Endnotes for Chapter XII
1 Code names were assigned by Allied authorities in advance of the conferences for reasons of security and convenience. The code names TRIDENT, QUADRANT, and SEXTANT-EUREKA were widely used. The Casablanca Conference also was given a less commonly used code name, SYMBOL. For use of the term SYMBOL see: (1) memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Maj Gen Handy, 8 Jan 43, sub: SYMBOL, before Tab A in SYMBOL: Casablanca Book (8 Dec 42 Jan 43), Vol. I-Strategy and Plans, Exec 6 (the term SYMBOL Books was applied by OPD to the volumes which it prepared for the Casablanca Conference); (2) CCS 170/2, 23 Jan 43, title: SYMBOL—Final Rpt to President and Prime Minister Summarizing Decisions by CCS. OPD officers on occasion also used the term "ANFA" to signify the Casablanca Conference. This term was derived from the name of the Anfa Hotel, which served as headquarters for the conferees and for the Anfa Camp.
2 In the course of congratulating the CCS on its work at the Casablanca Conference, the Prime Minister said it was the "first instance he knew of when military leaders had remained together so long, free from political considerations, and had devoted their full thought to the strategic aspects of the war. The President agreed to this. . . ." Min of ANFA 3d meeting CCS, President and Prime Minister, 23 Jan 43, Official Casablanca Conference Book.
3 For staff techniques at the 1944-45 conferences, see Ch. XVI.
4 For the effect of the midwar conferences on joint planning, see Ch. XIII.
5 The system followed in this chapter for dating the formal conferences of 1943 is simply to give the first and last meetings of the CCS at each conference.
6 For early consideration of a high-level conference, see: (1) msg, Prime Minister for President, 4 Dec 42, Item 11, Exec 1; (2) msg, Prime Minister for President, 20 Dec 42, Item 63, Exec 10.
7 (1) Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Gen Marshall, 2 Jan 43, no sub, with Paper
4 in ABC 016 (23 Jan 43), 2. (2) Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Lt Gen S. D.
Embick, 2 Jan 43, no sub, Paper 4 in ABC 016 (23 Jan 43), 2.
For distribution of these books of staff papers, including the preparation of a book for the President, see: (1) memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Maj Gen Handy, 8 Jan 43, sub: SYMBOL: Casablanca Book (Dec 42-Jan 43), Vol. I—Strategy and Plans, Exec 6; (2) memo, Col R. N. Young SGS for Capt J. L. McCrae, 9 Jan 43, no sub, WDCSA 381 (SS), 1.
8 SYMBOL: Casablanca Book (Dec 42-Jan 43), Vol. I—Strategy and Plans, Exec 6. For a special supplement of this volume prepared within OPD for the use of General Wedemeyer in connection with the preparations for Casablanca, see OPD study filed in ABC 016 (23 Jan 43), 3. This special supplement is divided into strategy, policy, intelligence, and miscellaneous subjects.
9 See especially Tab "European Theater K" in SYMBOL: Casablanca Book (Dec 42-Jan 43), Vol. II—Command and Deployment, Exec 6.
10 SYMBOL: Casablanca Book (Dec 42-Jan 43), Vol. III—Places and Personalities, Exec 6.
11 Memo, Lt Col T. W. Hammond, Jr., JCS for Col R. N. Young, 9 Jan 43, sub: SYMBOL Agenda, WDCSA 334 JCS (JCS) SS.
12 Memo, Maj Gen Handy for Gen Arnold and Gen Somervell, 7 Jan 43, sub: Proposed Agenda Submitted by British CsofS for (SYMBOL), with Paper 8 in ABC 016 (23 Jan 43), 2.
13 Min of White House meeting, 7 Jan 43, Item 45, Exec 10.
14 Min sp meeting JCS-President, 16 Jan 43, in Official Casablanca Conference Book.
15 For these CCS discussions on the issue of cross-Channel versus Mediterranean operations, see especially: (1) min 55th meeting CCS, 14 Jan 43; (2) min 58th meeting CCS, 16 Jan 43; (3) min 60th meeting CCS, 18 Jan 43.
16 (1) Pers ltr, Brig Gen Wedemeyer to Maj Gen Handy, 22 Jan 43, Paper 5, Item 1A, Exec 3. (2) Msg, Brig Gen Wedemeyer to Col R. N. Young for Maj Gen Handy, 17 Jan 43, CM-IN 7912.
