1. Pogue, The Supreme Command, p. 306.
2. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe, p. 323; SHAEF G 2 Weekly Intel Summary, 15 Oct 44, copy in Pogue files; Bradley, A Soldier's Story, p. 434; Pogue, The Supreme Command, p. 306.
3. Decisions at Brussels are drawn from Memo, sub: Decisions reached at Supreme Commander's Conf, 18 Oct 44, dtd 22 Oct 44, and SCAF 114, Eisenhower to comdrs, 28 Oct 44, both in SHAEF SGS 381, II.
4. See Pogue, The Supreme Command, pp. 307 09.
5. This attitude is clear from SCAF 114, 28 Oct 44.
6. 12th A Gp Ltr of Instrs 10, 21 Oct 44, with amendments, 12th A Gp Rpt of Opns, V, 97-102.
7. 21 A Gp Gen Opnl Sit and Dir, M 534, 2 Nov 44, 12th A GP 371.3 Military Objectives, II.
8. Memo by Brig Gen A. Franklin Kibler (12th A Gp G-3), sub: Change of Plans, 1 Nov 44, 12th A GP 371.3, Military Objectives, II.
9. TUSA Dairy, 2 and 5 Nov 44, as cited in Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, p. 301.
10. This is obvious from almost all German records of the period. See in particular Entry of 4 Nov, OKWIWFSt, KTB Ausarbeitung, der Westen i.IV. 16.XII.44, MS # B-034 (Schramm). For details on this period from the German side, see Lucian Heichler, The Third Battle of Aachen The German Situation in Mid-November 1944, MS prepared in OCMH to complement this volume.
11. Charles V. P. von Luttichau, The Ardennes Offensive, Germany's Situation in the Fall of 1944, Part II, The Economic Situation, MS in OCMH.
12. MS # P 065b, The Volks Grenadier Division and the Volkssturrn (Generalmajor a.D. Hellmuth Reinhardt).
13. OB WEST KTB, 6 Nov 44.
14. 12th A Gp Weekly Intel Summary 14 for week ending 11 Nov, dtd 13 Nov, 12th A Cp G 2 AAR, Nov 44; subsequent 12th A Gp rpts until mid Dec. See also G-2 Estimates of the First and Ninth Armies for the period.
15. Mng Sitrep, OB WEST to OKW/WFSt, 23 Oct 44, OB WEST KTB, Anlagen, Befehle und Meldungen.
16. OB WEST KTB, 15 Nov 44; OB WEST KTBI Anlagen, Angriff H. Gr. "B". 16 Dez. 44, 24.X. 31.XII.44. VOL I, V (Planning Papers); MS # A 857, Questions for CG Fifth Panzer Army, Statement made by PW LD 918 Gen von Manteuffel (Manteuffel). Greater detail on this deception maneuver may be found in Charles V. P. von Luttichau, The Ardennes Offensive, Planning and Preparations, MS in OCMH.
17 Order, OB WEST to all subordinate commands, 2 Nov 44, OB WEST KTB, Anlagen, Befehle und Meldungen.
18 OKH / Kriegswissenschaftliche Abteilung: Kampf urn AachenlKampf um Metz: a collection of dated situation maps (hereafter cited as Kampf um Aachen: Maps).
19 Strength Rpts, 15 Nov 44, LXXXI Corps, Halb KTB Anlagen, 20.X 30.XI 44; LXXXI Corps, Ia KTB Anlagen, Kriegsgliederungen, 22.X 31.XII.44; LXXXI Corps, Ia KTB Anlagen, Art. Lage u. Art. Gliederungen, ir.X.18.XII.44 (hereafter cited as LXXXI Corps KTB, Art. Lage u. Art. Gliederungen); LXXXI Corps Ia KTB Anlagen, Wochenmeldungen, 22. IX. 31.XII.44; LXXXI Corps Ia KTB Anlagen, Zustandsberichte, I0.X 17 XII 44; Kampf um Aachen: Maps.
20 LXXXI Corps Arty Sit as of 10 Nov 44, LXXXI Corps KTB, Art Lage u. Art. Gliederungen; LXXXI Corps KTB, Zustandsberichte; Kampf um Aachen: Maps; MS # B 290, Dos XIL SS Korps (7.bzw 15.Armee, HeeresgrupPe B) westlich und an der Roer VOM 20.X.r944 31. 1.1945 (General der Infanterie Guenther Blumentritt): MS # P-065b (Reinhardt); and MS # A 994 (Koechling).
21 See, in particular, MS # T 122 (Zimmerman et al.), 111.5.
22 Strength Rpts, 1 Nov 44, XLVII Pz Corps 0. Qu., KTB Anlagen, Einzelbefehle, 17.X. z8. XI 44 (hereafter cited as XLVII Pz Corps 0. Qu. KTB Einzelbefehle); Kampf um Aachen: Maps.
