1. For details on formation of the FAAA, see James A. Huston, Airborne Operations, MS in OCMH.
2. Pogue, The Supreme Command, p. 279 ff.
3. The five major plans are discussed in detail in Hq, FAAA, History of Headquarters First Allied Airborne Army, 2 Aug 44-20 May 45 (hereafter cited as FAAA, History), SHAEF FAAA files. For a discussion of the methods by which planning was initiated see John C. Warren, Airborne Operations in World War II, European Theater (USAF Hist Studies: No. 97, USAF Hist Div, Research Studies Institute, Air University) (Maxwell, Ala.: Maxwell Air Force Base, September 1956), p. 82.
4. See Lucian Heichler, Invasion From the Sky, MS prepared to complement this volume and filed in OCMH.
5. General Bradley's views are expressed in A Soldier's Story, page 403.
6. 21 A Gp General Operational Situation and Directive, M-525, 14 Sep 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I; FAAA, Operations in Holland, Sep-Nov 44, and Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Airborne Operations in Holland (Sep-Oct 44), SHAEF FAAA files.
7. Pogue, The Supreme Command, pp. 281-82.
8. SHAEF Weekly Intel Summary 25, week ending 9 Sep 44; Hq Abn Troops Opnl Instr 1, 13 Sep 44, 1st Abn Div Rpt on Opn MARKET, Pts. 1-3, SHAEF FAAA files.
9. Chester Wilmot, The Struggle for Europe (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952), p. 488. Though sparse in his annotation, Wilmot appears to speak with some authority on British sources not readily available to the American historian. In this instance he refers to an unspecified intelligence report of the Second Army.
10. SHAEF Weekly Intel Summary 26, week ending 16 Sep 44.
11. Interv by European theater historians with Gen Smith and Maj Gen Harold R. Bull (G-3, SHAEF), 14 Sep 45; Interv with Gen Smith by S. L. A. Marshall, 18 Apr 49, both in OCMH.
12. Ltr, Lt Gen Anthony C McAuliffe (formerly CG, 101st Abn Div Arty) to OCMH, 8 Feb 54, and Ltr, Maj Gen James M. Gavin (formerly CG, 82d Abn Div) to OCMH, 17 Jan 54, OCMH.
13. Wilmot, in The Struggle for Europe, notes that General Dempsey, commander of the Second Army, was so concerned about this and the reported panzer formations that he recommended a drop near Wesel, upstream from Arnhem, closer to the flank of the First U.S. Army.
14. 82d Abn Div, Annex 1c to FO 11 (13 Sep 44), dtd 11 Sep 44, 82d Abn Div FO 11 file.
15. Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland.
16. This account is based upon Heichler, Invasion From the Sky. Primary sources are: MS # B-717, Zusatz zum Bericht von Oberst i.G. Geyer (Student) ; MS # B-156, Bericht ueber den Einsatz des General-Kommandos LXXXVIII. A.K. vom Albert Kanal bis zur unteren Maas, 5 Sept 44-21 Dez 44 (Reinhard); MS # B-004, Bericht ueber de Einsatz der 719. Inf-Div im Raum Antwerpen-Breda Sep 44 (Sievers); MS # B-846, Aufstellung und Einsatz der 85. Infanterie-Division im Westen (Feb-Nov 44) (Lt Col Kurt Schuster, formerly G-3, 85th Inf Div) ; MS # C-001, Kaempfe des Fallschirmjaegerregiments 6 mit amerik. Fallschirmjaegern im Holland im Sept 44 (von der Heydte); 201 file of senior officers of the Wehrmacht; Lage West and Lage Frankreich sit maps for Sep 44.
17. This regiment should not be confused with the 6th Parachute Division.
18. Few records pertaining to Kampfgruppe Walther survived the war. Composition of the Kampfgruppe apparently underwent constant change. Both the 6th Parachute Regiment and the battalion of the 2d Parachute Regiment, for example, subsequently were attached to Kampfgruppe Chill, while Kampfgruppe Walther took on new attachments.
19. This unit later was redesignated the 7th Parachute Division.
20. MSS # B-156 (Reinhard) and # B-149, Einsatz der 59. Infanterie-Division im Holland, -8 Sept-25 Nov 44 (Poppe).
21. OKH/Op Abt (II), Befehlsbefugnisse, NARS No. H 22/243; MS # T-101, The German Armed Forces High Command (Winter et al.), Pt. II, pp. 95-96. Heichler, Invasion From the Sky, Appendix A, provides a comprehensive essay upon the German command picture in the Netherlands.