17 For General Hull's appointment to this CCS subcommittee, see min 61st meeting CCS, 19 Jan 43. For the final decision of the President and Prime Minister concerning a communique for the press, see min 67th meeting CCS, 22 Jan 43.
18 CCS 170/2, 23 Jan 43, title: SYMBOL—Final Rpt to President and Prime Minister Summarizing Decisions by CCS. In the pattern of Pacific operations which were outlined, the Aleutians were to be made as secure as possible, advances were to be made from Midway toward the line Truk-Guam and from the South and Southwest Pacific toward Rabaul. In regard to China, eventual reopening of the Burma Road was accepted as an objective, but not for the immediate future.
19 For the announcement of agreement on the unconditional surrender concept, see The New York Times, January 27, 1943, quoted in United States and Italy 1936-1946, Dept of State Publication 2669, European Series 17, pp. 40-41.
20 For the Prime Minister's use of the phrase, see copy msg 195, Prime Minister for President, 18 Nov 42. The message was included as part of JCS 153, 18 Nov 42, title: Plans and Opns in Mediterranean, Middle East and Near East.
21 Pers ltr, Brig Gen Wedemeyer to Maj Gen Handy, 22 Jan 43, Paper 5, Item 1A, Exec 3. For the bearing of General Wedemeyer's remarks on joint strategic planning, see Ch. XIII.
22 For trips to the theater, see Ch. XV.
23 For the reorganization of the joint committee system, enacted by the chartering or rechartering of joint agencies in early May, see Ch. XIII. For a statement of the prevailing opinion within the American service planning agencies that the United States had been insufficiently prepared for the Casablanca Conference, see JPS 272, 26 Apr 43, title: Agenda for Next United Nations Conf.
24 Min 79th meeting JCS, 10 May 43.
25 OPD brief, title: Notes . . . 76th meeting JCS, 27 Apr 43, Opns Subsequent to "HUSKY" (JCS 271), with JCS 271 in ABC 384 Post HUSKY (14 May 43), 1.
26 For JCS instructions to the JPS, see: (1) min 76th meeting JCS, 27 Apr 43; (2) memo, Capt F. B. Royal, USN, Deputy Secy for Secy JPS, 28 Apr 43 sub: Opns Subsequent to "HUSKY," with JPS 169/D in ABC 384 Post HUSKY (14 May 43), 1.
27 For example of submission of an OPD plan to the JPS, see memo, Brig Gen Hull for Gen Marshall, 3 May 43, no sub, Item 15, Exec 3.
28 TRIDENT Revision of SYMBOL: Casablanca Book (Dec 42-Jan 43). Vol. I—Strategy and Plans, Logistics and Command (1 May 43); Vol. 11 Theaters: Command and Deployment (7 Apr 43); Vol. III—Theaters: Western Hemisphere and Pacific only (1 May 43), Exec 6. A revision of 7 April Vol. II was later put out by OPD under date of 25 May 1943, Exec 6.
29 Min 79th meeting JCS, 10 May 43.
30 (1) Memo, Brig Gen Hull for Brig Gen Wedemeyer. 5 May 43, no sub, with Paper 37, Book 9, Exec 8. (2) Penciled notation, Col Gailey, 5 May 43, appended to memo (Brig Gen J. R. Deane] for Admiral Leahy, Gen Marshall, Admiral King, and Gen Arnold, 4 May 43, sub: Conduct of Coming Conf, with Paper 37, Book 9, Exec 8.
31 Msg (originator OPD), Brig Gen Hull to Gen Marshall to Gen Eisenhower for Maj Gen Handy, 7 May 43, CM-OUT 2928.
32 For the discussions on British and American views on the cross-Channel versus Mediterranean issue at TRIDENT, see especially: (1) min 1st White House meeting, TRIDENT, 12 May 43, Official TRIDENT Conference Book; (2) min 83d meeting CCS. TRIDENT, 13 May 43; (3) min 84th meeting CCS, TRIDENT, 14 May 43; (4) min 84th meeting CCS, TRIDENT, 15 May 43.
33 Ltr, Brig Gen Hull to Maj Gen W. C. Lee, 101st Div, Airborne Parachute, Fort Bragg, N.C., 20 May 43, Paper 78, Book 9, Exec 8.
