Endnotes for Chapter V
1 (1) The Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, 1945-46, published extensive evidence about the Pearl Harbor episode, including the War Department documents in WPD files, the testimony of War Department officers, and the proceedings and reports of earlier investigations. The hearings before the committee and the exhibits submitted to it were published in thirty-nine parts: Pearl Harbor Attack: Hearings before the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack. This document is hereafter referred to as Hearings. The one-volume report of the committee, summarizing the evidence and stating the conclusions of the committee, was published as Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack: Report of the Joint Committee on the Investigation of the Pearl Harbor Attack, S Doc 244, 79th Cong, 2d sess, and is cited hereafter as Report. (2) For a careful examination and interpretation of the Pearl Harbor evidence, see Walter Millis, This is Pearl! The United States and Japan—1941 (New York, 1947). (3) For a briefer treatment in this series, see Watson, Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations, Ch. XV.
2 (1) Report, p. 46. (2) For an account of the negotiations with Japan and their termination, see Report, pp. 13-41.
3 General Marshall was in North Carolina viewing Army maneuvers. Report, p. 199, n. 214.
4 (1) Hearings, Part 3, p. 1020. (2) Memo, WPD for CofS, 27 Nav 41, sub: Far Eastern Situation, WPD 4544-13.
5 Hearings, Part 3, pp. 1021-24.
6 Hearings, Part 14, p. 1328.
7 Hearings, Part 14, p. 1329.
8 Hearings, Part 14, p. 1330.
9 (1) Report, pp. 201-04. (2) Hearings, Part 3, pp. 1026-34.
10 (1) Ibid. (2) General Gerow pointed out to the Congressional committee that the identifying number (472) cited in General Short's reply was meaningless at the time because "that number on the 27 November warning message was put on by the Signal Corps and it was not the number assigned to that particular document by the War Plans Division." Hearings, Part 3, p. 1031.
11 (1) Hearings, Part 3, p. 1187. (2) Ibid., p. 1114.
12 Hearings, Part 3, p. 1031.
13 Hearings, Part 3, p. 1026.
14 (1) Hearings, Part 3, pp. 1422-23. (2) The Congressional Pearl Harbor investigating committee drew this conclusion: "The War Plans Division of the War Department failed to discharge its direct responsibility to advise the commanding general [Marshall] he had not properly alerted the Hawaiian Department when the latter, pursuant to instructions, had reported action taken in a message that was not satisfactorily responsive to the original directive." Report, p. 252.
15 AG ltr, 11 Dec 41, sub: Enlargement of Functions of GHQ, AG 320.2 (12-10-41) MO-C-M. Maj. Gen. R. C. Moore, Deputy Chief of Staff, and G-3 prepared the authorization for the AG letter as issued. WPD had drafted another letter, never issued, giving GHQ a broader grant of authority. See memo, WPD for TAG, 10 Dec 41, sub: Supervision of Execution of Opns, WPD 3209-15.
16 Memo, Brig Gen Gerow for Col W. B. Smith, 10 Dec 41, sub: General Headquarters, WPD 3209-17.
17 Memo, G-4 for WPD, 24 Jan 42, sub: Coordination Between WPD; G-4, WDGS; GHQ
and O'seas Theater Comdrs, WPD 3963-23. General Gerow's comments at this time
indicated his longstanding effort to make the GHQ system work by granting GHQ
authority in its own sphere and by insuring co-operation between WPD, G-4, and
GHQ. See memo, Col Handy for Brig Gen LeRoy Lutes, 18 Jan 42, sub: Coordination
Between . . ., WPD 3963-23.
For General Marshall's approval of the co-ordination policy, see memo, G-4 for CofS, 18 Jan 42, sub: Coordination Between . . ., WDCSA, OCS 16374-47.
18 AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36.
19 Notes on Conferences in OCS, II, 447, WDCSA rcds.
20 (1) WPD adm memo, 26 Dec 41, no sub, Paper 97, Item 2A, OPD Hist Unit file. (2) WPD adm memo, 17 Jan 42, sub: Sunday Dy, Paper 95, Item 2A, OPD Hist Unit file.
21 Memo, WPD for Rear Admiral R. S. Edwards, 9 Jan 42, no sub, Book 2, Exec 8.
22 Notes on Conferences in OSW, 19 Jan 42, Vol. II, WDCSA rcds.
23 A complete file of Daily Summary is in Current Group files, AG Rcds Br. Also see: (1) memo, SGS for WPD, 8 Dec 41, no sub, WPD 4544-24; (2) memo, WPD for other GS Divs, 9 Dec 41, sub: Daily Summary of Decisions and Actions for SGS, WPD 4544-24; (3) memo, Exec WPD for Col Handy and Col C. A. Russell, 18 Dec 41, sub: Daily Summary for White House, WPD 4544-24. For the origins and development of the Daily Summary, see OPD Hist Unit Study G.
