Endnotes for Chapter XXXII

1 ANC Hist, p. 321.

2 (1) Memo, Dir WAAC for CG ASF, 6 Apr 43. Folder, Planning Serv Notes, WAC Plng Serv file. (2) Memo, Dir WAC for Dir Mil Tng ASF; 21 Dec 43. SPWA 353.

3 Unless otherwise stated, all references are to ASF Hist of WAC Tag.

4 Rpt of 4th WAAC Tng Cen. Ft Devens, in Min, Stf firs Conú Chicago, 15-17 Jun 43. SPWA 337 (6-1-43).

5 1st O Florence Jepson, Ibid.

6 Memo. WAAC Hq for Dir Pers ASF 18 Jun 43. sub: Abandonment of 5th WAAC Tng Cen. SPWA 291.9 (6-18-43) O-O, in SPAP 353 WAC. Release was effective 30 Jun 43.

7 Hist of 4th WAAC Tng Cen. Looseleaf vol, WAAC Hist files.

8 Memo, Dir WAC for CG ASF, 16 Nov 43. SPWA 353. Also: (1) Memo. WD Manpower Bd for CofS 9 Dec 43, WDMB 324.5 WAC; (2) Ltr, DCofS to CG ASE 11 Dec 43, (incl to above); (3) Ltr, ASF to DCofS, 16 Dec 43, SPTRR 354.1 WAC (12-11-43). OCS 291.9 WAC.

9 Ltr, CO 3d WAC Tng Cen to Dir WAC, 15 Apr 44, with incl.

10 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 62-63.

11 Ibid., pp. 66-69.

12 Ibid., pp. 68-70.

13 Ibid., pp. 106-07.

14 Ibid., p. 64. Also Memo, 28 Aug 42, SPTRU 353.01 (8-27-42), cited in Unit and Replacement Training, by MTD ASE p. 16. OCMH. See Appendix t:, Course Content, for the various courses discussed in this chapter.

15 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 65, 71, 72.

16 Ibid., pp. 74-75, 87.

17 Memo cited n. 2(2).

18 Memo, MTD ASF for Dir WAC, 2 Jul 44. SPTRP 353 WAC, in WDWAC 353. Course was MTP 35-10, WD Mobilization Tng Program for WAC Enl Pers of ASF, 1 Jul 44.

19 ASF Hist of WAC Trig, p. 77.

20 Men: MTP 21-3, 1 May 44, cited in Unit and Replacement Training, MTD ASF, p. 38. OCMH. WAC: ASF Hist of WAC Trig, pp. 77-78.

21 Preston, Hist of Psychiatry in WAC, p 14. See also Memos cited n. 2.

22 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, p. 99.

23 TF 8-2093. Ibid., pp. 86-88.

24 Ibid., p. 79.

25 Memo, Dir Troop Trig Div MTD ASF for Dir WAC 6 Sep 44. WDWAC 353.

26 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 84, 89.

27 Ibid., pp. 81 98.

28 (1) Interv with Lt Col Helen H. Woods, 9 Oct 48. (2) M/R, 26 Jun 43, sub: Program Relative to WAAC Physical Tng. SPWA 353 (9-22-42), 1942.

29 Memo, 3d O Helen H. Woods for Dir WAAC, 11 Dec 42. SPWA 353 (9-22-42) Phys Tng.

30 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 91-92.

31 Memo, 2d O Donna Niles for 1st O Dorothea A. Coleman, Tng Plans Div WAAC Hq, 13 Jan 43. Sec also Ltr Dir Tng, Ft Des Moines, to WAAC Hq, 22 Sep 42. Both in SPWA 353 (9-22-42), 1942.

32 Min, WAC Stf Dirs Conf. Chicago, 15-17 Jun 43, SPWA 337 (6-1-43).

33 WDFM 35-20. 15 Jul 43. The manual was reproduced and sold by The Infantry Journal.

34 Ltr, Mabel Lee (Member, NCAC from University of Nebraska Department of Physical Education for Women) to Dir WAC, 13 Mar 45. WDWAC 720.

35 Min, NCAC Mtg, 16-18 Feb 45. Ft Des Moines. WD Library, also Hobby file. Action refused by Comment 4, ASF to G-1. 28 May 45. WDWAC 720.

36 See below. "Physical Training of Field Units."

37 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, p. 95.