34 Annex B, title: Analysis of Servs of the S&P Gp Preliminary to and During the TRIDENT Conf, atchd to memo, Lt Col L. J. Lincoln for Col Roberts, 15 Jun 43, sub: Working Stf to Accompany Planners to Next Combined Conf, with JPS 189, Tab 2, in ABC 337, 25 May 43.
35 Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Gen Marshall [about 13 May 43], no sub, with Paper 72, Book 9, Exec 8.
36 OPD brief, title: Notes . . . 83d meeting JCS, 17 May 43, with Tab 1, Folder 1, Item 10, Exec 5.
37 Min 83d meeting JCS, 17 May 43.
38 CCS 242/6, 25 May 43, title: Final Rpt to President and Prime Minister. The
decision to eliminate Italy was to be reviewed in the summer of 1943 in the
light of the progress at that time of the Sicily Campaign and the situation on
the Russo-German front. At the close of the TRIDENT Conference, General Marshall accompanied Prime Minister Churchill to Algiers
for a conference with General Eisenhower on post-HUSKY operations in the Mediterranean.
Present at two of the meetings at General Eisenhower's villa in Algiers was
General Handy, who had been on a tour of the theaters. At the Algiers
conference, 29 May-3 June 1943, General Eisenhower was given broad latitude to
determine the course of his advance in the Mediterranean after HUSKY for the
purpose of eliminating Italy from the war. For the discussions at Algiers, see
especially: (1) min of 1st meeting held at General Eisenhower's villa, Algiers,
29 May 43; (2) min 2d meeting, Eisenhower's villa, 31 May 43; (3) min 3d
meeting, Eisenhower's villa, 3 Jun 43. All in Official TRIDENT Conference Book.
There was little change in Pacific and Far Eastern plans as a result of TRIDENT. In Burma minor land operations were scheduled as a first step toward opening the Burma Road. The capacity of the air route to China was to be increased. In the Pacific, operations were to be mounted against the Japanese in the Aleutians, the Marshall and Caroline Islands, the Solomons, Bismarcks, and Japanese-held New Guinea.
39 (1) JPS 189, 25 May 43, title: Preparations for Next U. S.-British Staff Conf. This paper was drawn up by the JWPC and submitted to the JPS for discussion. (2) SS 106 [25 May 43], title: Analysis of TRIDENT and ANFA Confs, ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers 96-126/3 (7 Jan 43). (3) Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Gen Marshall, 8 Jun 43, no sub, Paper 68, Book 10, Exec 8.
40 For implementation of TRIDENT, see: (1) min 63d meeting CPS, 27 May 43; (2) memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Secretariat, JPS, 3 Jun 43, sub: Implementation of CCS 242/6, with CCS 242/6 in ABC 016 (5-21-43); (3) min 81st meeting JPS, 16 Jun 43; (4) Tab B, Supplemental Statement to Tab A, incl to memo, Lt Col L. J. Lincoln for Col Roberts, 19 Jun 43, sub: Working Stf to Accompany Planners to next Combined Conf, Tab 7 with JPS 189 in ABC 337 (25 May 43).
41 For SEXTANT, OPD did put out an abbreviated version of the conference books, called a Condensed Information Book, for the use of the OPD chief. A different kind of book was prepared for the less strictly military conferences of 1945. See Ch. XVI.
42 For examples of OPD briefs and analyses of JWPC proposals, see: (1) SS 93, 3 Aug 43, sub: Comments on Strategic Concept for Defeat of Axis in Europe (JWPC 48/3, Revised), Tab SS 93, ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers (7 Jan 43). This paper was a Strategy Section analysis for the Army planner. (2) OPD brief on JWPC proposals, title: Notes . . . 102d meeting JCS, 9 Aug 43, Plans for Occupation of Italy and Her Possessions (JPS 247), with JPS 247 in ABC 384 Post HUSKY (14 May 1943), 2.
43 OPD paper, title: Notes for Gen Marshall for Use in Conf with President [late July 43], Paper 1, Item 11, Exec 5.
44 OPD draft [CofS for President], 8 Aug 43, sub: Conduct of European War, Paper 44 in ABC 381 (9-25-42), 7. The conclusions in this paper were those embodied in the OPD Strategy Section's study, SS 90,8 Aug 43, title: Conduct of War in Europe, ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers (7 Jan 43). A copy of SS 90 was distributed to all American officers who attended QUADRANT.
