- Endnotes for Chapter IX
- 1 See above, Ch. VII.
- 2 For establishment of the Army missions in the Middle East to deal
with lend-lease problems, see above, Ch. III. For an account of the
missions and the difficulties faced, see Motter, The Persian Corridor
and Aid to Russia.
- 3 (1) Memo, Maj. Elmer J. Rogers, Jr., for ACofS WPD, 31 Dec 41, sub:
Serv Trs for Dispatch to Middle East, WPD 4511-28. According to this
memorandum, the troops requested by Maxwell came to over 15,000, (2)
Memo, WPD for CofS, 23 Jan 42, no sub, and incl chart, title: Units Requested
by Maxwell, in 414 AMSEG 103, 20 Dec 41, WPD 4511-28.
According to this, the troops requested came to over 22,000.
- 4 (1) Msg (originator WPD), Marshall to Maxwell, 2 Jan 42, No. 310.
(2) Msg, same to same, 3 Jan 42, No. 316.Both in WPD Msg File 5.
- 5 Concurrence are filed with memo cited n. 3 (1) .
- 6 Note, DE
[Eisenhower], for Gee [Gerow], n.d., WPD 4511-28. Another reason for sending service units was to take over construction
projects then being handled by private contractors. Under Secretary of
War Robert P. Patterson urged this and General Marshall agreed. (See
Notes on War Council, 19 Jan 42, S W Confs, Vol II, WDCSA.)
- 7 Memo, OPD for CofS, 16 Mar 42, sub: Atchd ltr from Sir John Dill, OPD
381 Middle East, 1. The attached letter is not in this file. It is
perhaps the letter of that date in WDCSA 381 War Plans (S).
- 8 For their criticism, see Ch. XI, below.
- 9 (1) Min, 4th mtg JCS, 7 Mar 42. (2) Min, 6th mtg JCS, 16 Mar 42.
- 10 Ibid.
- 11 Min, 13th mtg CCS, 17 Mar 42, and annex thereto. A copy of the original proposal drafted by General Arnold to meet
the original request is filed in OPD 320.2, 49. With it is a note in red
pencil from [illegible], an a disposition form of Office, Chief of Air
Staff, to Col. John E. Upston, stating that the paper was a copy of one
that Arnold "said he would submit to the Comb C/C." (For the
resultant directive, see D/F, OPD far AAF, 17 Mar 42, sub: Air Task
Force for Cairo, OPD 320.2 Egypt, 2.)
- 12 Memo, CofS for President, 18 Mar 42, no sub, WDCSA 381 War Plans
- 13 Notes in pencil, H. L. S. [Stimson] on memo cited n. 12.
- 14 For the Arnold-Portal agreement of 13 Jan 42, see Craven and Cate,
AAF I, pp. 248-49.
- 15 (1) Memo, AAF for OPD, 20 Mar 42, sub: Reduction in Commitment of
Pursuit Planes to Br, OPD 452.1, 35. (2) Memo, AAF for OPD, 23 Mar
42, sub: Reduction in Commitment of all Types of Airplanes to Br, OPD
452.1, 36. (3) Memo, AAF for WPD, 30 Mar 42, sub: Reduction in
Commitment of All Types of Combat Airplanes, OPD 452.1, 12. (4) Memo,
AAF for OPD, 11 Apr 42, sub: Aircraft Allocations, OPD 452.1, 12. (5)
Min, 12th mtg JCS, 27 Apr 42.
- 16 Memo, Conf, Stimson with President, 9 Apr 42, WDCSA 381 War Plans
(S). The rest of the memorandum dealt with air problems, concluding with
the President's remarks on the recent loss of the two British cruisers
off Ceylon. "He said that he had heard that they had expected
support from the R.A.F., but that through some misunderstanding it had
not been given. He said that he was more than ever convinced of the vice
of a separate air force such as the British had."
- 17 Ltr, SW to President, 12 Apr 42, WDCSA 452.1 (S). For a statement of the program of the AAF, see memo, AAF [CofAS] for
WPD, 20 Mar 42, sub: AAF Plans and Projects, OPD 580.4 (3-16-42), 1.
