Endnotes for Chapter VI
1 Notes on Conferences in OCS, II, 441, WDCSA rcds.
2 (1) See Ch. IV. (2) Memo, Exec WPD for SGS, 28 Nov 41, sub: Reorgn of WD, WPD 4614. (3) Testimony, Maj Gen McNarney, Brig Gen Kuter, and Col Harrison in Dept of Def Co-ordination and Control, 77th Cong, 2d sess, 6 Mar 42, Hearing before the Committee on Military Affairs, p. 1 (hereafter cited as McNarney, Hearings, 6 Mar 42). (4) Maj Kuter was promoted to the rank of Lt Col on 2 Jan 42 and Brig Gen on 2 Feb 42.
3 Gen Marshal1's testimony in Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings . . ., Part 3, pp. 1437-38.
4 General McNarney had not actually been in WPD since May 1941, when he went to England with the Special Observers Group.
5 Memo, Maj Gen McNarney for CofS, 31 Jan 42, sub: Reorgn of WD, Tabs 1, 2, and 3, OCS rcds, WDCSA 020 (1942).
7 Memo, JAG for CofS, 2 Feb 42, sub: Reorgn of Army, and copy atchd of First War Powers Act, Pl 354 (H Res 6233), 18 Dec 41, "An Act to Expedite the Prosecution of the War Effort," WDCSA 020 (1942).
8 Notes on Conferences in OCS, II, 459-63, WDCSA rcds. Representatives of the other General Staff Divisions and of the Army Air Forces were also present.
9 Notations by Gen D. D. Eisenhower, 6 Feb 42, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit file.
10 Memo, OCS for AAF, GHQ, WPD, G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, SGS, TAG, TIG, and JAG, 11 Feb 42, WPD 4614.
11 Min of Opening Session, Sp Com, Reorgn of WD, 16 Feb 42, WDCSA 020 (1942). Colonel Harrison represented WPD on the committee. General McNarney made it clear that the plan was designed to meet the emergency and not necessarily to be suitable for a peacetime Army. Lt. Col. O. L. Nelson, Jr., served as recorder for this executive committee.
12 (1) Ltr, CofS to Dir Bureau of Budget, 20 Feb 42, WDCSA 020 (1942). (2) Ltr, SW to President, 20 Feb 42, WDCSA 020 (1942). (3) Notes on Conferences in OSW, 23 Feb 42, II, WDCSA rcds. (4) Ltr, President to SW, 26 Feb 42, WDCSA 020 (1942). (5) WD Bul 11, 3 Mar 42. This bulletin contains the text of EO 9082.
13 (1) WD Cir 59, 2 Mar 42, sub: WD Reorgn. (2) AR 10-15, 13 Jul 42, sub: GS Orgn and Gen Dys.
14 According to General McNarney and Colonel Harrison, General Marshall had had to deal "personally or through his staff" with 40 large commands and "some 350 small" ones. See McNarney, Hearings, 6 Mar 42, p. 13.
15 Memo, OCS for all GS Divs, TAG, and all Chiefs of Arms and Services, 30 Oct 40, sub: Apmt of Add DCofS, WPD 4382. See also Ch. I.
16 Under the 1942 reorganization the Deputy Chief of Staff, besides acting for the Chief of Staff in his absence and "on all matters generally delegated to him by the Chief of Staff," was to exercise supervision over the General Staff and the three major commands and to deal with budgetary, legislative, and administrative questions. AR 10-15, par. 2, 13 Jul 42, sub: GS Orgn and Gen Dys. Compare parallel provisions in AR 10-15, 25 Nov 21 and 18 Aug 36.
17 (1) McNarney, Hearings, 9 Mar 42, p. 2. (2) Memo, ASGS for TAG, 17 Mar 42, WDCSA 020 (1942).
18 WD Cir 59, 2 Mar 42, sub: WD Reorgn. The phrase was incorporated unchanged in AR 10-15, 13 Jul 42.
19 McNarney, Hearings, 6 Mar 42, p. 10.
20 Memo, Maj Gen McNarney for Maj Gen A. D. Surles, 27 Feb 42, sub: Outline of Reorgn of WD, Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec 8.
21 For definitions of these geographical areas of strategic responsibility, see pp. 101-02.
22 For SEXTANT, see Ch. XII. For Moscow conference and 1945 conferences, see Ch. XVI.
23 Some of the developments reviewed in general under this heading are described in more detail, as they were related to the work of OPD, in several later chapters of this volume.
