was to the effect that MGS had wished ACC to assume more responsibility but was compelled-particularly in civilian supply--to run much of the show itself because of the unreadiness of the newly organized headquarters. In any case, MGS, after the amalgamation of AMG and ACC, was of much less importance in operational issues of Italy, although, in regard to the Mediterranean Theater as a whole, its importance increased and it was elevated in May 1944 to the status of C-5. See Robert W. Komer, Civil Affairs and Military Government in the Mediterranean Theater, OCMH, Chapter V, page 7
18 The section of AFHQ which was vested with logistical functions in Italy.
19 A board established under AFHQ for the utilization and conservation of Italian local resources for the Allied armed forces.
20 No scheme of organization could make everyone happy and, with the change to centralized control under ACC, Fifth Army AMG seems to have felt that its peculiar needs were not always understood. See History of AMG Fifth Army, 19 Jul 44, MTO HS files.
21 Message from War Department to General Eisenhower, 18 October 1943, states that the proposal of a U.S. Army officer as Deputy President was an American proposal and at variance with the British recommendation. CAD Msg files, CM-OUT 7851.
22 According to the statement of General Hilldring at a JCS meeting of 7 September 1943, the British insisted upon the senior economic and political positions and Secretary of State Hull acquiesced. (JCS files, Supplementary Min, 113th Mtg, 7 Sep 43.) The senior economic position, however, was shortly to pass to an American. In the January reorganization of ACC the Administrative and Economic Section was divided, and Henry F. Grady, President Roosevelt's nominee, became head of the Economic Section.
23 On 19 November the CCS approved General Eisenhower's proposal to appoint Admiral McGrigor. AFHQ Msg files, CM-IN 12062.
24 General Wickersham was reporting from Italy, where he was collecting from many sources data and impressions on Allied civil affairs policy and organization. Much the greater part of the evidence available seems to support his finding that British-American relations were good. On the other hand, see below for evidence of disagreements, particularly on alleged British predominance in ACC. Probably no generalization can be safely drawn except that the relationships were not so perfect that tensions did not occur, and not so bad that the working of the joint system was seriously impaired.
25 Dunn had already indicated that the State Department was also satisfied with the allocation of positions, although preferring that, if any reallocation was to be made, the position of Economic Director be allotted to the United States. CAD Memo, Burnett, CAD, to the Dir, CAD, 13 Jan 44, CAD files, 334, ACC, sec. I. A number of Americans in the theater did not share the satisfaction of the War and State Departments. Possibly at this time the Washington authorities were more interested in SHAEF and other issues pertaining to Northwest Europe than in Italy, where, as yet, few issues had arisen involving serious divergences in American and British policy. In June 1944, however, when General Mason-MacFarlane resigned as Deputy President, ACC, he was replaced by an American. See above, p. 252.
Last updated 18 February 2004