- 18 See memo cited n.17 This summary lists and briefly describes
the project with the note: "This plan is definitely not
- 19 (1) Msg, McNarney to Marshall, 14 Apr 42, CM-OUT 2583. (2)
Msg, Marshall to McNarney, 17 Apr 42, CM-IN 4481. (3) D/F, AAF for OPD,
24 Apr 42, sub: Air Task Force for Cairo, OPD 320.2 Egypt, 2.
- 20 The CCS put the question in the hands of a special committee,
composed of General Arnold, Rear Admiral John H. Towers (Chief, Bureau
of Aeronautics), and Air Marshal Douglas C. S. Evill (British Air member
of the CCS). (1) Min, 15th mtg CCS, 7 Apr 42. CCS 61/D, 9 Apr 42,
title: Aircraft Sit of U. N. The- committee made very little progress. See ltr, Dill to Marshall,
15 May 42, no sub, and ltr, CofS to Dill, 17 May 42, no sub, both in
WDCSA 452.1 (S). For settlement of the question, entailing the provision of
U .S. air
units for the Middle East, see below, pp. 226 ff.
- 21 Msg, Marshall to McNarney, 14 Apr 42, CM-IN 3714. The British
Chiefs stated the consequences of Japanese control of the western
Indian Ocean as follows: (1) the Allies would be unable to support
forces in the Middle East, and the Germans would gain access to oil
and other resources of the area, and the Far East; (2) the loss of oil
supplies from Abadan would be irreparable; (3) the southern supply route
to the Soviet Union would be cut; and (4) Turkey would fall an easy prey
to the Germans, and German naval forces would be able to enter the Black
Sea and turn the Soviet position in the Caucasus.
- 22 Msg (originator OPD), McNarney to Marshall 14 Apr 42, CM-OUT
2583. The original typed message bears notation "OK-FDR," Item
5, Exec 1.
- 23 Msg, Marshall to McNarney, 14 Apr 42, CM-IN 3720.
- 24 Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Stilwell, 15 Apr 42, CM-OUT
- 25 Msg, Marshall to Stilwell, 15 Apr 42, CM-OUT 2708. For Stilwell's
objections to the diversion of the Tenth Air Force, see Craven and
Cate, AAF I, p. 503, and the numerous messages cited therein.
- 26 For this transaction, and the background in China, see Romanus
and Sunderland, Stilwell's ,fission to China, Ch. V.
- 27 Msg, Chiang Kai-shek to Soong, 19 Apr 42, Item 19b, Exec 10.
- 28 Memo [Soong] for President [20 Apr 42], no sub, Item 19b, Exec 10.
- 29 Unused memo, CofS for President, 13 Dec 41, sub: Aid to Russia,
WPD 4557-29. See also other papers filed therewith.
- 30 Ltr, President to SW, 28 Dec 41, copy incl with memo, Col
Jaynes for ACofS WPD, 2 Jan 42, sub: Russian Protocol, WPD 4557-41. The President
ordered that "all items go forward promptly after
January 1, unless I authorize the specific amendment."
- 31 Shipments to the Soviet Union continued to fall in arrears.
There was a small increase in the tonnage shipped in January and
February 1942, but shipments remained at less than 100,000 long tons a
month, instead of the 200,000 long tons required to meet commitments. (See Rpt on War Aid Furnished by U. S. to USSR, prepared by Protocol and
Areas Info Stf of USSR Br and Div of Research and Rpts [Dept of
State], 28 Nov 45, copy in OPD Hist Unit File, Item 5. Figures are from
chart entitled: Statement of Cargo Shipped from W Hemisphere to USSR . .
., p. 15 of rpt cited above.)
- 32 See above, Ch. V.
- 33 Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., Lend-Lease: Weapon for Victory (New
York, The Macmillan Company, 1944) , p. 205.
- 34 Ibid.
- 35 (11 Rpt cited n. 31. (2) See also Stettinius, Lend-Lease, pp.
- 36 On 11 April in passing on War Department proposals to change
production objectives, the President made "the distinct proviso
that the protocol agreement with Russia be lived up to." He added
that "the total supplies to be sent to Russia between July first
and January first must be at least as great as today and actually
increase I as much as possible." (Memo, President for SW, 11 Apr
42, Item 28, Exec 10.)
