for Chapter V
- 1 According to Churchill's memoirs,
he himself originated the proposal to cross
the Atlantic to meet the President ( Grand
Alliance, pp. 608- 10.)
- 2 Msg from Br CsofS aboard H. M. S.
Duke of York, 18 Dec 41, Item 5, Exec 10.
This is the original WD copy.
- 3 For an account of these preparations,
see Cline, Washington Command Post,
- 4 (1) Notes, G. C. M. [Marshall],
23 Dec 41, sub: dotes on Mtg at White House
with President and Br Prime Minister Presiding,
WPD 4402-136. (2) Votes on Informal Confs Held
During Visit of Br CsofS in Washington, WDCS.4
334 Mtgs and Confs (1-28-42 (1-28-42). (3)
Min, conf at White House, 12 Jan 42, sub: SUPER-GYMNAST.
GYMNAST and SUPER-GYMNAST Development File,
G-3 Regd Does. War Department files include
records of various other meetings in which
the President and the Prime Minister, separately
or together, discussed military matters with
members of the military staffs. Notes on Informal
Conferences (cited above) include minutes of
two meetings at the White House attended by
the members of the American military staff.
- 5 See note for rcd, Gen Gerow, 21
Dec 41, Tab Collab, Book I, Exec 8.
"Proceedings of the American-British joint
Chiefs of Staff Conferences Held in Washington,
D. C., on Twelve Occasions between December
24, 1941 and January 14, 1942," filed
with ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1.
Note that the term "Joint" was still
being used to denote international as well
as interservice deliberations; the fixed distinction
between "Joint" and "Combined"
was recommended and adopted at the conference.
- 7 Min, ARCADIA mtgs, ABC 337
ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1.
- 8 Min, Jt [British -American]
Plng Corn Mtgs, Tab 3, ABC 337 ARCADIA (24
Dec 41), 2.
- 9 WPD
paper, 21 Dec 41, sub: Notes on Agenda
Proposed by Br, Folder Book 2, Exec 4. This
compilation included two versions of
the American view of grand strategy. The latter,
fuller version is contained in the first paragraph
of the second section of the first study, entitled:
General Strategic Review. This was prepared
in WPD after consultation with Navy and Army
Air planners. The earlier, shorter version
is in a "tentative first draft" prepared
in WPD and sent to General Marshall and Secretary
Stimson on 19 December. The "tentative
first draft" was circulated with minor
revisions as a joint Board paper. (See mimeographed
paper, sub: Tentative U. S. Views on Sub of
Br Memo, Dec 18, atchd to memo, SJB [Col Scobey]
for JPS, Army Sec, 3 Jan 42, sub: JB 325 ser
729-Gen Strategy, with JB 325, ser 729, Army
JPC file, G-3.)
- 10 The
statement of the British Chiefs in August 1941
at the Atlantic Conference is quoted and discussed
above, pp. 55 ff.
- 11 Churchill, Grand Alliance,
pp. 657-58, The passages quoted are from Part
III, "The Campaign of 1943," dated
18 December 1941, of the Prime Minister's presentation
to the President of his theory of strategy.
- 12 Churchill, Grand Alliance,
p. 659. See Churchill's notes of a meeting
of 18 December with the British Chiefs, at
which he read and they discussed the paper
on the campaign of 1943.
- 13 Memo, Br CsofS (for Amer CsofS),
22 Dec 41, sub: Amer-Br Strategy, ABC 337 ARCADIA
- 41 ), 2. This is the first version
of WW-1, the first paper presented at the ARCADIA
Conference. WW-1 (standing for War Conference)
was the British code for ARCADIA papers. The
American code was ABC-4 (carried over from
earlier American-British conversations of early
1941, beginning with ABC-1). The American code
for WW-1, as revised and finally approved,
- 14 Memo, Col Bundy for CofS (through
ACofS, WPD), 24 Oct 41, sub: Trip with Harriman
Miss, WPD 4557-12. For the Harriman mission,
see Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins,
- 15 WPD study, n.d., title: Est, Army
Reqmts, a supporting study to JB 355, ser 707,
11 Sep 41, title: JB Est of U.S. Over-all Pdn
Reqmts, Sec II, Part II, App II, pp. 2, 3,
copy in WPD 4494-13.
