Endnotes for Chapter X
1 This brief summary gives only the high lights of the complex story which led to the adoption of TORCH and the postponement of BOLERO. For the President's insistence on action in 1942, see two key memoranda: (1) memo, President for SW, CofS, Gen Arnold, SN, Admiral King, Harry Hopkins, 6 May 42, no sub, WDCSA 381, 1; and (2) memo, President for Harry Hopkins, Gen Marshall, Admiral King, 16 Jul 42, sub: Instructions for London Conf, WDCSA 381, 1. For indication that Army planners were fully aware that considerations were involved in the BOLERO-TORCH decision other than the strictly military factors which it was their special business to weigh, see memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for Maj Gen Handy, 14 Jul 42, no sub, Tab 10, Item 1, Exec 5.
2 During the TORCH period, General Handy had occasion to express the credo of
the staff planner as he understood it in drafting for General Marshall an
appropriate reply to an informal British suggestion that U. S. Army. planners
were not giving wholehearted support to the plan for invading North Africa.
General Handy wrote:
Your planners have misconstrued the purpose of a frank exchange of ideas in open discussion and have interpreted the expressions of views by US Planners as a lack of adherence on the latter's part to a decision that has been made. The US Planners are at present concerned with planning and implementation of several operations, including TORCH, and therefore must consider the implications of each on the others.
Individuals charged with the execution of an operation must be imbued with full confidence in the success of the undertaking. It is equally true that those Planners who are responsible for the formulation of plans for projected operations, the assessment of their relative value to our war effort, and the integration of those plans with our overall strategy, must retain their intellectual integrity and view all military questions objectively. They must foresee and make provision to meet all difficulties involved in the execution of those plans. It is my opinion that we should demand absolute candor from our Planners when they discuss projected operations. Any weakness in our plans should be revealed through continued and frank discussion by our planning staffs rather than as a result of successful enemy action.
Draft ltr, Gen Marshall to Field Marshal Dill, n.d., Paper 11, ABC 381 (7-25-42), 4-B. This draft in the OPD files was initialed by General Handy.
3 Educated at the Virginia Military Institute and commissioned in the Field Artillery in 1916, General Handy gained extensive experience in the American campaigns in France in 1918. Subsequently he went through the normal peacetime schooling of Regular Army officers, and also attended both the Army War College and the Naval War College. After a four-year tour of duty in WPD, 1936-40, he left the War Department to take command of the 78th Field Artillery Battalion at Fort Benning but was recalled to WPD in August 1941. His first tour of duty in WPD had given him a solid background in early Army strategic planning. His work under General Gerow at the ARCADIA Conference (December 1941-January 1942) was followed by four months' participation as Army planner in strategic planning in the JCS-CCS system. In this latter capacity he joined wholeheartedly in the struggle, led by General Marshall and promoted vigorously in OPD by Colonel Hull and Colonel Wedemeyer, to secure general approval of the BOLERO plan.
4 For history of the physical location of WPD and OPD offices throughout the war, see OPD Hist Unit Study N.
5 (1) See chart No. 3, p. 126. (2) Memo, Col Elmer J. Rogers, Jr., for Col Wedemeyer, 29 Jun 42, sub: Remarks and Recommendations, etc., ABC 020 OPD, WDGS (13 July 1942), 3JA. (3) Memo, Brig Cen Wedemeyer for Exec OPD, 23 Jul 42, sub: Reorgn, S&P, Paper 44, Item 2B, OPD Hist Unit file. (4) Memo, Col A. C. Nevins for Chief S&P, 7 Jul 42, sub: Orgn of Strategy Sec, ABC 020 OPD, WDGS (13 July 1942), 3JA. (5) Colonel Hull was promoted to the rank of brigadier general on 7 July 1942.
6 Memo, OPD for AAF, 27 Apr 42, sub: Reinforcement of Acft for Hawaiian Dept, Tab Misc, Book 5, Exec 8.
7 Ltr, SGS to G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, OPD, AAF, AGF, SOS, and Secy JCS, 10 Sep 42, sub: Implementation of Decisions of JCS and CCS, WDCSA 334 JCS (1942).
8 OPD adm memo, 11 Sep 42, sub: Implementation and Follow-up of U. S. JCS and CCS Directives, Paper 34, Item 2B, OPD Hist Unit file.
9 (1) Ltr, SGS to WDGS Divs, AAF, AGF, SOS, Secy JCS, and Secy JCB, 16 Jan 43, sub: Submission of Papers to U. S. JCS or JCB, OPD 312, 40. (2) See also memo, Lt Col J. K. Woolnough for Combined Subjects Sec, 2 Apr 43, sub: Procedure for Implementing Action on JCS and CCS Papers, with JCS M/I 48, in ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 43), 2.