- 37 Ltr, President to SW, 24 Mar 42, with JPS 28/1) in ABC: 400.3295
Russia (19 Apr 42), 1.
- 38 See (1) memo, OPD for CofS, 28 Feb 42, sub: Strategic
Conceptions and Their Application to SW Pacific, Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec
8; (2) memo, OPD for CofS, 25 Mar 42, sub: Critical Points in
Development of Coordinated Viewpoint as to Maj Tasks of the War, Item
56, Exec 10. (These memos are discussed above in Chs. VII and VIII.) See also memo, ACofS for SW, 12 Apr 42, sub: Review of Current Sit,
OPD 381, 6 (this copy bears initials of Eisenhower as action officer)
and OPD brief, Notes on CCS 47 . . ., n.d., with CCS 47 in ABC 452.1
- 39 Memo, AAF for WPD, 30 Mar 42, sub: Reduction in Commitment of All Types of Combat Airplanes, OPD 452.1, 12.
- 40 Ltr, SW to President, 12 Apr 42, WDCSA 452.1 (S).
- 41 Min, 12th mtg JCS, 27 Apr 42.
- 42 As stated by Brig Gen Harry J. Malony, min, 16th nag CCS, 21
Apr 42. For War Department recommendation against granting initial request for
600 transport planes, see ltr, DCofS [Gen Moore] to Gen Burns [Off of
Lend-Lease Admin], 24 Dec 41, no sub. A copy, drafted in WPD, is
filed with memo, WPD for DCofS, 24 Dec 41, sub: Transport Planes for
Soviet Russia, WPD 45:57-36.
- 43 Memo, Mun Asgmts Corn (Air) [Col Edmund C. Lang Langmead, Secy, for
Gen Harmon, Chm] for WPD, 28 Mar 42, sub: Transport Airplane Reqmts for
1942. OPD 452.1, 7.
- 44 1st Ind, OPD to Mun Asgmts Com (Air), 3 Apr 42, to memo
cited n. 43.
- 45 (1) CCS 65, 21 Apr 42, title: Allocation of Transport Airplanes
for USSR. (21 Min, 11th nag JCS, 20 Apr 42.
- 46 CCS 65, 21 Apr 42.
- 47 This fact had been recognized by the MAB in making the allocation,
as stated by Malony in minutes cited n. 42.
- 48 Min cited n. 42.
- 49 Memo, Towers for King [20 Apr 42], sub: Allocation of 29
Transports to Russia During May and June, WDCSA Russia (S).
- 50 Note, King to Marshall, 22 Apr 42, penned on memo cited n. 49.
- 51 Memo, CofS for King, 27 Apr 42, no sub, WDCSA Russia (S).
- 52 Memo, CofS for President, 27 Apr 42, sub: Transport Airplanes for
Russia, WDCSA Russia (S).
- 53 JCS 42, 24 Apr 42, title: Allocation of Transport Airplanes
for U. S. S. R.
- 54 Min, 12th mtg JCS, 27 Apr 42.
55(1) Memo, AAF CofS, 25 Apr 42, sub: Airline Reqmts for
Transport Planes. (2) Memo, AAF for CofS, 30 Apr 42, sub: Air Transport
Opns-Domestic and Foreign. Both in WDCSA Russia (S).
56 Min, 16th mtg CCS, 21 Apr 42.
57 Memo cited n. 72.
58 Informal memo, F. D. R. for SW and CofS, 5 May 42, WDCSA Russia
(S). Assistant Secretary of War McCloy, having opened the
sent it on to Marshall, making a copy for Secretary Stinson. (See covering
memo, J. J. McCloy for CofS, 5 May 42, filed with above memo.)
59 Memo, SW for President, 7 May 42, sub: Analysis
of Air Transportation Reqmts for War Program,
WDCSA Russia (S).
60 With reference to the President's memorandum of 5 May cited (in n.
58) above, Colonel Deane stated: "Answer sent by CofS this date
a directive issued by the President on the subject.
JRD." This note appears on the covering memorandum from McCloy
cited in n. 58. On the covering Memorandum also appears an unsigned
note in pencil: "Gen. Arnold prepared
the letr referred
to, but Col. Deane was not furnished with a copy of the letr." The
answer may be the memorandum cited in n. 59. (See also Arnold, Global
.Mission. p. 331.)