38 Unit and Replacement Training, by MTD ASF, foreword and p. 21.

39 (1) Except for the errors common in the first months, whereby skilled stenographers inveigled their way into Motor Transport School or were erroneously assigned to fill quotas in Cooks and Bakers School. (2) For the more complete statement of General Marshall's opinion, see Ch. I, p. 20, above.

40 See AAF WAC Hist, Ch. 18. Also AAF Ltr, 50-47, 31 Jul 44.

41 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 343 and 348-49.

42 WAVE'S Hist, p. 100.

43 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 125-52.

44 (1) Ibid., Table VI: 19 classes of about 150 per month at Des Moines alone. (2) Quotation from Preston, Hist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 23.

45 ASF Hist of WAC Tog, p. 31.

46 Cooks Course is described in ASF Mist of WAC Tng, pp. 155-63. See also Preston, Hist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 18.

47 Interv with Miss Margaret E. Tackley, former director of the school, Lt USA Res, OCMH, 4 Mar 49.

48 WAAC Parodies, WAAC Publications Office, Ft. Des Moines, May 1943. Copy in OCMH

49 Course established by MTP 35- 10, 1 Jul 44.

50 Course discussed in ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 164-84. Exact attendance not given. Course established by MTP 35-10, 1 Jul 44.

51 Mai Eleanor Garber, in ASF Hist of WAC Tog, p. 177.

52 Ibid.

53 Preston, Mist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 28.

54 Ibid.

55 Course described in ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 185-97. Subjects, (C-1 to WTP 35-10).

56 SPMCT, 13 Sep 45, cited in ASF Mist of WAC Tng, p. 190.

57 Opportunity School discussed: ASF Hist of WAC Trig, pp. 200 18. Established: ASF Cir 88, 24 Sep 43.

58 Preston, Hist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 20.

59 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 219-28. Established by ASF Cir 76, 15 Mar 44. Opportunity School was ended by ASF Cir 147, 19 Mar 44.

60 Preston, Mist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 25 -27.

61 All OCS references unless otherwise stated from: (1) ASF I list of Mil Tng, Officer Candidate Training, MTD ASF. OCMH. Hereafter cited as ASF Hist of OCT. (2) ASF Mist of WAC Tng, pp. 254-98, and Tables XV and XVII, which do not agree exactly. Quotation from pp. 95- 46. (3) Figures from Statistical Sec, OCMH.

62 (1) Memo, Asst Dir MT D ASF for Dir WAC, 11 -Nov 44. SPTRP 352.11 WAC, in WDWAC 352. (2) Memo, Dir Troop Tng Div MTD ASF for Dir WAC, 5 Dec 44. SPTRP 352.11 WAC, in WDWAC 352.

63 Preston, Fist of Psychiatry in WAC, pp. 13-14.

64 ASF Hist of OCT, pp. 45-46.

65 Ibid., p. 93.

66 Min, Stf Dirs Conf, Chicago; 15-17 Jun 43. SPWA 337 (6-1-93). Also Memo, WAAC Hq for CofAdm Serv, 7 May 43. SPWA 314.8 (1-7-43)(1) sec 1.

67 Ibid.

68 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 199. 251.

69 (1) Preston, Hist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 21-22. (2) Interv, Col McCoskrie. Comdt. Ft Des .Moines, 29 Jan 46. (3) ASF Mist of WAC, Tng pp. 243-49. (4) See Cadre Training Course, Appendix E.

70 In SPWA 201.6 Mental Alertness Test (10-11-43): (1) Memo, TAG for Dir WAC, 17 Aug 13. (2) Memo, TAG for Dir WAC, 16 Dec 43. (3) Memo, Dep Dir for Dir WAC, 13 Jan 44. The WCT and GCT seemed about equal in predicting success in basic, OCS, and specialist schools: the MAT not so good. The R- I, a short test, seemed as good as the WCT-2 (85 percent received same disposition), and was there Core adopted for recruiting stations as a timesaver. The WCT and MAT- 2 were reserved for retests in cases where recruit failure seethed due to fright.

71 (1) ASF 1list of WAC Tng, p. 353; also see p. 114. (2) Hist of Ft Des Moines, 1 Jan-30 Jun 45. WD Lib, 000.4 Historical.

72 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, p. 113.

73 Ibid., pp. 102 03.

74 ASF Hist of OCT.

75 All in file of SGO Hist Div, unnumbered folders marked Capt Berlien: (1) Memos, Craighill for Bliss, 11 and 25 Mar 44. (2) M/R, SGO Med Stat Div, 6 Apr 44.