- 16 Study, title: Gen Strategic Review,
in Votes on Agenda Proposed by Br, 21 Dec 41,
p. 9, Tab i, Folder Book 2, Exec 4.
- 17 Study, title: Immediate Mil Measures,
in Notes on Agenda Proposed by Br, 21 Dec 41,
pp. 5, 8, Tab ii, Folder Book 2, Exec 4.
- 18 See letters written to Admiral
Pound and General Jan Christian Smuts while
en route, in Churchill, Grand Alliance pp.
- 19 Votes, G.C.M. [Marshall], 23 Dec
41, sub: Notes on Mtg at White House with President
and Br Prime Minister Presiding, WPD 4402-136.
Compare the full account of the Prime Minister's
views written for the President, in Churchill,
Grand Alliance, pp. 648-49.
- 20 JB 3,55, ser 707, 11 Sep 41, title
cited n. 15, p. 14.
- 21 Ltr, JPC: to JB, 25 Sep 41, sub:
Gen Strategy-Review by Br CsofS, JB 325, ser
729. This statement of American views was superseded
by the paper, cited in n. 9, entitled: Tentative
U.S. Views on Sub of Br Memo, Dec 18.
- 22 The plan for Dakar being developed
before Pearl Harbor bore the coda name BLACK.
The code name BLACK was dropped, apparently
because the Navy thought it indicated Africa
by association of ideas, and the plan was briefly
called PICADOR and, finally, BARRISTER. (See
draft papers in BLACK arid BARRISTER Development
File, G -3 Regd Docs.
- 23 Notes, SW, sub: Memo of Decisions
at White House, Sunday, Dec. 21, 1941, WDCSA
381 (12-21-41) (SS).
- 24 WPD note for rcd, 21 Dec 41,Tab
Collab, Book 1, Exec 8.
- 25 See passage quoted above, p. 18,
from study cited n. 17.
- 26 Memo, Ridgway for Marshall, 23
Dec 41, no sub, Tab Misc, Book 1, Exec 8.
- 27 Notes cited n. 23.
- 28 (1) Memo, WPD for CofS, 14 Jul
41, sub: Suggested Amer Action in Af, WPD 4511-2.
(21 WPD study, title: Lines of Action Open
for Employment U.S. Trs, Tab IV in Vol, "Study
on Occupation of Northwest Africa," WPD
4510. (3) Memo, Col Bundy for CofS, 28 Nov
41, sub: Conf with Mr. Bullitt, WPD 4511-26.
- 29 Memo, Gen Embick, no addressee,
n.d., sub: totes on Est of Br CsofS, in folder
filed with Item 13, Exec 4.
- 30 At an Army-Navy meeting early in
the conference Marshall noted that he had talked
with Embick, who "had sat on the Supreme
War Council during the World War and felt that
the British greatly exaggerated the importance
of North Africa, that even if American troops
did go into Casa Blanca [sic], they
would not be covered from attacks by Spanish
Morocco." (Conf in Stack's Off, 1130,
27 Dec 41, WDCSA 334 Mtgs and Confs (1-28-42)
- 31 Notes, G. C. M. [Marshall], 23
Dec 41, sub: Notes on Mtg at White House with
President and Br Prime Minister Presiding,
- 32 The compromise plan was circulated
as Annex 2 to min, CsofS Conf, 26 Dec 41, ABC:
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1. It bore the title:
Project GYMNAST, and the code U.S. Serial ABC-4/2.
For drafts, see ABC; 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 411),
2. The original American and British estimates
appear in a typescript entitled: Initial or
Three Months force, filed in envelope with
Item 13, Exec 4.