61 Memo, Smith for Marshall, 1 May 42, sub: Transport Planes for
Russia, incl draft of ltr, MAB to Soviet ambassador, with JCS 42 in
ABC 452.1 (1-22-42), 1.
62 Informal memo, Smith for CofS, 7 May 42, WDCSA Russia (S).
For renewed Soviet demands for transport planes in 1942, see below,
Ch. XV, pp. 329 36, 346-47.
63 Memo, King for CofS, 29 Mar 42, Sub: Strategic Deploytment in
Pacific Against Japan, Navy File A 16-3 (1).
65 Memo, McNarney [ACofS] for King, 6 Apr 42, sub cited n.63, OPD
,181 PTO, 10. This memo was based on draft memo [CofS for King], 1 Apr 12, same sub,
Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec 8.
66 (1) Memo. Capt John L.. McCrea (USN) for Marshall, King, and Arnold,
2 Apr 42, no sub, with JPS 21/2/D in ABC 181 Pacific Bases (1-22-42), 1. (2) Min, 9th
mtg JCS, 6 Apr 42.
67 The special joint subcommittee was made up of the JUSSC and
additional members chosen by Admiral Turner and General Handy. (For the
appointment of the committee, see min, 11th mtg JPS, 8 Apr 42.)
68 See JPS 21 series, JCS 48, and the following: (1) OPD brief, Notes on . . . 13th mtg
JPS, 22 Apr 42, with JPS 21/7
in ABC 381 Pacific Bases (1-22-42), 2; (2) min, 14th mtg JPS, 25
Apr 42 (3) memo, JPS for JCS, 2 May 42, sub: Aircraft Deployments,
incorporated in JCS 23 (Army members were willing to recommend certain
additions in the South Pacific its a basis for "the eventual future
Air Force which cannot be established for a considerable time in the
future"-13 light bombers and 25 pursuit planes above current War
Department commitments) ; and (4) min, 13th mtg JCS, 4 May 42. JCS 48 was never approved by the JCS, though it
was on the agenda
for several months.
69 Memo, King for JCS, 4 May 42, sub: JCS 48 -Def of Island Bases
in Pacific, OPD 381 Gen, 62.
70 Min cited n. 68 (4).
71 See estimate of the Australian Chiefs of Staff prepared "in
conjunction with" Macarthur's staff, forwarded to the War
Department in msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 4 Apr 42, CM-IN 1070 (R). For earlier discussion, which had begun during the ABDA period, see:
(1) CCS 18, 13 Jan 42, sub: Possible Japanese Action Against Australia
and New Zealand: (2) CCS 18/1, 13 Mar 42: (3) WPD notes on CCS 18/1, in
ABC 384 (1-31-42): and (4) notes for Army planner, 9th mtg CPS, 19 Mar
42, with CPS 24 in ABC 381 Australia (1-23-42).
72 Msg, Prime Minister [Churchill] to President, 29 Apr 42, . 73, Item
62, Exec 10.
74 Memo, King for Marshall, 29 Apr 42, no sub, Item 62, Exec 10. King
transmitted the President's instructions that the War Department draft a
75 Draft memo, CofS for President, 29 Apr 42, sub: Dispatch from
Prime Minister, Item 53, Exec 10.
76 Added to copies of WD draft [in hands of Col Gailey and Col Sexton]. See draft
memo cited n. 75. .
77 The brief War Department statement of policy on relations between
MacArthur and the Australian Government stated in the draft of a
proposed message to Churchill ,(contained in draft memo cited in n.75), was transmitted to Australia in
msg, Marshall to MacArthur, 30
Apr 42, CM-OUT 6034 (R).
78 Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, .3 May 42, CM-IN 0667 (R).
79 Memo, CofS for President, 6 May 42, no sub, Items is and 53, Exec
10. The- memorandum includes the complete message, with the War
Department's suggested addition, and Colonel Gailey's notation that
the President had approved the addition. Gailey also noted that the
message had been sent as Msg No. 3l .(CM-OUT 1131), and that it had
been received in Melbourne. copy of the message is in the OPD message
80 Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 8 May 42, CM-IN 2333.
created 10 January 2002