23 Luttichau, The Strategic Situation, citing OB WEST KTB (Text) for Sep Nov 44.
24 12th A Gp G-1 Daily Summary, 11 Nov, 12th A Gp G-1 Daily Summaries file, Nov 44; FUSA G-1 Daily Summaries, 12 Sep and 11 Nov 44; FUSA Rpt, Annexes 1, 5, 6, and 7, VOL 2; FUSA AAR, Nov 44; V Corps Opns in the ETO, p. 326.
25 On 8 November VIII Corps relinquished approximately twenty miles on its southern wing as the 83d Division passed to "operational control" of the Third Army, but the arrangement lasted only four days. See 83d Div AAR, Nov 44.
26 FUSA Rpt, Vol. 1, p. 67.
27 For a time, it looked as if the First Army would get the 84th Division instead of the 104th. The 84th eventually went to the Ninth Army.
28 Operation Plan VII Corps, 28 Oct 44, dtd 27 Oct, VII Corps G-3 FO file, Oct 44.
29 Msg, CG FUSA to CG VII Corps, FUSA G-3 Jnl file, Nov 44. Though undated, this message obviously was sent on 1 November.
30 Memo CG FUSA for Thorson, 7 Nov, FUSA G-3 Ltrs and Inds file, Nov 44.
31 Like the commander of the Ninth Army's other corps, General Gillem had risen from the ranks. Between wars he attended the usual staff colleges, served as an instructor at Fort Benning, Ga., and commanded both infantry and armored units. After the start of World War II, his early important posts included command of the Desert Training Center in California and later the Armored Force at Fort Knox. He trained the XIII Corps after assuming command in December, 1943.
32 Unless otherwise noted, the story of Ninth Army planning is based upon Ninth United States Army Operations, Vol. IV, Offensive in. November, part of a mimeographed series prepared by the 4th Information and Historical Service and filed with official Ninth Army records (hereafter cited as NUSA Cpns, Vol. IV), and upon Conquer The Story of Ninth Army, pp. 71-85. Another useful source is the Ferriss Notes, described in Ch. VI.
33 NUSA Opns, IV, 2.
34 21 A Gp Gen 0pn1 Sit and Dir, M 534, 2 Nov 44.
35 Intervs with Gen Bradley, 7 Jun 56, and Gen Thorson, 12 Sep 56.
36 NUSA Ltr of Instrs 7, 4 Nov 44.
37 Unless otherwise noted, the air plan is drawn from the following sources: Ninth Air Force, Summary of Air Plan, 7 Nov 44, NUSA G-3 Jnl file, 1-11 Nov 44; FUSA, Air Support, Annex 4 to FO 12, 8 Nov, VII Corps Admin and FO file, Nov 44; FUSA Rpt, Vol. 1, pp. 73-74; Conquer The Story of Ninth Army, pp. 80-81; NUSA Opns, IV, 34; and Craven and Cate, eds., Europe: ARGUMENT to V E Day, pp. 631-32.
38 Craven and Cate, eds., Europe: ARGUMENT to V-E Day, pp. 631-32.
39 The largest up to this time was Operation GOODWOOD, a strike by 1,676 heavies and 343 mediums and lights with 7,700 tons of bombs in support of the Second British Army near Caen on 18 July. The largest in support of American troops was along the St. Lo-Periers road in Normandy where 1,495 heavy bombers and 338 fighter bombers dropped 4,790 tons of bombs. Another large scale bombing was in support of the First Canadian Army the night of 7 August when 1,450 planes dropped 5,210 tons of bombs. See Air Chief Marshal Sir Trafford LeighMallory, Air Commander in Chief : Allied Expeditionary Air Force, "Despatch, Air Operations by the Allied Expeditionary Air Force in N. W. Europe," Nov 44, found in Fourth Supplement to The London Gazette (December 31, 1946), dtd 2 Jan 47. The story of early uses of heavy bombers in this role in the European theater and of the Normandy bombing may be found in Blumenson, Breakout and Pursuit.
40 Ltr, FUSA to 12th A Gp, 29 Oct, FUSA G-3 Ltrs and Inds file, Oct 44.
41 Memo, FUSA for V Corps, Plans for Future Operations, V Corps, 7 Nov, V Corps G-3 FO file, Nov 44.
42 MSg, Col Akers (G-3 See FUSA) to CGs V and VII Corps dtd 123 7, 11 Nov, FUSA G-3 Jnl file, Nov 44.: Conquer The Story of Ninth Army, p. 85.