- 33 (1) Typescript cited n. 32. (2)
WPD study, n.d., title: Data on Assistance
Which Can Be Furnished Br in Occupation of
NW Af. (3) Paper, n.d., title: Gen Disposition
of Proposed Trs for Def NW Af. Last two
filed in folder with Item 13, Exec 4.
- 34 WPD study, n.d, title: Basis of
WPD Est of Forces Req to Hold Morocco, Algeria
and Tunisia, filed in folder with Item 13,
- 35 The President asked for an estimate
by 26 December for the information of a State
Department official who was to leave by Pan
American clipper the following day. (Note,
Lt Col John T. Lewis [ASGS], for Gen Gerow,
24 Dec 41, Tab Misc, Book 1, Exec 8.) This
note recorded a telephone call for General
Gerow from General Marshall, who had been notified
of the President's instructions by Under Secretary
Welles. The official referred to apparently
was H. Freeman Matthews bearing the President's
and Prim Minister's instructions for sounding
out General Maxims Weygand about returning
to North Africa and assuming command there
with Allied support. (Sec (1) William L. Langer,
Our Vichy Gamble (New York, Alfred
A. Knopf, 1947), p. 209, and (2) William D.
Leahy, I Was There (New York, Wittlesey
House, 1950), p. 75.)
- 36 Plng paper, sub: Project- GYMNAST,
Annex 2 with rain, CsofS Conf, 26 Dec 41, ABC
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 411, 1. GYMNAST was a code
word assigned by the British to their North
African plan. See Churchill, Grand Alliance,
- 37 (1) For a thorough post-Pearl Harbor
survey of the shortage of troopships, see memo,
G-9 for CofS 11 Dec 41, sub: Shipping Sit,
Tab 115 in Day File 1941, OCT HB. (2) Memo,
Brig Gen Brehon B. Somervell for Gen Moore,
21 Dec 41, no sub, incl memo, Col Charles P.
Gross for Gen Somervell, 21 Dec 41, sub: Est
of Shipping Available for U.S. Overseas Efforts
1942 and 1943, Item 14, Exec 4.
- 38 Min, 1st mtg Jt Plng Com, 24 Dec
41, ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41 ), 2.
- 39 Memo, Gen Somervell, Capt Edmund
W. Burrough [USN], Capt Charles S. Alden [USN],
and Marshal L. Wilcox [Asst Dir of Emergency
Shipping, U.S. Mar Comm] for Jt Plng Corn,
26 Dec 41, sub: U. S. Shipping Capacity to
Carry Trs Overseas, with atchd note on Br shipping,
signed John S. Maclay, of Br Merchant Shipping
Miss, and atchd chart of U.S. tr shipping capacity,
in envelope with Item 13, Exec 4.
- 40 Rpt,
Jt Plng Com, 25 Dee 41, title: Priorities for
U.S. and U.K. Overseas Expeditions in Atlantic,
ABC-4/1, filed with later drafts in ABC 337
ARCADIA ( 24 Dec 41 ) , 2.
- 41 (1) Notes, SW, sub: Memo of Decisions
at White House, Sunday, Dec 21, 1941, WDCSA
381 (12-21-41) (SS). The President noted that
a force of two divisions or more would go to
Northern Ireland. (2) Notes, G. C. M. [Marshall],
23 Dec 41, sub: Notes on Mtg at White House
. . . , WPD 4402-136. The initial ARCADIA decision,
taken at this meeting, was to send three divisions
to Northern Ireland. (3) Min, CsofS Conf, 24
Dec 41, ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1. Field
Marshal Sir John Dill remarked that he understood
the Northern Ireland force was to consist of
three infantry divisions plus one armored division,
and General Marshall agreed.
- 42 (1) Conf in OCofS, 0830, 26 Dec
41, WDCSA 334 Mtgs and Confs (1 28-42) (SS).
