1 The remainder of the 132,000 went mainly to the Caribbean, with
small numbers going to Alaska, the Atlantic bases, and India. (1) For a
contemporary summary by periods, see memo, Lt Col Marcus B. Stokes, Jr.,
Chief, Plng Sec, Transportation Br, C- 4, for Gen Marshall, 15 Mar 42,
sub: Tr and Cargo Mvmts Since Dec 7, 1941, File CofS, GS (1) Mar-Jun 42, in
Hq File, ASF. (2) For general breakdown by areas, see OPD (WPD) Weekly
Status Maps, .4G 061 (4 Sep 45).
2 For the ARCADIA decision, see above, Ch. V. For the sailings, see: (1) ltr, TAG to Gen Chaney, London, 16 Jan 42,
sub: Duties and Responsibilities of CG USAFBI (England, Ireland,
Scotland, and Wales), WPD 4497-29; (2) paper, U. S. JPS to CPS, 25 Jan
42, sub: Mvmt of U. S. Trs to N Ireland, with CPS 4 in ABC 370.5 N
Ireland (1-22-42) ; ( 3 ) Sum of Hist Events and Statistics, NY POE
1942, p. 10, OCT HB NYPE (this summary lists 4,000 troops as sailing).
3 Notes of discussion by U. S. CsofS, 21 Jan 42, submitted to CCS,
with CCS 5/1 in ABC 381 GYMNAST (1-15-42).
4 Paper cited n. 2 (2).
5 Min, 3d mtg CCS, 3 Feb 42.
6 Memo, Gen Gerow for Maj Gen Brehon B. Somervell, 6 Feb 42,
sub: Feb Mvmt to Ireland and Iceland, Book 3, Exec 8.
7 Memo, Col Gross for Gen Somervell (G-4), 19 Feb 42, sub: Sailings,
WPD 4497-37. On 2 March General Chaney informed General :Marshall that troops for
Northern Ireland had arrived. Msg, Chaney to CG Field Forces [Marshall],
2 Mar 42, USFOR 10. 112, WPD-GHQ 311.23, Incoming Radiogram USAFBI.
8 For the shipments ordered, see: (1) incls to weekly memos, G-3 far
CofS or CG Field Forces, sub: Tr Mvmts for Week Ending . ., WPD 4624-5
; and (2) OPD Weekly Status Maps, AG 061 (4 Sep 45).
9 Detailed information on the shipments is found in a variety of
sources and tabulated in Strategic Plans Unit Study I, in OCMH Files.
The source for shipments from New York (except far breakdown by destination) is a report entitled: Summary of Historical Events and
Statistics, POE 1942 (of which a copy is filed in OCT HB NYPE). There is
no such comprehensive Transportation Corps report for the San Francisco
port. There does exist a source for shipments from San Francisco in January
and February (except by the Hammondsport) in the form of a
report entitled: Shipping Situation at SFPE Following Pearl Harbor (OCT
HB SFPE). Other data can be found in War Department messages of the
time. For a more detailed breakdown of shipping cargo as well as troop-see Leighton
and Coakley, Logistics of Global Warfare.
10 (1) OPD Weekly Status Map, 2 Apr 42, AG 061 (4 Sep 45). This is
the first weekly status map to give separate figures for troops en route
and troops present overseas. The March shipments still en route to the Southwest Pacific are given there as totaling 30,000
(including 5,500 for New Caledonia 1. The total present in Australia
(without final correction for lasses) is given as 34,000. (2) List
entitled: USAF in SW and S Pacific: Apr 6, 1942, Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec
8. This list gives a breakdown (except for small miscellaneous service
units; of all troops present in and en route to Australia, but the
strength of some units present is given as authorized rather than as actually
present. Totals in this list show 23,500 en route and about
38,000 present. (3) AG Strength Rpt, 320.2 (3-31- 42) MR.-M, lists 31,645
present in Australia.
11 See (1) msg, Marshall to Brett, 28 Feb 42, No. 479, AG 381 (11- 27- 41), 2-C, and (2) memo, WPD for TAG, 10 Mar 42, sub: Est of Sit,
Anzac Area, ABC 381 SWPA (1-12-42).
12 The heavy bomber groups were the 19th (which had absorbed the
remnants of the squadron of the 7th from Java) and the 43d. The medium
bomber groups were the 22d and 38th. The light bomber group was the 3d
(which absorbed the personnel of the 27th). The three pursuit groups
were the 49th, the 35th, and the 8th. They are all given as present in
the 6 April list cited above, along with two transport (troop carrier)
squadrons (the 21st and 22d) and three separate pursuit squadrons (the
21st and 34th, which had been transferred without personnel or equipment
from the Philippines, and the 68th, which had been allocated first to
New Caledonia and then to Canton Island and was actually to be sent to Tongatabu). (For an account of the actual status of the air units
present in Australia, see Craven and Cate, AAF I, pp. 411-14.)