24 For a brief analysis of "Early Proposals for Unification of the Armed Services of the United States," see OPD Hist Unit Study I.
25 The only Army papers on the organization of the U. S. Joint Chiefs were:
(1) memo, CofS for Admirals Stark and King, 17 Feb 42, sub: JB, U. S. CsofS,
WPD 4402-159 (Colonel Handy drafted this memorandum, which still provided for
the "Commanding General Field Forces" as well as the Chief of Staff);
(2) WPD study, n.d., title: Proposed Combined (U. S.-British) CsofS Orgn, Tab "Collaboration,"
Book 3, Exec 8; (3) WPD study, n.d., title: Proposed Joint (U. S.
Army-Navy-Air) CsofS Orgn, Tab "Collaboration," Book 3, Exec 8.
For indication that these two studies are by WPD, see atchd memo, WPD for CofS, n.d., no sub, Tab "Collaboration," Book 3, Exec 8.
26 For statement by Mr. Stimson that "Mr. Roosevelt learned to like the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1942 . . .," see Stimson, On Active Service in Peace and War, p. 563.
27 Min 1st meeting JCS, 9 Feb 42 [issued 14 Feb 42].
28 A proposal to charter the JCS was made in 1943 in connection with the reorganization of the whole joint committee system, treated at length in Ch. XIII. See: (1) JCS 202/2, 25 Mar 43, title: JCS Orgn; (2) JCS Memo for Info 54, 9 Apr 43, same sub. In due course the JCS submitted to the President a charter which defined their duties, responsibilities, and functions, JCS 202/24/D, 15 Jun 43, title: Charter, JCS. The President, in a letter to Admiral Leahy, disapproved the proposal, saying that the issuance of an executive order approving the charter seemed superfluous at the time, and that instead of helping it might have a restrictive effect. The letter was circulated as JCS 415, 17 Jul 43, title: Jt Effort Regarding Supply.
29 For brief description of British joint planning system for World War II, see: (1) Maurice P. A. Hankey (Baron), Government Control in War (Cambridge, England, 1945), especially pp. 55-57, 60-65; (2) Central Organization for Defence (London, 1946), Cmd. 6923; (3) Organization of Joint Planning (London, 1942), Cmd. 6351.
30 British Serial WW-8, title: Post-ARCADIA Collaboration, appended to min 8th meeting, 10 Jan 42, ARCADIA: Proceedings.
31 Min 12th meeting, 14 Jan 42, p. 3, and U. S. Serial ABC-4/CS4, title: Post-ARCADIA Collaboration ARCADIA: Proceedings.
32 (1) Press release, 6 Feb 42, copy filed ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 42), 1. (2) Min 1st meeting CCS, 23 Jan 42.
33 For principle of consulting representatives of Pacific powers, see min of
conf at White House, 28 Jan 42, Notes on Informal Conferences Held During the
Visit of the British Chiefs of Staff in Washington, WDCSA 334 (1-28-42).
See min 1st-9th meetings, 26 May 42-18 Jun 43, Military Representatives of Associated (Pacific) Powers, Misc S&P Files. This group was the military counterpart of the group of political representatives of Pacific nations usually termed the Pacific War Council. See Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 515-16.
34 (1) CCS 9/1, 10 Feb 42, title: War Collaboration Between United Nations. (2)
Cf. U. S. Serial ABC-4/CS4, title: Post-ARCADIA Collaboration, ARCADIA:
For President Roosevelt's approval, see memo, U. S. Secy CCS for Maj Gen E. M. Watson, 21 Apr 42. A photostat copy is filed in ABC 381 United Nations (23 Jan 42), 1. This memorandum has "OK, FDR" written on it. Apparently Prime Minister Churchill never gave formal approval to the CCS charter (see JCS Memo for Info 54, 9 Apr 43, sub: JCS Orgn).