76 Ltr, Fred C. Haase to Dir WAC, 25 Mar 44 with Ind. Dir WAC to CG ASF, 1 Apr 44, and Rpt. IG 4th SvC to CG 4th SvC atchd. WDWAC 330.14.

77 Memo cited n. 2(2).

78 Investigations atchd to refs cited in ns. 73 and 76.

79 Memos cited n. 75(1).

80 (1) OQMG Ltr to all Tng Cens. 20 Sep 43, and all depots, 8 Apr 44. (2) ASF Cir 103, 14 Apr 44, Sec VII. (3) WD Cir 204, 23 May 44.

81 ASF Hist of WAC Trig, pp. 102 -03.

82 Ibid.

83 Congress had not authorized a WAC Reserve, in which recruits could have been held on inactive duty to stabilize inflow. See: (1) Hist cited n. 71(2). (2) ASF Mist of WAC Tng, pp. 344-45.

84 ASF Mist of WAC Tng, pp. 56-58.

85 (1) Ibid, pp. 58-59. (2) Ltr, Comdt 1st WAC Tog Cen to Dir WAC. 9 Mar 44. SPWA 333.1.

86 (1) Memo, Rctg Off for Dir WAC, 3 Mar 44. WDWAC 333.1. (2) Ltr, Gen White, G-1, to Rep. Francis Case, 9 Mar 44. WDWAC 330.14.

87 Ltr, Lt Virginia Williams to Dir WAC. 8 Feb 44. SPWA 330.14.

88 (1) Files of Air WAC Div, Hq AAF. ACofAS Pers, Recruiting. (2) AAF WAC: Hist, p. 70 n. 1. (3) Intervs with AAF WAC Off, and Capt Corene Brooks, AAF Ln Off, during 1946.

89 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 102-03.

90 Memo cited n. 80(1).

91 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 56 58.

92 ASF Hist of WAC Tng. pp. 58-59.

93 Memo. Dir WAC for CG ASF, 27 Oct 44. WDWAC 353.

94 AAF Ltr 80-27, 25 Sep 44.

95 Rpt, Lt Col H. P. Crane, GSC, to MPD ASF, 12 May 43. SPWA 319.1. Also see Preston, Hist of Psychiatry in WAC, p. 14.

96 (1) Rpt, Col Howard Clark, Chief, WAAC Opng Div, to Dir WAAC 27 May 43, sub: Visit of Info to 2d and 3d WA AC Trig Cens. WPWA 319.1. (2) Ltr, Col McCoskrie to Dir WAC, 9 Mar-14. SPWA 333.1.

97 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, p. 115.

98 In WDWAC 353: (1) Memo, Dir WAC for G-3, 4 Jul 44. (2) Memo. MTD ASF for G-1, 1 Aug 4-4, SPTRP 353 WAC (7-4-44). (3) Memo, MTD ASF for G-3, 14 Sep 44, SPTRP 354.1 WAC. (4) Memo, G-3 for MTD ASF, 17 Nov 44, WDGCT 322 WAC (8-24-44).

99 Ltr, Mrs. Elizabeth Strayhorn Walsh to OCMH, 14 Jun 50, with incl comments.

100 In the first class, a Waac scored fourth in a class of about 400. The best reported Wac record was in a later class: fourth in the General Staff Course (AAF Tactical subdivision), in a class of over 1,000.

101 WDBPR Release, 13 Oct 42.

102 Chemical Warfare Bull, Vol. 31, No. 2, Mar May 45.

103 Ltr, Chief, R&I Br, 7th SvC, to TAG, 12 Feb 44. SPKPI 353 WAC, in SPWA 353.

104 See Chs. XVI-XIX, above, for technical schools of the AAF, AGF, and ASE.

105 (1) Memo. SG for CG ASF, 30 Oct 43, and 1st Ind from MTD, 30 Nov 43. SPWA 353. (2) Ltr, ASW to Senator George L. Radcliffe, 14 Oct 44. WD 095 Bentz, Frank L. (Mrs.), in CofS 291.9.

106 (1) Memo, Sp Asst for Dir WAC, 8 Apr 44; (2) Memo. Lt Vera Mankinen for Mrs. Gruber, 28 Feb 44: (3) Memo, CG ASF for CofS, 7 Mar 44. WDWAC 353.

107 FM 21-5, WD, esp. par 94 of 1943 edition.

108 Whole discussion, unless otherwise specified, based on ASF Hist of WAC Tng, pp. 323-25.

109 MTP 35-1. Unit Tng Program for WAC Units in Field 21 Aug 43.

110 MTP 35-2. WD, 15 Oct 44. Notification to Director in: Memo, Dir Troop Tng Div ASF for Dir WAC, 23 Sep 44. SPTRP 300.8, in WDWAC 353.