(2) Memo for rcd, 26 Dec 41, sub: Mtg Held
in OCofS, WPD 4497-22. Originally the 3d Armored
Division was to be sent, but the 1st Armored
was substituted a few days later. See memo,
GHQ for WPD, 31 Dec 41, sub: Changes in Tr
Designations, and note for rcd, Gen Gerow,
1 Jan 42, sub: Decisions of CofS, both in WPD
- 43 See also p. 117, below. In recognition
of the hope for better relations with the Irish
Free Stag, the War Department first settled
upon Maj. Gen. Edmund L. Daley, a corps commander
who was of Irish descent and a Catholic, to
head the MAGNET Force. General Daley, however,
relinquished command of the force when it moved
to Northern Ireland. (See conf cited n. 42(1).)
- 44 See notes and rain cited n. 41.
- 45 Notes cited n. 41 (2) .
- 46 Min cited n. 41 (3).
- 47 Conf at White house, 1630, 26 Dec
41, WDCSA 334 Mtgs and Confs (1-28-42) (SS)
- 48 Min, 7th mtg CsofS Conf, 31 Dec
41, ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1.
- 49 (1) Memo, CofS, no addressee, 1
Jan 42, sub: Initial Atlantic Tr Movmt, WDCSA
381, 1 (SS). ( 21 Rcd, nag at White House,
1830, 1 Jan 42, WDCSA 334 Mtgs and Confs 1-
28 -42) (SS).
- 50 (1) Note for rcd Gen Gerow, 1 Jan
42 sub: Decisions of CofS, WPD 4497-23. (2)
Memo, WPD for CofS, 6 Jan 42, sub: Comd Arrangements,
USAFBI, WPD 4497-23. (3) Msg, WD to Sp Army
Obsr, London, 8 Jan 42, No. 293, WPD 4497-23.(4)
ABC-4/7, 11 Jan 42, title: Estab of U.S. Forces
in N Ireland, ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41),
- 51 Min, CsofS Conf, 27 Dec 41, ABC
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41) , 1.
- 52 Ibid. Cf. Stimson's remarks
in April 1941, cited above, pp. 52-53.
- 53 Rpt, Jt Plng Com to CsofS, 27 Dec
41, title: NW Af Project [ABC-4/2], ABC 337
ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 2.
- 54 Min, CsofS Conf, 31 Dec 41, ABC:
337 ARCADIA (24 Drs 41), 1.
- 55 (1) Conf in OSW, 1530, 4 Jan 42.
(2) Conf in White House, 1730, 4 Jan 42. Both
in WDCSA 334 Mtgs and Confs (1-28-42) (SS)
- 56 Memo, Admiral Turner for Admirals
Stark and King, 4 Jan 42, sub: Status of Work
Before CsofS and Jt Plng Corn, with JCCSs 7
in ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 2.
- 57 Confs cited n. 55.
- 58 Churchill, Grand Alliance,
pp. 684-85. "Though few, if any, saw it
in this light, this was in fact the first step
towards an Allied descent on Morocco, Algeria,
or Tunis, on which my hart was set. The President
was quite conscious of this, and while we did
not give precise form to the idea I felt that
our thoughts flowed in the same direction,
although it was not yet necessary for either
of us to discuss the particular method."
- 59 Conf
cited n. 55(2). SUPER-GYMNAST was the code
name given at ARCADIA t0 a projected U. S.-British
operation in North Africa that would combine
the American plan of a landing at Casablanca
with the British plan for a landing further
eastward on the Mediterranean coast (GYMNAST).
GYMNAST was often used loosely to refer to
- 60 Br plng paper, 10 Jan 42, title:
SUPER-GYMNAST (WW (JPC) 2], ABC 337 ARCADIA
(24 Dec 41), 2.
- 61 Rpt, Jt Plng Com to CsofS, 13 Jan
42, title: Opn SUPER-GYMNAST [ABC.-4/2A], ABC.
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 2.
- 62 (1) Notations by Eisenhower, 1
and 4 Jan 42 entries, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit
File. (2) Notes on nag, War Council, 5 Jan
42, WDCSA, SW Confs, Vol II.