10 The Army section of the JUSSC during the second half of 1942 contained four OPD officers: Colonel Maddocks, Col. E. E. Partridge, Col. R. E. Starr, and Lt. Col. W. R. Wolfinbarger, an Air Corps officer who joined OPD in March and JUSSC in August as replacement for Colonel Hansell. Colonel Maddocks was virtually an assistant Army planner for General Wedemeyer, attending most JPS meetings and sitting on nearly all the important subcommittees, especially those concerned with mobilization, equipment, and deployment of forces, which claimed more planning attention than strategy proper in this period.
11 Memo, Col Maddocks for Chief S&P, 9 Jul 42, sub: Jt Strategic Com, ABC 020 OPD, WDGS (13 Jul 42), 3JA.
13 (1) For voluminous study of first type, see JPS 43, 8 Aug 42, title: Strategic Policy of United Nations and U. S. on Collapse of Russia. (2) For second type, see JPS 46, 21 Aug 42, sub: Mil Tunnel Under English Channel.
14 (1) JCS 133, 19 Oct 42, title: Reconstitution of JUSSC. (2) Cf. memo, OPD for CofS, 18 Oct 42, same sub, OPD 334.8 Jt. Strategic Committee, 3.
15 Min 40th meeting JCS, 3 Nov 42.
16 JCS 149/D, 7 Nov 42, title: Charter of JUSSC.
17 Min 40th meeting JCS, 3 Nov 42.
18 Draft JUSSC study (Col Maddocks), 7 Dec 42, title: Steps in Mil Planning, with JCS 149/D, in ABC 334.8 JSSC (11-3-42).
19 See Ch. XIII.
20 Memo, Col Davis for ACofS OPD, 15 Sep 42, sub: Reduction of Commissioned Pers, Logistics Gp, OPD 210.3, 126.
21 For working agreement on principles of Munitions Assignments Board, see:
(1) ltr, Maj Gen R. C. Moore, DCofS to Maj Gen G. N. Macready, Asst Chief,
Imperial GS, 12 Jan 42, WPD 4651; (2) memo, Gen Macready for Brig L. C. Hollis,
7 Jan 42, sub: Allocation of Finished Mil Equip to Allies, copy in WPD 4651.
This system was set up in January 1942 by the President and Prime Minister. See: (l) memo, DCofS for Chief, Air Corps, G-4 Def Aid Dir (Brig Gen H. S. Aurand), and WPD, 15 Jan 42, sub: Allocation Com, WPD 4651-1; (2) CCS 19/1, 4 Feb 42, title: Order Establishing MAB.
22 The munitions assignment system was quite separate from the munitions procurement system, which was handled for the United States by the War Production Board and the Joint Army-Navy Munitions Board, both operating under Presidential direction outside the JCS system. Although JCS and Munitions Assignments Board decisions were reflected in procurement policies, the distribution of finished munitions (often a year or two after procurement contracts had been authorized) was the link between production and strategy.
23 (1) Ltr, Harry Hopkins to SW, 9 Feb 42, AG 334 Mun Asgmts Bd (9 Feb 42), 2. (2) AG ltr, 21 Feb 42, sub: WD Mun Asgmts Com (Ground), AG 334.8 Mun Asgmts Board (2-11-42). (3) AG ltr, 21 Feb 42, sub: WD Mun Asgmts Com (Air), AG 334.8 Mun Asgmts Bd (2-11-42). (4) AG ltr, 16 Apr 42, sub: WD Mun Asgmts Com (Ground), AG 334.8 Mun Asgmts Bd (4-10-42) OF.
24 AG ltr, 13 Jun 42, sub: Designation of Offs as Member and Alternate on WD Mun Asgmts Com, AG 334.8 Mun Asgmts Bd (6-12-42) OF-E.
25 Memo, OPD for G-1, 17 Aug 42, sub: Almt of Offs, OPD, OPD 210.3, 112.
26 Memo OPD for TAG, 13 Jun 42, sub: Offs on Dy in District of Columbia and Vicinity, Item 3, Exec 15. Colonel Gailey expressed complete satisfaction with G-1 and Services of Supply procurement methods.