13 See 6 April list cited n. 10 (2).
14 Great confusion attended the transshipment. Sec especially (1) msg
(originator WPD), Marshall to Barnes, 12 Feb 42, . 321, WPD Msg File 9,
893: (2) msg (originator WPD), same to same, 18 Feb 42, No 351, WPD msg
File 9, 1201 (3) msg (originator WPD), same to same, 21 Feb 42, No. 382, WPD ),msg
File 9A, 1480: (4) memo, CofS for President, 23 Feb 42, no sub, ACC
370.5 (2-15-42), 1; (5) notes on War Council, 2 Mar 42, WDCSA, SW Confs,
Vol II: (6), msg, Brett to TAG, 8 Mar 42, 10. 540, WPD Ready Ref File of Msgs, Australia, Sec 2; (7) memo for rcd, 18 Mar 42, OPD
381 New Caledonia, 20; (8) papers filed with WPD 3718-17; (9) Craven and
Cate, AAF I, pp. 430-31 ; and (10) see above, Ch. VI.
15 Sec 6 April list cited n. 10 (2). The combat units were as
follows: 51st Infantry Brigade: 200th Field Artillery; 754th Tank
Battalion (L) : 70th Coast Artillery (AA) : 3d Battalion, 244th Coast Artillery: and 67th Pursuit Squadron. In addition there were some 4,000
ground service troops and two battalions of aviation engineers.
16 Memo, WPD for TAG, 22 Jan 42, sub: Def of New Caledonia, WPD
17 For the agreement to leave the entire brigade of field Artillery
committed to the ABDA Command, see Ch. VI, above.
18 (1) See 6 April list, cited n. 10(2). (2) For the additions, see
also OPD 381 New Caledonia, 2, 6.
19 (1) Memo, G-3 for CofS, 5 Jan 42, sub: Tr Mvmts for Week
Ending Midnight, Jan 3-4, 1942, V' PD 4624-5. (2) Craven and Cate, AAF
I, n. 431.
20 Charleston POE rcds, filed OCT HB CPE. For this force, see 6
April list, cited n. 10(2), and papers filed WPD 4571-24.
21 See 6 April list cited n. 10 (2), and rpt cited n. 9 (2).
22 The remaining combat elements sailed during the first work in April. For the
movement of the 27th Division, see: (1) AG 370.5 (12
26-41 ) Sec 1, and (2) Capt Edmund G. Love, The 27th Infantry Division in World War
Infantry Journal Press, 1949), p. 18.
23 (1) The only record found of the earlier request (18 February is
a copy of the reply sent by General Marshall. Memo, CofS for COMINCH, 24
Feb 42, sub: Estab of U. S. Garrison in Efate, New Hebrides . . ., Tab
Misc, Book 4, Exec 8. The latter proposal is contained in memo,
Admiral King for JCS, 2 Mar 42, sub: Occupation for Def of Tonga Tabu
and Efate, ABC: 381 (3-2-42).
24 Msg, Prime Minister to President, 4 Mar 42, . 37, circulated
as CCS 56.
25 For the one shipment to Hawaii between mid- January and the end of February,
see rpt cited n.
26 For the allocation of ground forces to Hawaii and the breakdown
by types of unit, see: (1) msg (originator WPD), Marshall to Emmons, 11
Jan 42, . 956, WPD Msg File 5, 618: (2) msg, Ft. Shafter to TAG, 13 Jan
42, 1677, WPD Msg File 6, 734; and (3) msg (originator WPD), Marshall
to Emmons, 19 Jan 42, . 1047, WPD Msg File 6, 1048. For the strength
present in Hawaii, see WPD Weekly Status Maps, AG 061 (4 Sep 45),
For War Department warning of the delay in shipments to Hawaii with
explanation, see D/F, WPD for TAG, 12 Jan 42, sub: Tr Mvmt, Pacific Bases and Hawaii,
WPD 3444-19, and msg, Marshall to Emmons, 16 Jan 42, no sub. . 1013,
WPD File 6. 875.
27 (1) Chart, 15 Mar 42, title: Trs in Australia and New Caledonia.
This chart gave as present about 20,000 (including air service
personnel) ,with about 2,000 en route and no others under orders or
projected. (2) Memo, no sig, for Col Handy, 26 Mar 42, sub: Status
Air Squadrons in Australia. Both with CPS 24 in ABC: 381 Australia (1-23-42).