22. A complete list of all units and headquarters under Armed Forces Commander Netherlands may be found in TWX, A Gp- B to OB WEST, 2355, 23 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Operationsbefehle.
23. Order, A Gp B to Fifth Pz Army, 2215, 3 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Operationsbefehle.
24. Order, A Gp B to 11 SS Pz Corps, 1230, 5 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Operationsbefehle. See also MS # B-749, Kurzschilderung der Kaempfe des II SS-Pz Korps im der Zeit vom 28 Aug-5 Sept 44 (Bittrich).
25. Orders, A Gp B to II SS Pz Corps, 1345 and 1830, 9 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Operationsbefehle.
26. In the Pacific as commander of the U.S. Far East Air Force and as deputy air commander in chief of the Allied Air Forces. In the Middle East as commander of the Middle East Air Force.
27. For details see FAAA, History. The 6th British Airborne Division was not to participate in MARKET. Huston, Airborne Operations, discusses the location and training of airborne troops in England. A detailed discussion of the planning phase may be found in Warren, Airborne Operations in World War II, pp. 80-100.
28. FAAA, Opns in Holland; XVIII Corps, Report of Airborne Phase, Operation MARKET, SHAEF FAAA files.
29. Montgomery to Eisenhower, M-192, 11 Sep 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I.
30. Eisenhower to Montgomery, FWD 14758, 13 Sep 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I.
31. Montgomery to Eisenhower, M-205, 14 Sep 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I.
32. Eisenhower to Montgomery, 13 Sep 44. Montgomery comments in Normandy to the Baltic, p. 229.
33. FAAA; Opns in Holland; XVIII Corps, Rpt of Abn Phase, comments by General Ridgway.
34. FAAA, Opns in Holland.
35. Ibid.; also Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland; Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, pp. 227-28; Ltr, Rev. Arie D. Bestebreurtje, formerly captain, commander of a Special Forces team attached to 82d Abn Div, to OCMH, 25 Oct 56, OCMH.
36 General McAuliffe recalls that in the original plan the 101st Airborne Division was to have dropped at Arnhem but that 1st Airborne Division had requested a switch because its staff already had studied the Arnhem area for the defunt Operation COMET. Ltr. to OCMH, 8 Feb 54.
37. XVIII Corps, Rpt of Abn Phase, 101st Abn Div, and A Graphic Account of the 82d Airborne Division; FAAA, Opns in Holland; Hq Br Abn Corps, Opn Instr 1 and 2, 13 and 14 Sep 44, Allied Abn Opns in Holland.
38. In Operation VARSITY, launched in the spring of 1945, more planes, gliders, and troops were involved on D-Day than in Operation MARKET, but additional airborne troops flown in on subsequent days made MARKET the larger operation. For details on VARSITY, see The Last Offensive, a volume in preparation for the series UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II.
39. FAAA, Opns in Holland; Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland; Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, p. 227; de Guingand, Operation Victory, p. 415.
40. Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, p. 227; Leonard Rapport and Arthur Northwood, Jr., Rendezvous With Destiny, A History of the 101st Airborne Division (Washington: Combat Forces Press, 1948), pp. 256-57, one of the best of the division histories; XVIII Corps, A Graphic Account of the 82d Abn Div; Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland; 1st Abn Div Rpt on Opn MARKET, Pt. I.
41. FAAA, Opns in Holland; Hq Br Abn Corps, Opns Instrs 1 and 2, 13 and 14 Sep 44, Allied Abn Opns in Holland.
42. See extracts from Guards Armd Div Opns Order 12; 21 A Gp, Opn MARKET-GARDEN, 17-26 Sep 44, SHAEF FAAA files.
43. As quoted in Combat Interv with Col Curtis D. Renfro, Liaison Officer, 101st Abn Div.
44. 21 A Gp Gen Opnl Sit and Dir, M-325, 14 Sep 44, SHAEF SGS 381, I.
45. Renfro Interv.
46. Ibid. Other sources for British ground planning are: 21 A Gp, Gen Opnl Sit and Dir, M-525; Montgomery, Normandy to the Baltic, p. 229; Lt. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton, The Brereton Diaries (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1946); Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland, especially Instr No. 2, 14 Sep 44; 21 A Gp Opn MARKET-GARDEN.
