Endnotes for Chapter II

1 These two functions of WPD, as determined in the 1921 reorganization of the War Department, are described in the two sections that immediately follow.

2 AR 10-15, par. 12, 25 Nov 21, sub: GS Orgn and Gen Dys.

3 (1) Ibid. (2) AR 10-15, 18 Aug 36. In addition to assigning to WPD these three broad duties the 1921 regulations specifically charged the Division with five duties of lesser strategic importance. Three of these were rather tenuously related to strategic planning and were transferred to other staff divisions between 1921 and 1941. The other two duties still assigned to WPD in 1941 were: "Location and armament of coast and land fortifications" and "Consultation with the Operations and Training Division (G-3) and the Supply Division (G-4) on major items of equipment."

4 For definition of terms, see WD Fld Serv Regulations: Opns (FM 100-5), 22 May 41, p. 1.

5 Lecture, title: WPD—Its Gen Functions and Opns, WPD 2389. This lecture was prepared by WPD officers for delivery at the Army War College by Brig. Gen. H. A. Smith but was not delivered. It is a good summary of early WPD opinion about its duties.

6 Lecture, Maj George V. Strong, 8 Oct 27, Army Industrial College, title: Orgn and Functions of WPD, GS, and Jt Army and Navy Bd, WPD 2722-1.

7 For American interservice planning, see Ch. III. For accomplishments and activities in the interservice and international field in the immediate pre-Pearl Harbor period, see Ch. IV.

8 In describing liaison maintained by WPD with other governmental departments, WPD's executive officer in 1939 mentioned State, Treasury, Interior, Agriculture, Commerce, and Justice. This officer declared: "The work of the Division is generally speaking on a far broader basis than is found in any other agency of the War Department." Lecture, Lt Col W. H. Walker, 13 Dec 39, Army Industrial College, title: WPD, WDGS, WPD 2722-5.

9 Between 1921 and the end of 1940 eleven officers served as chiefs of the Army's strategic planning agency, as follows:

Briant H. Wells (O-463) b. 1871
   Sep 1921-Oct 1923
Stuart Heintzelman (O-774)    1876
   Dec 1923-Jul 1924
Leroy Eltinge (O-502)    1872
   Jul 1924-Apr 1925
Harry A. Smith (O-335)    1866
   Jul 1925-May 1927
George S. Simonds (O-764)    1874
   Sep 1927-Sep 1931
Joseph P. Tracy (O-390)    1874
   Sep 1931-Aug 1932
Charles E. Kilbourne (O-858)    1872
   Sep 1932-Feb 1935
Stanley D. Embick (O-766)    1877
   Mar 1935-May 1936
Walter Krueger (O-1531)    1881
   May 1936-Jun 1938
George C. Marshall (O-1616)    1880
   Jul 1938-Oct 1938
George V. Strong (O-1908)    1880
   Oct 1938-Dec 1940

WPD's first Assistant Chief of Staff held the rank of colonel for one year, but subsequently he was made a brigadier general. His successors either were brigadier generals or were promptly promoted to that rank after their appointments as Assistant Chief of Staff. For organization and personnel in WPD as a whole, see OPD Hist Unit Study C.

10 AR 10-15, par. 7d(2), 25 Nov 21. For the careful reflections of Army officers on the proposed GHQ system as of 1939, see Army War College rpt, 14 Oct 39, sub: Orgn for High Comd, Rpt of Com 9, G-3 Course at Army War College, National War College Library. See particularly pp, 88-90. The report stated, p. 89: "All officers of the War Department who were interviewed by members of the Committee in regard to this regulation (i.e., AR 10-15, covering Commanding General, Field Forces, GHQ, and the General Staff) professed themselves as satisfied with the present version and considered its provisions desirable." Also: "It appears that the present text of Army Regulations (10-15) conforms to the principles of the Harbord Board."

11 Memo, Brig Gen Fox Conner, etc. for Maj Gen Harbord, 13 Jul 21, sub: Reasons for Establishing Nucleus of GHQ within WDGS, Historical Documents, p. 575.

