Endnotes for Chapter XVI
1 (1) Strength of the Army Reports prepared by Strength Accounting Br, AGO (STM-30)  The STM-30 reports prepared after 1945 contain time series with corrected figures for the war years. (2) Kent Roberts Greenfield, Robert R. Palmer, and Bell I. Wiley, The Organization of Ground Combat Troops, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II ;Washington, Government Printing Office, 1947), table: Ground Forces in the Army, Dec 41-Apr -45, p. 161, and table: Growth of the Army by Branch, 1941-45, p. 203. (3) Army Air Forces Statistical Digest, World War II, prepared by Off of Statistical Contl (Dec 45) , tables, pp. 3 -4.
2 See Ch. III, above, for WD estimates of initial Victory Program as a guide for supply planning. The War Department Troop Basis was issued somewhat informally at first and in 1944-45 very formally by G-3, WDGS, to provide a basis for the activation and organization of units, including combat divisions.
3 For the Victory Program Troop Basis of December 1941, see: (1) memo, Wedemeyer for L.T. Gerow, 19 Dec 41, no sub, WPD 4494-23; (2) memo, WPD for G-4, 27 Dec, 41, sub: Tr Basis for Victory Program, WPD 4494-26. (3) Tr Basis for Victory Program [Dec 41], env with WPD 449426: and (4) memo, Wedemeyer for Gerow, 7 Jan 42, sub: Victory Program, Folder Book with WPD 4494
4 For the War Department Troop Basis of January 1942, see (1) memo (drafted by G 3-1), SW for President, 8 Jan 42, no sub, W PD 3674-81 (2) memo, G-3 for WPD, 15 Jan 42, sub: Mobilization and Tng Plan, Jan 42, WPD 3674-83: (3) copy, 1942 Tr Basis, WPD 3674-90; and (4) Greenfield, Palmer, and Wiley, Organization of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 198-99.
5 (1)memo, OCS (SGS) for WDGS and three Comds, 19 May 42, OPD 320.2 BOLERO, 8. (2) Min, 31st rntg JCS, 1 Sep 42. (3) Memo, Leahy for President, 30 Sep 42, no sub, with JPS 57/5/D in ABC: 370.01 (7 25-42),  (4) Greenfield, Palmer, and Wiley, Organization of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 202-09.
6 For the growth of the Army by branches in 1942, in terms of percentages and strength figures, see Greenfield, Palmer, and Wiley, Organization of Ground Combat Troops, p. 210 and table, p. 203. See also Strength of the Army report cited n. 1 (1) .
7 See Interim Rpt by Sp Army Com, 1 Jun 43, title: Rev of Current Mil Program, submitted with memo, Col Ray T. Maddocks, Col Edwin W. Chamberlain, and Lt Col Marshall S. Carter for CofS, 1 Jun 43, sub: Rev of Current Mil Program, filed in ABC 400 (2-20 43).
8 Memo, G-3 for CofS, 15 Sep 42, sub: Mobilization Plans, WDGCT 320 (9-15-42).
9 (1) JCS 154, 24 Nov 42, title: Tr Bases for All Servs for 1944 and Beyond. (2) Min, 44th rntg JCS, 1 Dec 42.
10 The 273-group program remained the AAF guide in World War II. (1) Craven and Cate, AAF 1, pp. 250-51. (2) Arnold, Global Mission, p. 356.
11 For a full analysis of what was taken into account in late 1942 in calculating the Army Troop Basis, see Greenfield, Palmer, and Wiley, Organization of Ground Combat Troops, pp. 214- 17.
12 Memo, G 3 for CG AGF and CG SOS, 25 Jan 43, sub: Tr Unit Basis, 1943, WDGCT 320.2 Gen (1-25-43).
13 In fact, the peak strength of the Army (almost 8,300,000) did not much exceed, and the number of divisions organized (ninety) did not reach, the authorizations for 1943.
14 See Strength of the Army reports cited n. 1 (1) and Appendix D, below.
15 Ibid. The high point in 1942 was reached in September with an overseas ratio of 20.7 percent.
16 Not all of these divisions and combat groups were complete. For the shipment of divisions overseas by month, see below, Appendix F, Shipment of Divisions, 1942. Unless otherwise indicated, the remainder of this section is based on the sources of, and tables in, Appendix E, below. Since the various statistical summaries of Army overseas strength in early December 1942 do not agree exactly, all figures cited are to be taken, with the cautions noted in Appendix E, as the best estimates available.