(3) WPD Weekly Status Maps, .4C 061 (4 Sep 45) These figures changed very little through the rest of the spring. Cf.
memo, Col William L. Ritchie [Actg Chief SWP Sec] for .ACofS OPD and
Chief Theater Gp, 1 Jun 42, sub: Info on Forces in S W Pacific Theater,
Tab Allied Comd, Vol V, Item li, Exec 2.
28 (1) Craven and Cate, AAF I, pp. 41 1-13. (2) Cf. figures in WPD Weekly
Status Maps, AG 06 (4 Sep 45) (3) Figures on plane strength are also
given in WPD
brief, Notes on . . . CPS 9th mtg, 19 Mar 42, with CPS 24 in ABC 381 Australia (1-23- 42).
29 Craven and Cate, AAF I, p. 452. For figures on
aircraft strength in Hawaii during January, February, and March, sec WPD
Weekly Status Maps, AG 061 (4 Sep 45). 7hc number of planes in Hawaii was
reported by General Emmons to Assistant Secretary McCloy on his visit
there to be . . . 33 first class 4-engine heavy bombers; 15 second class
4-engine bombers: 17 medium bombers; 9 light bombers; 152 first class
pursuit planes; 31 Second class pursuit planes." These figures were
apparently given to McCloy sometime after 26 February. ( See McCloy's
statement in Votes on War Council, Monday, Mar 23, 1942, WDCSA, SW Confs,
30 Craven and Cate, AAF I, pp. 430-33.
31 Notations by Eisenhower, 17 Feb 42 entry, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit
32 Memo, CofS for Admiral King, 24 Feb 42, sub: Estab of U. S. Garrison in Efate, New
Hebrides islands (Memo, CinC U.. S. Fleet,
Feb 18, 1942) Tab Wise, Book 4, Exec 8. The file contains the original
draft drawn up for Marshall's signature with two editorial improvements in his hand, of the passage quoted
above), a suggested substitute for the second paragraph (quoted below
in the text that Marshall sent back to WPD with the draft, and the
corrected copy !incorporating his changes) as sent.
33 Memo cited n. 32.
34 (1) Memo, Admiral King for JCS, 2 liar 42, sub: occupation
for Def of Tonga Tabu and Efate, ABC 381 (3-2-42). (2) Min, 6th mtg JCS, 16 Mar 42.
35 Most of the ground troops, except for antiaircraft, caste from the
37th Division, later sent to the Fijis. The force also included a naval construction battalion.
(1) For the plan, see Jt Bsc Plan for
Occupation and Def of Tonga Tabu. (2) For the directive to order the
force moved to the York port for shipment early in April, see memo, WPD
for AAF, AGF, and SOS, 15 afar 42, sub: Jt Bu Plan for Occupation and
Def of Tonga Tabu. Both in OPD 381 Tonga Tabu, 1. (3) For the order to
ship the 68th Pursuit Squadron from Australia, to join the force on arrival,
see msg, Marshall to Brett, 16 Mar 42, 10. 717,WPD Msg
File 13, 1763. By 14 Wav the Bleacher force had arrived and established itself. See ltr,
Gen Lockwood to CofS, 14 May 42, sub: Increase of means-Force 0015,
OPD 381 Tonga Tabu, 6.
36 (1) Jt Bsc Plan for Occupation and Def of Efate, New Hebrides,
20 Mar 42, OPD 381 Efate, New Hebrides, 8. (2) Memo, AGF for TAG, 20 Mar 42, sub: Orgn and Mvmt Orders, Shipt 9156,
AG 370.5 (3-20-42) 1. The Roses Force reached Efate on 4 May 1942. Ltr, TAG to CG WDC, 5 May 42, sub: Info re Destinations of Secret Tr
Mvmts, AG. 370.5 (3-20-42), 1. Meanwhile a small Army force had been soot from New
Caledonia to garrison Efate pending the arrival of the Roses Force. See
memo, WPD for TAG, 8 Liar 42, sub: Dispatch of Adv Det from Poppy Force
to Efate, OPD 381 Efate, New Hebrides, 7, and msg (originator TANGIER),
Patch to CINCPAC: for Marshall, 19 Mar 42, Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec 8.
37 Notations by Eisenhower, 17 Jan 42 entry, Item , OPD Hist Unit
38 Memo, Eisenhower for Somervell, 19 Feb 42, no sub, WPD
39 Notations by Eisenhower, 22 Jan 42 entry, Item 3, OPD Hist Unit File.
40 Ibid., 19 Feb 42 entry.
41Ibid., 22 Feb 42 entry.