45 Tel Directory, code title, Bosco. Filed in folder, annex to ABC 337 (25 May 43). The directory contains a list of the members of the American and British delegations present at QUADRANT.
46 For examples of participation by General Handy and General Wedemeyer in work of JCS meetings at QUADRANT, see: (1) min 104th meeting JCS, QUADRANT, 15 Aug 43; (2) min 105th meeting JCS, QUADRANT, 16 Aug 43.
47 For the discussion and acceptance by the JCS of General Handy's proposals, see min 105th meeting JCS, QUADRANT, 16 Aug 43. For a copy of the complete paper presented by General Handy to the JCS, see memo [16 Aug 43], no sub, Item 51, Exec 10. The memorandum begins: "The discussion in the Combined Chiefs of Staff meeting yesterday. . . ." For the incorporation of General Handy's proposals by the U. S. JCS in a memorandum for submission to the CCS, see: (1) CCS 303/1, 16 Aug 43, title: Strategic Concept for Defeat of Axis in Europe; (2) min 109th meeting CCS, QUADRANT, 16 Aug 43. For the compromise of U. S. and British Chiefs of Staff's views reached on these proposals, see: (1) CCS 303/3, 17 Aug 43, title: Strategic Concept for Defeat of Axis in Europe; (2) min 110th meeting CCS, QUADRANT, 17 Aug 43.
48 Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Gen Marshall, 16 Aug 43, no sub, with CCS 320 in ABC 384 NW Europe (20 Aug 43), 1-A.
49 For example, see tel conf, Washington, D.C. (Brig Gen Hull) with Quebec (Maj Gen Handy), 19 Aug 43, Paper 84, Book 11, Exec 9.
50 For example, see memo, Maj Gen Handy for Gen Marshall, 15 Aug 43, sub: Digest of Cables Received from Stilwell: Reference: Burma Opn, Item 51, Exec 10.
51 For phrase "overriding priority," see min 108th meeting CCS, QUADRANT, 15 Aug 43.
52 For discussion of these issues at QUADRANT, and all the quoted phrases, see: (1) min 108th meeting CCS, QUADRANT, 15 Aug 43; (2) min 110th meeting CCS, QUADRANT, 17 Aug 43; (3) min 1st Citadel meeting, QUADRANT, 19 Aug 43, Official QUADRANT Conference Book; (4) min 2d Citadel meeting, QUADRANT, 23 Aug 43, Official QUADRANT Conference Book.
53 In line with the decision at TRIDENT to plan for a cross-Channel operation with target date of 1 May 1944 and on the basis of twenty-nine British-American divisions assembled in the United Kingdom for the invasion by that date (ROUNDHAMMER), Lt. Gen. F. E. Morgan's combined planning staff (COSSAC planners) in the United Kingdom had developed between TRIDENT and QUADRANT a plan for an invasion of the Continent. The plan for this operation, given the code name OVERLORD, was developed with the same target date 1 May 1944 and on the basis of a maximum of thirty and a minimum of twenty-six divisions as likely to be available in the United Kingdom on that date and for follow-up shipments of three to five divisions per month. See Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack (Washington, D.C., 1951).
54 This ruling on Mediterranean operations was qualified only by addition of the phrase, "except insofar as these [forces] may be varied by decision of the Combined Chiefs of Staff."
55 For all the foregoing final QUADRANT decisions, see CCS 319/5, 24 Aug 43, title: Final Rpt to President and Prime Minister.
56 (1) Chart, n.d., title: QUADRANT Implementation, ABC 319.1 (27 Aug 43), 1. (2) Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for ACofS OPD, 27 Aug 43, sub: Implementation of QUADRANT Decisions, Tab 2 in ABC 319.1, 27 Aug 43.
57 Note for rcd appended to memo, OPD [to G-1, G-2, etc.], 30 Aug 43, sub: QUADRANT Decisions, Tab 4 in ABC 319.1, 27 Aug 43.
58 Memo, Lt Cot J. K. Woolnough, Chief Policy Sec for Chief Theater Gp, 30 Aug 43, sub: QUADRANT Decisions, with Tab 4 in ABC 319.1, 27 Aug 43.