17 The figures cited in this section in connection with original BOLERO planning are based mostly on those approved by the JCS in JCS 23 (14 March 1942), and on the Marshall Memorandum (BOLERO plan) itself. JCS 48  (2 May 1942), intended as a revision of JCS 23, was not actually approved. (For discussion on JCS 23, the Marshall Memorandum, and JCS 48, see Chs. VII, IX, above.)
18 Annex A to OPD brief, Notes . . . 25th rntg JCS, 14 Jul 42, with CCS 91 in ABC 381 (9-25-42),2.
U. S. Army Ground Forces
(Including Service)
Area     Dec 42  Objective 
JCS 23 and 48   
  Present or 
En Route Jul 42
Pacific (includes Alaska)     237, 836     252, 230
Western Hemisphere and Atlantic Bases (excludes U.S.)      87, 750     117, 040
CBI--[Middle E a s t]-Africa*     4, 460     7, 440
    330, 046     376, 710
* No figures were cited for the Middle Fast in JCS 2a or JCS 48.
19 For varying early planning estimates of December 1942 figures for the United Kingdom, see: (1) J CS 23, 14 Mar 42: (2) Tentative Mvmt Sched, AGE, BOLERO plan, 9 May 42, and Folder 2 Tab 38 in ABC 381 BOLERO (3-16-42), 4: (3) CPS 26/3, 13 May 42, title: First Rpt of BOLERO Combined Com: and (4) paper, Troop Ship Capabilities to Accomplish BOLERO, Plng Div, Transportation Serv, SOS, 21 May 42, Folder 2, Tab 71, ABC 181 BOLERO (13-16-42), 4.
20 See above, pp. 322 ff.
21 See p. 307, above.
22 Army forces in Latin America (including South America and the Caribbean Defense Command) came to about 120,000 troops including 7 air combat groups; troops in North America (including Newfoundland, Greenland, Bermuda, Bahamas, and eastern and western Canada) to 30,000.
23 These figures are based on OPD Weekly Status Map, 4 Jun 42, ,AG 061 (4 Sep 45),They include about 46,000 troops en route to destinations outside the continental United States. For purposes of this computation, Iceland is classified as outside the Western Hemisphere. For a simplified breakdown as of 31 May, by months, for, major theaters, see Strength of the Army, 1 flay 46, pp. 56--57, prepared by Strength Accounting Br, AGO, under direction of Strength Accounting and Statistics Off, OCS.
24 As of the beginning of June 1942 divisions overseas, including those en route, were: 34th Infantry and 1st Armored (en route)., Northern Ireland: 5th, Iceland; 24th, 25th, and 2 7th, Hawaii Americal, New Caledonia: 37th (en route) , Fijis; and 41st and 32d, Australia. (See OPD Overseas Tr Basis, 1 Jun 42, filed in Off of Army Comptroller.) Figures for air units in the Pacific as of the beginning of June 1912 are extremely confusing because of emergency transfers. Principal air combat units were then located in Hawaii, Australia, and on the lines of communication. For the overall distribution of air groups, see: (1) OPD Weekly Status Map, 4 Jun 42, AG 061 (4 Sep 45)H and (2) OPD Overseas Troop Basis, 1 Jun 42.)
25 OPD Weekly Status Maps, Jan- Aug 42, AO 061 (4 Sep 45). This statement holds true whether or not deployment within the Western Hemisphere is included.
26 During most of December the Americal Division, the 147th Infantry, the reinforced 2d and 8th Marines of the 2d Marine Division, and ?Marine defense battalions were the ground forces available to the Army command tinder General Patch. (See Miller, Guadalcanal, p. 214.)
27 The divisions in the Central Pacific Area were the 24th, 27th, and 40th Infantry present, and 25th Infantry in process of transfer. The three divisions in the South Pacific were the Americal, 37th, and 43d Infantry Divisions. In the Southwest Pacific were the 32d and 41st Infantry Divisions.