27 Ltr Gen Marshall to Lt Gen D. C. Emmons, 1 Jun 42, WDCSA 210.2 Hawaii.
28 E.g., see memo, Col Gailey for Maj Gen Handy, 10 Sep 42, sub: Pers, Item 3, Exec 15.
29 (1) Memo, OPD for G-1, 18 Aug 42, sub: Procurement Objective, Army Specl Corps, OPD, Item 3, Exec 15. (2) Memo, OPD for G-1, 24 Aug 42, sub: Almt Army Specl Corps, Item 3, Exec 15. (3) Memo, OPD for Dir of Pers, SOS, 18 Sep 42, sub: Almt of Offs, Item 3, Exec 15. (4) WD (AGO) memo, 4 Nov 42, sub: Army Specl Corps Apmts in AUS, copy filed Item 3, Exec 15. (5) Memo, OPD for Army Specl Corps, 21 Nov 42, sub: Army Specl Corps Pers, OPD 210.3, 136.
30 Memo, DCofS, no addressee, 5 Dec 42, sub: Offs on Dy in District of Columbia, copy filed Item 3, Exec 15. For the purposes of the directive, over-age for troop duty was listed as: colonels, 50 years plus; lieutenant colonels, 47 years plus; majors, 42 years plus; captains and lieutenants, 36 years plus.
31 (1) Memo, Col Gailey for Maj Gen Handy, 27 Dec 42, sub: Over-Age Offs, Item 3, Exec 15. (2) Cf. memo, OPD for G-1, 1 Dec 42, sub: Over-Age Offs, Item 3, Exec 15.
33 Memo, OPD for G-1, 18 Dec 42, sub: Almt of Over-Age Offs, Item 3, Exec 15.
34 (1) Pers ltr, Lt Gen Eisenhower to Gen Marshall, 19 Aug 42, Paper 54, ABC 381 (7-25-42) 4-B. (2) Msg, Maj Gen Handy (in London) for Gen Marshall, 22 Aug 42, CM-IN 8444.
35 Memo, Lt Col C. P. Smith for Brig Gen Hull, 20 Oct 42, sub: Suggestions for More Efficient Handling of Future Task Force Hq, OPD 320.2 Task Force, 79.
36 Memo, OPD for TAG, 28 Nov 42, sub: Instructions Pertaining to Task Force "A" Shipts on D plus 40, OPD 370.5 Task Force, 126.
37 For importance of communications link, North Africa via State Department
channels to Washington, thence to OPD, thence to General Eisenhower's
headquarters in London (briefly in Gibraltar) via military channels, see
interv, Lt Gen Hull with author, 3 Jul 47, OPD Hist Unit Interv file.
For careful political briefing of General Eisenhower by OPD on behalf of General Marshall, see msg (originator OPD), Gen Marshall for Lt Gen Eisenhower, 17 Oct 42, CM-OUT 05682.
38 (1) Msg, CINC for CCS via WD (OPD), 14 Nov 42, CM-IN 6267. (2) Draft memo, CofS for President, n.d., WDCSA Africa 1942. (3) Memo, Admiral Leahy for President, 15 Nov 42, WDCSA Africa 1942. (4) Msg (originator OPD), Gen Marshall for Lt Gen Eisenhower, 15 Nov 42, CM-OUT 4943.
39 Memo, Maj Gen Hull for TAG, 15 Dec 44, sub: Promotion of RA Off in AUS, OPD
file on Alfred D. Starbird, 27.
According to Col. Dan Gilmer, chief of European Theater Section, who at the time of the initial landings was secretary of the General Staff, Allied Force Headquarters, Major Starbird was the "one War Department representative who was present in the operation." See remarks of Colonel Gilmer in Rpt of Proceedings of Bd of Offs, OPD, 16 Feb 45, OPD file on Alfred D. Starbird, 30.
40 (1) Msg (originator OPD), Gen Marshall for Lt Gen Eisenhower, 13 Jan 43, CM-OUT 4319. See also appended note for record. (2) Ltr, TAG (thru CofS) to Lt Col Lee, 8 Dec 42, sub: Orders, OPD file on Morris J. Lee, 14.
41 (1) Msg, OPD for USFOR, 20 Nov 42, Item 5, Exec 5. (2) Memo, Maj Gen Hull for AGO, Attn: WD Decoration Bd (through G-1), 26 Mar 44, sub: Recommendation for Award of DSM, OPD file on Claude B. Ferenbaugh.
42 (1) For example of study by an OPD officer, see memo, Lt Col C. P. Smith for Brig Gen Hull, 20 Oct 42, sub: Suggestions for More Efficient Handling of Future Task Force Hq, OPD 320.2 Task Force, 79. (2) Cf. memo (originator OPD), Gen Marshall for Lt Gen Eisenhower, 20 Dec 42 CM-OUT 7133.
43 The textual narrative concerning the 829th Signal Service Battalion is based on extremely complicated documentary material. For a detailed treatment of the sources, primarily of interest as a guide to further research in the subjects discussed, see OPD Hist Unit Study O.
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Last updated 19 October 2004