42 Memo, WPD for CofS, 28 Feb 92, sub: Strategic Conceptions and
their Application to SW Pacific, Env 35, Exec 4. This paper was
prepared as one of a series of studies on defensive deployment in the
Pacific then being undertaken by the joint and combined staffs as well
as in the War Department.
43 (1) JPS Directive 1 to JUSSC, 28 Jan 42. This directive,
the first of JPS to its working subcommittee, JUSSC, was forwarded as
JPS 2, 30 Jan 42, title: (Directive No. 1) Strategic Deployment of
Land, Sea and Air Forces of the U. S. (2) CCS 34, 9 Feb 42, title:
Economical Employment of Air Forces against Japan. The title later was
changed to "The Economical Employment of Armed Forces Against
44 (1) Min, 4th mtg CCS, 10 Feb 42. (2) Min, 13th mtg CPS, 11 Feb
42. (3) JPS 2/l, 11 Feb 42, title: Directive to JUSSC.
45 These reports on "Review of the Strategic Situation in the
Japanese Theater of War" were submitted to the JPS on 18 February 1942. The
majority report was JPS 2/2, originally JPS 12/1. The minority
report was JPS 2/2-A, formerly JPS 12/1-A. Both are filed in ABC 370
(1-28-42). The minority report was the work of one member of the
committee and was not signed, but it was undoubtedly the work of the Air
46 The Anzac area covered the eastern and northeastern approaches
to Australia and New Zealand, including the ocean reaches between them
and New Caledonia.
47 (1) JPS 2/4 (D), 24 Feb 42, title: Strategic Deployment of Land, Sea
and :fir Forces of U . S. (2) JPS 2/5, 6 Mar 42, same title.(3) JPS 2/6, 6 Mar 42, same title. The combined JUSSC: report (inclosed in JPS 2/5)
entitled "Review of the Strategic Situation in the Japanese Theater
of War," plus the supplementary study (JPS 2/6) containing
statistical estimates of forces were submitted to the JPS on 6 March 1942.
48 The amalgamated paper comprising the JUSSC; studies and JPS
conclusions reached the JCS on 14 lurch 1942 as JCS 23, entitled,
"Strategic Deployment of Land, Sea, and Air Forces of the United
States." It consisted of(1) a basic paper identical with JPS 2/5
except that JPS conclusions had been added: (2) Appendix I, identical with
JPS 2/6: and (3) Appendix II, a new study modifying the numerical
estimates in JPS 2/6 in light of subsequent commitments.
49 JPS "Conclusions" to JCS 23, 14 Mar 42, title cited n. 47(1).
50 Min, 6th mtg JCS, 16 Mar 42.
51 See (1) JCS 11, 12 Feb 42, title: Hawaiian Def Forces, and (2)
other papers filed with JCS 11 and JCS 11/1 in ABC 381 Hawaii
52 (1) For Gen Emmons' request, see memo, Col L. S. Gerow
for Gen Eisenhower, 20 Feb 42, sub: Reinforcements for Hawaii, WPD 3144-19.
Emmons requested one square division, one armored regiment,
and an increase in air strength to give him 200 heavy bombers, 50 light
and medium bombers, 326 pursuit planes, and 300 observation planes. (12)
For JCS approval of JCS 11, see min, 3d mtg JCS, 2 Mar 42. (3) For
presidential approval, see memo, Brig Gen Walter Bedell Smith for Marshall, 14
Mar 42, no sub, with JCS 11/1 in ABC 381 Hawaii (2
53 See msg, Prime Minister to President, 4 Mar 42, No 37,
circulated as CCS 56.
54 Memo, WPD for CofS, 5 Mar 42, sub: Proposed answer to
Prime Minister, Book 4, Exec 8. WPD had concluded that, with the
return of Australian forces from the fear Fast, the Employment of two
American divisions in the Southwest Pacific would leave the over-all
distribution as originally contemplated.
55 CCS 56/1, 6 Mar 42, title: Msg from Prime Minister on Current
56 Appendix II of JCS 23 listed another circumstance affecting the earlier
deployment recommendations, namely
that the War :end Navy Departments, the Munitions Allocation Committee, the
Maritime Commission, and With certain reservations,
the War Shipping Administration had agreed on a proposed allocation of
American cargo ships (over 5,000 tons deadweight )for the year1942. This
appendix is a supplementary report by the JUSSC prepared in accordance with JPS directive.