35 For definitions of strategic areas and system of executive conduct of the war, see: (1) JCS 19,9 Mar 42, title: Strategic Responsibility of UK and U. S. (this JCS paper is a summary of suggestions made by the President in a conference at the White House 7 March 1942); (2) memo, Brig Gen Eisenhower for JCS, 8 Mar 42, same sub, Envelope 36, Exec 4; (3) JCS 19/1, 9 Mar 42, same title (with the exception of one sentence, this JCS paper was identical with General Eisenhower's memorandum of 8 March); (4) min 5th meeting JCS, 9 Mar 42, with CCS 56/1 in ABC 311.5 (1-30-42); (5) msg 46, Prime Minister to President, 18 Mar 42, with JCS 19/1 in ABC 371 (3-5-42); (6) msg 58, Prime Minister to President, 24 Mar 42, with CCS 56/1 in ABC 311.5 (1-30-42); (7) CCS 57/2, 24 Mar 42, title: Strategic Responsibility of UK and U. S.; (8) min 14th meeting JCS, 31 Mar 42; (9) memo, U. S. Secy JCS for Gen Marshall, 1 Apr 42, no sub, with CCS 57/2 in ABC 323.31 POA (1-29-42), 2; (10) memo, Gen Marshall and Admiral King for President, 30 Mar 42, no sub, and two incls, "Directive to the Commander in Chief of the Pacific Ocean Area" and "Directive to Supreme Commander in the Southwest Pacific Area," ABC 323.31 POA (1-29-42), 1-B (this memorandum has on it the penned notation, "Approved, Franklin D. Roosevelt").
36 (1) Min 29th meeting JCS, 18 Aug 42, Item 10 and Annex 1. (2) Memo, Brig Gen Wedemeyer for CofS, 18 Apr 43, sub: Responsibility for Implementation, or Channel for CCS Directives to CinC AEF, Paper 22, Item 2B, OPD Hist Unit file.
37 (1) EO 9096, 12 Mar 42, title: Reorgn of Navy Dept and Naval Serv Affecting Office of Chief of Naval Opns. (2) Min of CCS meetings. Admiral Stark attended the 1st through 11th meetings, 29 January-l0 March 1942.
38 (1) Min of CCS meetings. (2) Rosters of CCS committees issued periodically,
copies filed in ABC 381 United Nations (1-23-42), 6-A.
The British representatives changed fairly often. Sir John Dill remained in Washington until 1944 providing permanent leadership in the British group until his death. He was replaced early in 1945 by Field Marshal Sir Henry Maitland Wilson. Admiral Leahy attended first the 34th CCS meeting, 30 July 1942.
39 (1) U. S. Serial ABC-4/CS4, title: Post-ARCADIA Collaboration, ARCADIA: Proceedings. (2) Rosters of CCS committees, copies filed ABC 381 United Nations (1-23-42), 6-A. Initially General Handy was Army planner. When he succeeded General Eisenhower as chief of the Division in June 1942, General Wedemeyer became Army planner. OPD furnished two subsequent Army planners in World War II, Brig. Gens. F. N. Roberts and G. A. Lincoln. For joint planning later in the war, see Ch. XIII.
40 (1) Memo, Col R. T. Maddocks for Chief S&P Gp, 9 Jul 42, sub: Jt Strategic Com, ABC 020, OPD, WDGS (13 Jul 42), 3JA. (2) JWPC 401, 14 Aug 45. This paper is a note by Brig Gen. W. W. Bessell, Jr., sub: Jt War Plans Com. (3) Rosters of CCS Coms, copies filed ABC 381 United Nations (1-23-42), 6-A.
41 Some of the developments reviewed in general under this heading are described in more detail, as they were related to the work of OPD, in several later chapters of this volume, especially in Ch. XVI.
42 Notes on Conferences in OSW, two volumes, WDCSA rcds. The meetings recorded cover the period 19 May 1942-24 February 1943.
43 (1) Stimson, On Active Service in Peace and War, pp. 561-62. (2) Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins. This entire book, describing the tremendous influence and responsibilities of Mr. Hopkins, is testimony of the personal way in which the President dealt with the many problems and agency chiefs he had to face during the war.
44 Unused memo, Gen Marshall for Harry Hopkins, 4 Nov 42, WDCSA 381, 1 (SS).
45 For the creation of this politico-military staff system, called the State-War-Navy Co-ordinating Committee (SWNCC), see Ch. XVI.
46 For the establishment of the Office of War Mobilization 27 May 1943 and the general problem of "Coordinating the War Agencies," see The United States at War: Development and Administration of the War Program by the Federal Government (Washington, 1946), Ch. 12.
47 Memo, Gen Marshall for James F. Byrnes, 10 Jul 43, no sub, WDCSA 040.
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Last updated 19 October 2004