59 Memo, Gen Marshall for Admiral Leahy, 25 Oct 43, no sub, Paper 4, Item 12A, Exec 5. In this memorandum, drafted for him in OPD, the Chief of Staff suggested that consideration be given to Soviet participation in the forthcoming CCS conference meetings.
60 Msg, Ambassador W. A. Harriman for Gen Marshall, 2 Nov 43, CM-IN 1946 (TS).
61 (1) OPD draft memo [CofS for President], 29 Oct 43, sub: Conduct of European War, with Tab SS 90 in ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers (7 Jan 43). (2) OPD draft memo [CofS for President], 8 Nov 43, with Tab 90 in ABC 381 Strategy Sec Papers (7 Jan 43). This draft memo contains the phrase "fish or cut bait."
62 JWPC 85, 2 Sep 43, title: Lessons from QUADRANT. See also Chs. XIII and XVI.
63 For reference to the role of the JPS, the JSSC, and the Joint Logistics Committee (JLC) in preparation for SEXTANT, see memo, Col C. H. Donnelly, Secy Planners Coms for JPS and JLC, 20 Oct 43, sub: Preparations for Next U. S.-British Stf Com, with JCS 533 in ABC 337 (18 Oct 43), 1-A.
64 In the course of briefing General Handy for his trip to SEXTANT, OPD assembled for him a variety of data in an abbreviated, more statistical version of the earlier conference books. This volume contained summaries by theaters of current estimates of the situation, plans for subsequent operations, existing troop dispositions and pending troop movements, and the current command set-up, as well as miscellaneous logistic data including the status of landing ships and craft and status and deployment of divisions. See OPD Condensed Information Book, 6 Nov 43, Exec 6. Much of the material gathered in this volume was drawn from the summaries and charts of the Logistics Group.
65 For list of officers present at SEXTANT, see Annex A, List of Off's Present at SEXTANT, incl with memo, Col C. H. Donnelly for Rear Admiral B. H. Bieri, etc., 5 Feb 44, sub: Attendance at Future U. S. British Corns, with JPS 345/D in ABC 337 (7 Dec 43). Among the 66 American planning officers attending SEXTANT were 3 representatives of the JSSC; 4 members of the JPS; 2 JPS deputies; 12 members of JWPC teams (Senior, Red, Purple, Blue); 4 members of the Joint Logistics Committee; 8 Army and 5 Navy associates for logistics; and 5 Army and 2 Navy theater representatives. The presence of nine Army Air Forces planners and the liberal sprinkling of Army Service Forces representatives in the Joint Logistics Committee and among Army associates of the Joint Logistics Committee reflected the part played by the Army Air Forces and the Army Service Forces as Army agencies participating in joint planning.
66 For the scheduled departure of the JCS party, including Generals Marshall, Handy, and Roberts, 10 November 1943, from the Washington Navy Yard, see JCS SEXTANT Info Bul 5, 8 Nov 43, Envelope 1, Item 15, Exec 5.
67 For the discussions at an important special meeting on board ship en route to Egypt between President and the JCS, see min of JPS-President meeting beginning "Dakar" [19 Nov 43], and attached map with spheres of influence penciled by the President, Item 11, Exec 2. A partial record of these minutes is titled: Min of Meeting Between President and CsofS, Held on Board Ship in Admiral's Cabin, etc., with CCS 320 in ABC 384 N. W. Europe, 20 Aug 43, 1-A.
68 (1) Min 123d meeting JCS, 15 Nov 43. (2) Min 124th meeting JCS, 17 Nov 43. (3) Min 125th meeting JCS, 18 Nov 43. (4) Min 126th meeting JCS (SEXTANT), 19 Nov 43.
69 Min 2d plenary meeting, SEXTANT, 24 Nov 43, Official SEXTANT Conference Book.
70 After several inconclusive meetings in Cairo, 22-26 November, some of which were attended by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek and his staff, the President, the Prime Minister, and the CCS left for Tehran. Three plenary sessions at EUREKA, at which the CCS, President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, Marshal Stalin, Mr. Molotov, and Marshal Voroshilov were present, were held in the Russian Legation at Tehran, 28-30 November. A military conference between the CCS and the sole Soviet military adviser (Marshal Voroshilov) was held on 29 November at the Russian Legation in Tehran. On 30 November the CCS met by themselves in the British Legation, Tehran.
