1 See 1st Lt Harry D. Condron, The Fall of Aachen, a preliminary MS in 1st Div Combat Interv files.
2 For a similar view, see MS # A-991 (Koechling, comdr of the LXXXI Corps).
3 LXXXI Corps, KTB, Antagen, Meldungen der Div. This figure takes no account of division staffs and organic service troops, corps troops, or attached units.
For the German story, see Lucian Heichler, The Fall of Aachen, a manuscript prepared to complement this volume, in OCMH.
4 LXXXI Corps KTB, Anlagen, Kamp fum Aachen (Corps AAR on Second Battle of Aachen) (hereafter cited as LXXXI Corps, Kamp furn Aachen). For historical purposes, the Germans divided the fighting around Aachen into three phases or "battles": first, penetration of the West Wall by the VII U.S. Corps in September; second, penetration of the West Wall north of Aachen and encirclement and reduction of the city; and third, operations east of Aachen in November, referred to in this volume as the "Battle of the Roer Plain." As a result of preservation of LXXXI Corps records covering the period of the "Second Battle of Aachen," plus many other types of sources, detailed information on almost every aspect of this engagement from the German side is available. Only a small portion could be used in this study. Additional details may be derived from the original records and from Heichler, The Fall of Aachen.
5 LXXXI Corps KTB, Tagesmeldungen.
6 Order, 49th Inf Div to Regt von Fritzschen, 8 Oct 44, LXXXI Corps KTB, Meldungen der Div.
7 See General Inspekteur der Panzertruppen, Zustandsberichte Panzer Divisionen, Sep Oct 44, and Zustandsberichte Panzer Grenadier Divisionen, Oct 44 Jan 45.
8 OB WEST KTB, 5, 7 Oct 44.
9 FUSA Dir, 29 Sep, as cited in FUSA and VII Corps AARs, Oct 44.
10 30th Div AAR and G 3 Jnl file, Oct 44; Hewitt, Workhorse of the Western Front, p. 126.
11 XIX Corps Ltr of Instrs, 6 Oct, XIX Corps Ltrs of Instrs file, Oct 44; subsequent tel convs between Corlett and Hobbs, 30th Div G3 Jn1 file, Oct 44.
12 VII Corps AAR, Oct 44.
13 Unless otherwise noted, the ist Division story is based on official unit records and combat interviews. The records include a special account, Report of Breaching the Siegfried Line and the Capture of Aachen, dated 7 November 1944. A division history, Danger Forward (Atlanta, 1947), is primarily a collection of impressions by war correspondents, of little value for this study.
14 A driving force in the attack on Crucifix Hill was the company commander, Capt. Bobbie E. Brown. Though wounded three times, Captain Brown personally led the attack and knocked out three pillboxes himself. He subsequently received the Medal of Honor.
15 LXXXI Corps, Kampf um Aachen. Unless otherwise noted, subsequent German material in this chapter is based upon the same source.
16 TWX, Rundstedt to JodI, 1130, 1 1 Oct 44' relaying Msg, Model to Rundstedt, 1045, 10 Oct 44, OB WEST KTB, Befehle und Meldungen.
17 TWX, A Gp B to Seventh Army, 1145, 10 Oct 44, A Gp B, Operationsbefehle.
18 The German side of this action is based upon MS # A 979, Die 3. Panzer GrenadierDivision in der Schlacht von Aachen (Denkert). Basic facts are corroborated by contemporary German records.
19 The 5th; possibly captured at Wallendorf.
20 16th Inf S-3 Jnl, 15 Oct 44.
21 See Msg, sub: Mission Y-21-1, FUSA G-3 file, Oct 44, and IX FC and IX TAC Unit History, Oct 44.
22 16th Inf S-3 Jnl, 15-16 Oct 44.
23 Casualty figures from VII Corps AAR, Oct 44.
24 OB WEST KTB, 16 Oct 44.
25 LXXXI Corps KTB, Meldungen der Div.
26 30th Div G-3 Jnl file, 7-9 Oct 44. The telephone journals in this file and others for this period are especially valuable. Unless otherwise noted, the 30th Division story is from these journals, from other official unit records of the division and the XIX Corps, from several noteworthy combat interviews, and from the division's unofficial unit history, Hewitt, Workhorse of the Western Front. The XIX Corps G-2 reports for this period are particularly well done.
27 The previous commander, Colonel Birks, had left on 6 October to become assistant division commander of the 9th Division.
28 Order, 49th Div to Regt von Fritzschen, 8 Oct 44, LXXXI Corps KTB, Meldungen der Div.
29 AAR concerning opns of Regt von Fritzschen on 8 Oct 44, 49th Div to LXXXI Corps, 10 Oct 44, LXXXI Corps KTB, Meldungen der Div. Details of this action on 8 October are available in HeichIer, The Germans Opposite XIX Corps.
30 Tel Conv, Seventh Army to LXXXI Corps, 1100, 8 Oct 44, LXXXI Corps KTB, Kampfverlauf; Order, LXXXI Corps to all divs, 8 Oct 44, LXXXI Corps KTB, Befehle an Div.
31 Sergeant Pendleton was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. Major Greer received the Distinguished Service Cross.
32 On 9 October Field Marshal von Rundstedt said the greatest danger to the entire Western Front was presently at Aachen. OB WEST KTB, 9 Oct 44.
33 1st and 12th SS Pz Divisions.
34 TWX, Seventh Army to A Gp B, 1315, 11 Oct 44, A Gp B, Operationsbelehle.
35 Sergeant Bieber subsequently received the DSC.
36 30th Div G 3 Jnl, 12 Oct 44.
39 XIX Corps G-3 JnI, 12 Oct 44.
40 A tank company commander, Capt. James M. Burt, did more than his share to alleviate the situation. Though he had two tanks shot from under him and was wounded at the outset on 13 October, Captain Burt personally directed artillery fire from exposed positions, reconnoitered into enemy territory, and rescued several wounded. "Captain Burt held the combined forces together," says his citation for the Medal of Honor, "dominating and controlling the critical situation through the sheer force of his heroic example."
41 Details of the 116th Infantry attacks are available in regimental journals and AAR's for October 1944; see also Tel Convs in 30th Div G-3 Jnl for the period.
42 30th Div G 3 Jnl, 15 Oct 44; XIX Corps G-3 Tel Jnl, 14-16 Oct 44, loaned by General Corlett; Ltr, Corlett to OCMH 20 May 56; Sylvan Diary, entry of 14 Oct 44
43 Rpt, OB WEST to OKWIWFSt (relaying rpt, A Gp B), 1800, 15 Oct 44, OB WEST KTB, Befehle und Meldungen.