111 Memo, Asst ASF WAC Off for MTD through MPD ASF, 29 Jun 45. SPAP 353 (5-17-43).

112 Min, Med Tng Conf; Ft Oglethorpe, 1-3 May 45, p. 14, in SGO Tng Div, unnumbered.

113 AAF WAC Hist, p. 42 and n. 1.

114 ETO Bd Rpt, Vol. III, p. 5, App. 114, Rpt of SGO Consultant for 1944; and pp. 69-70.

115 (1) Min, Stf Dirs Conf, Feb 45, Ft Des Moines. (2) Memo, ASF WAC Off for Dir Mil Tng ASF, 23 Feb 45. SPAP 353 WAC (5-17-43).

116 AAF WAC Hist, p. 42 and n. 1.

117 ASF Hist of WAC Tng, p. 330.

118 Min cited n. 115(1).

119 ASF Kist of WAC Tng, p. 339.

120 WD Tng Cir 62, 16 Jun 44 and 10 Oct 44.

121 Memo, Dir WAC for Dir Mil Tng ASF, 13 Apr 44. WDWAC 353.

122 According to Mai Mattie E. Treadwell, Asst Chief, WAC Br G-1.

123 (1) Memo, SGO Tng Div for MTD ASF 9 May 44. WDWAC 353. (2) Memo, SGO Consultant for Women's Health and Welfare for Dir WAC 18 Apr 44. WDWAC 353. (3) Memos, Dep Dir WAC: for Dir WAC, 20 May 44, and for MTD Ash: 22 May 44. WDWAC 353.

124 Cir cited n. 120.

125 Maj Gwendolyn Watson, AC, then WAC Stf Dir, AAF Mat Comd, Wright Field.

126 Including the author, who, although not having lost a single day from work during five years in the Army, was unable to arise from the floor after one half of one full dip. The AGF WAC Officer, who performed the experiment at the same time, achieved an identical result.

127 (1) Memo, Opns Serv SGO for MTD ASF. 3 Jul 44. SGO Hist Div 322.5-1. (2) Ltr. AAF ATSC, Wright Field, to Dir WAC through CG AAF, 21 Jul 45. WDWAC 720, 1945-46. (3) Memo, Asst ASF WAC Off to MTD ASF, 29 Jan 45. SPAP 353 WAC (5-17-43). (4) Poll of company officers. Files of Sch of WAC Pers Admin, WAC files, OCMH.

128 Min cited n. 112, p. 17.

129 Memo, Dir WAC for Dir Mil Tng ASF, 13 Apr 44. WDWAC 353.

130 Memo, ASF WAC Off for Dir Mil Tng ASF through Dir Pers ASF, 23 Feb 45. SPAP 353 WAC (5-17-43).

131 AAF Ltr 50-18 18 Jan 45.

132 Memo, MTD ASF for Dir Pers ASF; 2 Mar 45. SPAP 353 WAC (5-17-43).

133 Ibid. 1st Ind, Gen Dalton to MTD ASF; 13 Mar 45.

134 Ibid. 2d Ind. MTD to Dir Pers ASF, 22 Mar 45. See also Speech by Maj Smith, pp. 10-11. Min cited n. 120.

135 Above based on ASF I list of WAC Tng, p. 339, except for Colonel Bandel's opinions, obtained by interview.

136 (1) Memo, ACofAS Tng for G-3, 11 May 45; Comment 1, 17 May 45, G-3 to Dir WAC; Comment 2, 26 May 45, Dir WAC to G-3. AVACT-4, in WDWAC 353. (2) WD Tng Cir 31, 2 Jul 45.

137 (1) AAF Reg 50-34, 23, Jun 45 (effective 15 Jul 45). (2) AGF Ltr 461/150, (MTP) (24 Jun 45) GNGAP.

138 (1) Memos, Asst ASF WAC: Off for MTD ASF, 29 Jun 95, and no (late. SPAP 353 WAC (5-17-43). (2) Memo, Gen Dalton to CofS ASF, 12 Ju1 45. SPAP 353 WAC. This outlines briefly the entire history of negotiation discussed in this chapter.

139 (1) ASF Cir 289, 30 Jul 45. (2) ASF Cir 359, 25 Sep 45. (3) ASF Hist of WAC Trig, p. 354, final critique by Maj Smith.


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