- 63 Paper,
Br Jt Stf Miss, 30 Dec 41, title: Pacific Islands
Air Route-Def Arrangements [MM (41) 234], ABC
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 2. Three days
earlier (27 December) Prime Minister John Curtin,
in a signed article in the Melbourne Herald,
had proclaimed Australian dependence on U.S.
aid, and Australia's Concentration on its own
defense. Winston S. Churchill, The
Second World War: The Hinge of Fate
(Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1950), pp.
- 64 Min, 6th mtg Jt Plng Com, a Jan
42, ABC: 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 2.
- 65 Memo, WPD for CofS, 4 Jan 42, sub:
Tr Mvmts to Pacific Bases, WPD 4571-22.
- 66 (1) Ibid. (2) D/F, W PD
for GHQ, G- 3, G 4, and AAF. 10 Jan 42, sub
cited n. 65, WPD 4571-22.
- 67 (1) demo, SW for CofS, 1 Jan 42,
no sub, WPD 4571-21.(2) Memo, WPD for G- 4,
2 Jan 42, sub: Tr Mvmts to S Pacific Bases,
WPD 4571-22 (3) Memo for rcd, Col L. S. Gerow,
3 Jan 42, WPD 4571-22. (4) Memo, WPD for CofS,
5 Jan 42, sub: Borabora Def Force, WPD 4571-24.
- 68 Notes on mtg, War Council, 5 Jan
42, WDCSA, SW Confs, Vol II.
- 69 (1) Memo, 4VPD for CofS, 8 Jan
42, no sub, WPD 4630-30.(2) Memo, WPD for CofS,
9 Jan 42, sub: AA Arty for SUMAC, with atchd
memos, WPD 4630-20. (3) Memo, WPD for G-3
and G-4, 10 Jan 42, sub: Priority for Mvmt
to "X," WPD 4630-34. (SUMAC and "X"
were both code designations for Australia.)
- 70 Draft
rpt, Jt Plng Corn to CsofS Com [8 Jan 42],
title: Def of Pacific Islands Route, ABC 337
ARCADIA (24 Dec 41) , 2. This was a second
revision, circulated by the British
- 71 Memo, WPD for TAG, 22 Jan 42, sub:
Def of New Caledonia WPD 3718-17.
- 72 (1) Unused memo, WPD for CofS,
12 Jan 42, sub: Dispatch of Add Forces to Australia,
WPD 4630-39, and memo for rcd, Col L. S. Gerow,
written thereon. (2) Memo, Brig Gen Robert
W. Crawford for Gen Gerow, 12 Jan 42, sub:
Tr Mvmt to "X," WPD 4630-39.
- 73 Min, CsofS Conf, 11 Jan 42, ABC
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1.
- 74 (1) Min, CsofS Conf, 12 Jan 42,
ABC 337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41) , 1. (2) Min, conf
at white House, 12 Jan 42, sub: SUPER-GYMNAST.
GYMNAST and SUPER-GYMNAST Development File,
G-3 Regd Docs.
- 75 The schedules provided for dispatching
to Northern Ireland 7,000 troops by I February
on the Queen Mary; 9,000 troops
15-20 February on three British transports;
and 4,400 troops by 24 February on the
- 76 Min cited n. 74 (2).
- 77 Ibid.
- 78 Ibid.
- 79 Rpt, Jt Plng Com to CsofS, 13 Jan
42, title: Opn SUPER-GYMNAST [ABC-4/2A], ABC
337 ARCADIA (24 Dec 41), 1.
- 80 Notations by Eisenhower, 12 Jan
42 entry, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit File.
- 81 For the west coast convoys to the
Southwest Pacific, see Marshall's statement
in minutes cited n. 74(2). Total projected
strength for the Southwest Pacific (including
4,500 troops already in Australia ) was then
about 59,000 troops.
- 82 Min cited n. 74 (1).
- 83 Min cited n. 74 (2).
- 84 Conf at White House, 1730, 14 Jan
42, WDCSA 334 Mtgs and Confs (1-28-42), (SS).
created 10 January 2002
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