47. A Gp B G-2 Rpts, 9, 11, and 14 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Anlagen, Ic/AO [G-2], 1.VII.31.XII.44 (hereafter cited as A Gp B KTB, Ic/AO; OB WEST KTB (Text), 12 Sep 44.
48. Assumed Eisenhower Order, A Gp B G-2 Rpt, 14 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Ic/A0.
49. "In conjunction with [the Second British Army's attack]," the G-2 noted in his mythical order, "a large-scale airborne landing by the First Allied Airborne Army north of the Lippe River in the area south of Muenster is planned for an as yet indefinite date . . . ." Ibid. Eight days earlier this same G-2 had predicted, more conservatively, airborne operations near Aachen and in the Saar region. Summary Estimate of Allied Situation, 6 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Ic/A0.
50. OB WEST KTB (Text), 15 Sep 44.
51. MS # P-069, The Kreipe Diary (Generalleutnant Werner Kreipe).
52. See Order, A Gp B to Armed Forces Comdr Netherlands, 0115, 11 Sep 44, A Gp B KTB, Ic/A0.
53. Daily G-2 Rpt for 15 Sep 44, 0015, 16 Sep 44, OB WEST KTB, Anlagen, Ic-Tagesmeldungen [Daily G-2 Rpts], 1.VII.-30.IX.44 (hereafter cited as OB WEST KTB, Ic-Tagesmeldungen); OB WEST KTB (Text), 17 Sep 44.
54. OB WEST KTB (Text), 17 Sep 44.
55. Order, A Gp B to Armed Forces Comdr Netherlands, 11 Sep 44.
56. OB WEST KTB (Text), 12 Sep 44.
57. Oreste Pinto, Spy Catcher (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952), maintains that presence of the SS divisions near Arnhem was the result of a betrayal of the MARKET-GARDEN plan before the event by a Dutch traitor. The theory has no basis in fact. It ignores German surprise at the landings as well as the fact that Model ordered the SS divisions to the Netherlands on 3 September, before the Allies even considered a plan like MARKET-GARDEN. The divisions were, in fact, ordered to Arnhem as the first step in later commitment of them in the Ardennes counteroffensive, an operation which Hitler had already decided upon. A retired Dutch army officer, Col. Th. A. Boeree, has prepared a point-by-point refutation of the betrayal story and has provided a copy of his findings, entitled The Truth About the Supposed Spy at Arnhem, for OCMH. A commission of inquiry of the Netherlands Lower House has reported its findings on the matter in the fourth volume of its proceedings (Staten-Generaal Tweede Kamer Enquête commissie Regeringsbeleid 1940-1945, Volume IV, 's-Gravenhage, 1950). Interrogated under oath by the commission, Mr. Pinto was unable to substantiate his conclusions. (Enquêtecommissie 4c, pp. 1581-91). See also C. T. de Jong, "La Pretendue trahison d'Arnhem," Revue d'Histoire de la Deuxième Guerre Mondiale (January 1955), pp. 110-12.
58. Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland; FAAA, Opns in Holland. By dispersion, the British apparently referred to the extreme depth of the airborne penetration. American officers had found unacceptable an original plan that involved considerable dispersion of drop zones within division sectors and had insisted upon changes. See Ltrs, McAuliffe and Gavin to OCMH, 8 Feb and 17 Jan 54.
59. This attitude is reflected clearly in the 505th Parachute Infantry AAR.
60. FAAA, Opns in Holland.
61. OB WEST KTB (Text), 17 Sep 44. The air phase of Operation MARKET is covered in more detail in Craven and Cate, eds., Europe: ARGUMENT to V-E Day, pp. 598-611, and in Warren, Airborne Operations in World War II, passim.
62. FAAA, Opns in Holland.
63 American planes: 1,175; British planes: 370; American gliders: 124; British gliders: 354. For the air routes, see Craven and Cate, eds., Europe: ARGUMENT to V-E Day, map opposite p. 602.
64. A comprehensive report on the intricate details of planning and operating the troop carrier units may be found in IX Troop Carrier Command, Air Invasion of Holland. Unless specifically cited, other sources for this section are FAAA, Opns in Holland, and Hq Br Abn Corps, Allied Abn Opns in Holland.
65. Rapport and Northwood, Rendezvous With Destiny, pp. 26o, 268; Ltr, Gavin to Maj Gen Paul L. Williams, reproduced in IX Troop Carrier Comd, Air Invasion of Holland; 1st Abn Div, Rpt on Opn MARKET, Pt. I.