24 Memo, Col. A. S. Nevins, WPD for Brig Gen Gerow, 17 Jan 42, sub: Gen Chaney's Cablegram 429, WPD 4402-147.
25 D/F, WPD for G-1, 2 Feb 42, sub: Add Grs for BOBCAT Force, WPD 4571-24.
26 D/F, WPD for TAG, 20 Jan 42, sub: Japanese Intpr for BOBCAT, WPD 4571-29.
27 D/F, WPD for TAG, 31 Jan 42, sub: Asgmt 2d Lt Walter H. Pleiss, Ord Dept to BOBCAT, WPD 4571-34.
28 Memo, ACofS WPD for Rear Adm R. A. Turner, 2 Feb 42, sub: Asgmt 2d Lt Walter H. Pleiss . . ., WPD 4571-34.
29 Notes on Conferences in OSW, 5 Jan 42, Vol. II, WDCSA rcds.
30 Notations by Gen. D. D. Eisenhower, 24 Feb 42, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit file.
31 Cf. memo, Capt C. E. Miller, Secy JUSSC for Brig Gen W. B. Smith, JCS secretariat, 6 Apr 42, sub: Lt Col E. E. Partridge, U. S. Army—Dtl of to [sic] Psychological Warfare Committee, OPD 210.3, 60. Psychological warfare, nearly always considered on a joint or combined level, was throughout World War II the special assignment of one or more officers in the Combined Subjects (later Policy) Section of Strategy & Policy Group.
32 Memo, Col Ridgway for Brig Gen Gerow, 29 Dec 41, no sub, Tab Misc, Book 1, Exec 8. The agreement is indorsed by General Gerow (initials) as recommended by Colonel Ridgway.
33 For request for six Reserve officers by name, for example, see memo, WPD for TAG, 10 Dec 41, sub: Orders for Res Offs, Item 2, Exec. 15.
34 (1) WPD pers file, passim, WPD 3354. (2) Exec pers papers, Item 2, Exec 15.
35 (1) Memo, WPD for G-1, 28 Jan 42, sub: Dtl of Offs, Item 2, Exec 15. (2) Memo, WPD for G-1, 31 Jan 42, sub: Dtl of Offs to WPD, Item 2, Exec 15.
36 (1) Memo, WPD for TAG, 19 Jan 42, sub: Mechanical Time Fuses for Philippine Department, WPD 4560-10. (2) Notations by Gen D. D. Eisenhower, 1 Jan 42, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit file. General Eisenhower noted: "I arrived in Wash. Dec. 14-41. Telephone call from office C/S." His official date of entering on duty was 20 December 1941. (3) Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (New York, 1948), pp. 14-16. (4) See below, Ch. VIII.
37 Notations by Gen D. D. Eisenhower, 1 Jan 42, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit file.
38 In 1941 the Army Command and Administrative Communications Network (ACAN), installed and operated by the Signal Corps, consisted, in the main, of one-channel radio circuits, manually operated, connecting control station WAR at Washington with headquarters of corps areas in the continental United States, and with Panama, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Iceland, Bermuda, and (by relay from San Francisco) the Philippines. Information supplied by Sig C Unit, Hist Div, SSUSA. See WD Sig C Sec, Army Comd Serv, Sig C Chronological Data Charts, 1940-45.
39 For the prewar practice of AGO and the difficulties arising there from in 1940 and 1941, see Nelson, National Security and The General Staff, p. 332.
40 (1) This serial message file, begun 7 December 1941, was continued through March 1942 and finally amounted to twenty volumes, collected as the WPD Message File. See it, together with its continuation, the OPD Message File, in Hist Rcds Sec, AG Rcds Br. (2) For procedure of dispatching and distributing messages, see OPD adm memo, 16 Dec 41, sub: Incoming and Outgoing Msgs, WPD, Paper 99, Item 2A, OPD Hist Unit file.
41 Memo, Col Donald Wilson for Exec WPD, 19 Dec 41, sub: Dys of Jt Reqmts Sec, Paper 98, Item 2A, OPD Hist Unit file.
42 For its responsibility for troop unit calculations, designed to enable G-4 to plan equipment programs, see memo, WPD for G-4, 27 Dec 41, sub: Tr Basis for Victory Program, WPD 4494-26. Note states that the Troop Basis was filed in "Resources and Requirements."
43 WPD map charts, 1 Aug 41 and 17 Oct 41, Tab C, Item 7, Exec 4. These charts showed present, projected as of "End 1941," and "After 1941" strength in terms of personnel and aircraft.
44 WPD file copies of the Weekly Status Map, 3 Jan 42-9 Nov 44, AG 061 (4 Sep 45), 1. Attached to the Weekly Status Map, 26 Feb 42, is memo, Col L. S. Gerow for Sec Chiefs, Opns Gp, 3 Mar 42, no sub. The memorandum mentioned the "purpose of having uniformity," and explained that the Resources & Requirements Section produced the map, keeping its own "current strength reports and sailings," and drawing on the other sections of the Operations Group for projected strength of personnel and for both "present and projected number of airplanes." For continuation of this function, see p. 308.
45 For record of ARCADIA Conference and participants, see volume containing minutes of meetings and approved papers, entitled Proceedings of the American-British Joint Chiefs of Staff Conferences Held in Washington, D. C. on Twelve Occasions between December 24, 1941 and January 14, 1942, ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41). Note that the term "joint" was still being used to mean international rather than interservice. The latter usage was recommended and adopted at this conference.
46 Msg from British CsofS aboard H.M.S. Duke of York, 18 Dec 41, Item 5, Exec 10.
47 For a detailed study of the complicated documentary source material supporting the general statements made in the text about preparations for the ARCADIA Conference, see OPD Hist Unit Study H.
48 (1) Draft paper, n.d., title: Broad Mil Decisions, WDCSA 381 (12-21-41) SS. (2) Min of JB meetings, 21 Dec 41. (3) Memo, SW, n.d., title: Memo of Decisions at White House, Sunday, Dec 21, 1941, copy in envelope with WPD 4402-136.
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Last updated 19 October 2004