12 WD GO 41, 16 Aug 21.

13 Memo, WPD for CofS, 30 Jun 24, sub: Annual Rpt of ACofS WPD for FY Ending June 30, 1924, WPD 1347-2.

14 Memo, WPD for G-1, 16 Dec 21, sub: Minimum No of RA Offs Required for WPD, WPD 392.

15 (1) Memo, WPD for CofS, 30 Jun 24, sub: Annual Rpt of ACofS WPD for FY Ending June 30, 1924, WPD 1347-2. (2) Cf. memo, n. 12.

16 Lecture, Lt Col E. M, Offley, 15 Dec 24, Army War College, title: G-1 Activities, WPD GS, WPD 2160-2.

17 WPD draft memo, WPD for CofS—Nov 33, sub: Dys of WPD WDGS After M-Day, and draft appendices, WPD 2160-3. This memorandum, prepared by Maj. P. J. Mueller, was not dispatched.

18 See Ch. 1.

19 WPD adm memo, 24 Oct 36, sub: Dys of WPD of WDGS in War, WPD 1199-211.

20 See AG ltr, 8 Apr 38, sub: Annual Mobilization Asgmts of RA Offs, AG 320.2 (3-26-38) (Exec) W.P.

21 Memo, WPD for CofS, 9 Aug 22, sub: Annual Rpt of ACofS WPD for Period 1 Sep 21-30 Jun 22, WPD 821-1. Originally 14 officers were assigned for duty with WPD as constituted in 1921. The number was cut to 12 in 1922, and strength remained at 11 or 12 officers, 1922-39. By the end of 1940 it reached 22. See OPD Hist Unit Study C. All information presented in this history concerning officer personnel and personnel assignments in WPD and OPD is taken from the several officer personnel lists compiled by the author. This information is not footnoted in the text. For detailed personnel studies and a note on sources, see App. A and OPD Hist Unit Studies D, F, and K.

22 Memo, G-3 for CofS, 20 Dec 23, sub: Change in Sec. XIV, Bsc Plan, WD Mobilization Plan, 1923, copy in WPD 1199-8.

23 For a detailed description of the formal procedures of Army war planning, see lecture, Brig Gen Krueger, 3 Jan 38, Army Industrial College, title: War Plans and War Planning, WPD 2722-3.

24 WPD 870. The entire file is correspondence on BLUE plan.

25 For an outline of eleven early "color" plans approved by the Secretary of War, see WPD Book, 9 Jan 31, title: Strategical Plans Outline, Item 1, Exec 4. The color plans are filed as obsolete registered documents of Plans & Operations Division, GSUSA, in Classified Files, AGO.

26 For RAINBOW plans, see Ch. IV.

27 Army War College study, 1939-40, title: Notes on War Planning, App. 4, Item 2A, Exec 4. A detailed chart in this study gives a clear idea of how intricate and long-drawn-out were the steps in completing a joint war plan.

28 For all the foregoing, see memo, WPD for DCofS, 23 Sep 36, sub: Request of DCofS for Synopsis of Four Problems Handled by WPD, WDGS, WPD 3956.

29 AR 10-15, par. 6, 25 Nov 21.

30 Memo, WPD for DCofS, 3 Aug 25 sub: Responsibilities of ACSofS, atchd as incl L of memo Maj A. W. Lane for DCofS, 2 Sep 25, sub: Economy; in Administration of GS, WPD 2220-2.

31 Memo, WPD for CofS, 6 Nov 25, sub: Preparation of War Plans, WPD 2390.

32 Memo, G-4 for CofS, 16 Nov 25, sub: Preparation of War Plans, WPD 2390.

33 Memo, CofS for WPD, 17 Aug 39, no sub, WPD 3963-1.

34 Memo, WPD for CofS, 30 Sep 39, sub: Modification of GS Procedure, WPD 3963-1.

Return to the Table of Contents

Search CMH Online
Last updated 19 October 2004