28 The 25th Division began Moving to Guadalcanal from Hawaii on 25 November and arrived on 17 December 1942.
29 By 31 December 1942 current and projected strengths, air and ground, for the South and Southwest Pacific, as shown on the ()PD Weekly Status Map of that date (AG 061, 4 Sep 45) (reproduced in Chart 3, below), were:
Area     Present     Projected
Southwest Pacific     108, 630     189, 170
South Pacific     102, 880     146, 040
30 Figures based on (1) AAF Statistical Digest (1945), Table 1, p. 4: and (2) OPD Weekly Status Map, 31 Dec 42, AG 061 (4 Sep 45). In this computation, total forces deployed in the war against Japan-including Alaska and CBI amounted to approximately 461,000. Farces deployed against the European Axis Powers--including Africa-Middle East and Persian Gulf Service Command-numbered about 411,000.
31 The figures in this section are based on AAF Statistical Digest (1945) tables, pp. 151-78. According to these tables, total aircraft an hand in each theater at the end of December 1942 was: ETO, 944; Mediterranean, 1,121 ; POA, 386: Far East Air Forces, 957: CBI, 271; Alaska, 296; and Latin America, 539. The figures on airplanes have been checked against figures in (1) OPD Weekly Status Map, 31 Dec 42, AG 061 (4 Sep 45), and (2) Tab Aircraft, SYMBOL: Casablanca Books, Vol 11, Exec 6.
32 See JCS 23, 14 Mar 42 and JCS 48, 2 May 42. 
33 Memo, Col Lindsay for Col Maddocks, 4 Jan 43, sub: Remarks on Gen Partridge's Memo re Commitments of U. S. AAF, with CCS 135/2 in ABC; 381 (9-25- 41), 4.
34 (1) Memo, Brig Gen Earle. E. Partridge, JUSSC, for Gen Wedemeyer and Brig Gen Orvil A. Anderson, 30 Dec 42, sub: Projected Commitments of  U. S. AAF, with CCS 135/2 in ABC 381 (9 -25 -41) , 4. (2) See also OPD graph atchd to memo cited n. 33.
35 Min, 3d mtg MRP, 28 Aug 42, ABC 334.8 MRP (5-6-42). The occasion of Arnold's remarks on theU. S. aircraft situation was a meeting in Washington of Military Representatives of Associated Pacific Powers.
36 The figures on shipping in this section arc based on Appendix G, below, Dead-weight Tonnage of Vessels under Army Control in Pacific and Atlantic Areas from November 1941 through December 1942.
37 (1) See memo, Maj Gen Charles P. Cross, Chief of transportation, for Gen Somervell, 7 Dec 42, sub: Shipping Implications of Certain Proposed Opns, Item 20, OPD Hist Unit File. (2) Cf. with Incl IX (8 Jan 43) to SOS Logistics study, 4 Dec 42, title: Proposed Opns in Certain Theaters [in Strategic Logistics Div, ASF Plng Div Piles A 47-147], superseding and correcting estimates of 7 Dec 42 memo.
38 (1) JPS 57/4, 23 Sep 42, title: Availability of U. N. Shipping for Mil Transport. (2) Paper, Shipping Info Re P. M.'s Msg [to President, 22 Sep 42, No. 154] furnished by Maj Rush B. Lincoln, Jr., SOS. Atchd are informal papers by Col Baumer, OPD, and Tab A, Availability of Shipping, Item 20, OPD Hist Unit file. Tab A, containing shipping estimates from JPS :57/4 and SOS (Pling Div) , is reproduced its paper, Shipping for Overseas Trs, with Tab Trs and Tr Shipping, C, in SYMBOL: Casablanca Books, Vol II, Exec 6.
39 Paper, Availability in 1943 of U. S. Trained Forces, Shipping and Amph Equip, with Tab F-1 in Symbol: Casablanca Books, Vol I, Exec 6.
40 (1) Ibid. (2) Outline Strategic Plan, title: Cross-Channel Opns (Modified ROUNDUP, 1943), Tab F-5a, SYMBOL: Casablanca Books, Vol I, Exec 6. See Leighton and Coakley, Logistics of Global Warfare, Chs. XIV, XV, and XXII for the conclusions that (a) the planners included escorts with troop and cargo carrying ships as "shipping," and (b) that only in these broad terms was the "shipping shortage" a limiting factor.

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