71 Min 3d plenary meeting, EUREKA (SEXTANT), 30 Nov 43, Official SEXTANT Conference Book.
72 (1) CCS 397, 3 Dec 43, title: Specific Opns for Defeat of Japan, 1944. This advance was to include the
seizure of the Marshalls (January 1944) and the Marianas (October 1944) in the
Central Pacific, and of New Britain (January 1944), Manus (April 1944), and
Hollandia (June 1944) in the Southwest Pacific. (2) CCS 426/1, 6 Dec 43, title:
Rpt to President and Prime Minister. (3) Draft msg, President and Prime
Minister for Marshal Stalin [about 7 Dec 43], Case 7, Item 15, Exec 5.
Other decisions at SEXTANT included: (1) continuation of the assignment of the highest strategic priority to the bomber offensive against Germany; and (2) orders for increasing the production of landing craft in the United Kingdom and United States for the reinforcement of OVERLORD, and diversion of landing craft from the Pacific for the same purpose.
73 Min 1st plenary meeting, EUREKA (SEXTANT), 28 Nov 43, Official SEXTANT Conference Book.
74 Memo, Col C. B. Ferenbaugh for Maj Gen Handy, 26 Nov 43, sub: A List of Questions Russians May Ask and Related Data, Envelope 3, Item 15, Exec 5.
75 (1) Memo, Lt Col Gallant for Maj Gen Handy, 3 Dec 43, sub: Statistical Chart-Landing Ships and Craft, OPD Condensed Information Book, 6 Nov 43, Exec 6. (2) Memo, Brig Gen P. H. Tansey for Maj Gen Handy, 4 Dec 43, no sub, with Tab "Misc Papers (Drafts and Carbons)," Case 5, Folder 4, Item 15, Exec 5.
76 For General Handy's participation in discussion at these meetings, see especially: (1) min 135th meeting JCS, SEXTANT, 5 Dec 43; (2) min 136th meeting JCS, SEXTANT, 6 Dec 43.
77 For a reference to the "heavy load" on JWPC teams at SEXTANT, see min 115th meeting JPS, Mena House, Cairo, 24 Nov 43.
78 For example of logistic planning, see min 114th meeting JPS, SEXTANT, 22 Nov 43.
79 (1) Msg, Brig Gen Hull for Maj Gen Handy, 1 Dee 43, CM-OUT 729. (2) Cf. ltr, Brig Gen Hull to Maj Gen Handy, 17 Dec 43, Item 14, Exec 5.
80 For General Handy's trip, and other missions after SEXTANT, see Ch. XV.
81 OPD worked closely with the JCS secretariat. Thus on 17 December the secretariat forwarded extracts of SEXTANT decisions requiring Army action and indicated that copies of key papers had already been furnished to General Handy. See memo, Secy JCS for ACofS OPD and Aide to CINC U. S. Fleet, 17 Dec 43, sub: Implementation of SEXTANT Decisions, with Case 3, ABC 337 18 Oct 43, 3.
82 OPD chart, title: SEXTANT Implementation, 17 Dec 43, Case 1, ABC 337 18 Oct 43, 3.
83 There were many indications of American optimism resulting from the Moscow conference and the subsequent SEXTANT-EUREKA meetings. For comment of an able, well-informed State Department specialist on Soviet affairs to the effect that the Soviets were "willing to play ball" in return for a "quick victory and postwar help," see msg, Brig Gen T. J. Betts to Maj Gen G. V. Strong for Gen Marshall, (WD G-2) 26 Nov 43, CM-IN 16026.
84 Note for Conf with Field Marshal Sir Alan Brooke [May 44], Case 843, Book 19, Exec 9. This paper evidently was prepared by OPD. It was approved by the U. S. Chiefs of Staff and by the President on 26 May 1944.
85 (1) Min 162d meeting CCS, 10 Jan 44. (2) Min 163d meeting CCS, 11 Jun 44. (3) Min 164th meeting CCS, 13 Jun 44. (4) Min 165th meeting CCS, 14 Jun 44. (5) Min 166th meeting CCS, 15 Jun 44.
86 Informal notes of 163d meeting CCS, 11 JUD 44, Middlesex, England, prepared by U. S. Secy [of CCS], with Case 841, Book 19, Exec 9.
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