( See min, 4th mtg JPS,
11 Mar 42)
57 App II, JCS 23
58 For effect on troop movements to the united Kingdom, see
below, Ch. VIII.
59 See (1) Addendum to WPD Notes on JCS 23 in ABC 370 (1-28-42) and (2) JPS 21 /7, 18 Ape 12, title: Def for Island Bases
along Lines of Communication between Hawaii and Australia.
60 The total forces "on shore in overseas positions" in
the Pacific recommended in JPS 2/6 and incorporated in JCS 23 were (in
round numbers) 416,000, of whore 225,000 were then present in the areas
or en route. (JCS 23, Annex A, title: Forces Re q to Secure SW Pacific.)
The breakdown (in round numbers, including projected ground and air
strength for 1942 )was as follows:
Army (Central, South, and Southwest Pacific)
The figure of over 275,000 ,given in
the text for the Central, South, and Southwest Pacific represents the
229,000 in JCS 23, with allowance of over 45,000 for forces, including
the 27th, 32d, and 37th Divisions, not included in JCS 23. The figure
275,000 corresponds roughly with the calculation made at the time by WPD.,
(See Addendum cited n. 59 Projected Army commitments to the Central, South, and Southwest
Pacific rose steadily during the spring. (See OPD Weekly Status Maps, AG
061 (4 Sep 45).) As of 2 April commitments were about 260,000;
for 23 April, about 276,000: for 4 June, about 290,000.
61 Their first action was to readjust British command relations by returning Burma to the "operational command" of India. (Min,
7th nag CCS, 21 Feb 42. ) Sir John Dill had recommended that this
measure should take precedence over any general reconsideration of the
boundaries of the ABDA area. (Min, 5th mtg CCS, 17 Feb 42.)
62 (1) Min, 8th mtg CCS, 23 Feb 42. (2) Msg, Marshall to Brett, 23 Feb 42, ABDA 196. For text of
msg, see WPD 4639-54.
63 Msg, Marshall to MacArthur, 24 Feb 42, No. 1083, AG 381 (l1-27-41), 2-C.
64 (1) Msg, Marshall to Brett, 21 Feb 42, No.185, .4G 381 (11-27-41),
2-C. The message confirmed instructions telephoned to Brett by Arnold but did not
specify what would be Brett's assignment on arrival in Australia. (2) Memo
Eisenhower for Arnold, 21 Feb 42, no
sub, WPD 4639-48. (3) See memo, WPD for TAG, 23 Feb 42, sub:
of Gen Brett to Comd U. S. forces in Australia, WPD 4639-54, for the
order to Brett to assume command of U. S. forces in Australia. Notation
states that the text was sent to General Brett (ABDACOM, Batavia) as
radiogram No. 196. For the reassignment of Brereton, see above, Ch. VI.
65 For a detailed account of this transaction, see Morton, Fall of
66 (1) Msg (originator WPD), Marshall to MacArthur, 4 Feb 42, Item la, Exec 10.(2) There was no further correspondence on the
matter until 21 February, when the War Department requested MacArthur's
views. Msg (originator WPD), Marshall to MacArthur, 21 Feb
42, Item la, Exec 10. Copy also in WDCSA 370.05 Phil (3-17- 42) (SS).
(3) These messages were both sent with the utmost secrecy. Memos,
Eisenhower for Off in Charge of Code Room, 4 Feb and 21 Feb 42, atchd to above cited copies of draft nags in Item la, Exec 10.
67 (1)Msg (originator WPD), Marshall to MacArthur, 22 Feb 42, .
1078, WDCSA ;370.05 Phil (3-17-42) SS. This message was sent by Eisenhower, received in the Philippines
2257, 22 February 1942, and
delivered to MacArthur in person at midnight 22-23 February (bout Washington
time). (2) Ltr, SW to Honorable Earl Warren, Attorney General, State
of California, 14 Apr 12. with atchd certificate by Eisenhower and memo
for red by Col Charles K. Gailey, Jr., Exec OPD, OPD 210.3, 53. Churchill on 20 February had already "surmised" that if
MacArthur were evacuated from Corregidor he would "look after the Australian side." (See Hinge of
Fate, p. 143.)
68 Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 26 Feb 42, . 373, WDCSA 370.05
Phil (3-17- 42) (SS). For correspondence on the manner of departure, see(1) msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 24 Feb 42,
358, and (2); msg (originator WPD), Mar shall to MacArthur, ''S Feb 42, 10. 1087, both in
WDCSA 170.05 Phil (3-17-42) (3-17-42) (SS); and (3) memo, WPD for TAG, 26 Feb 42, sub: Mar Eastern
Sit, Item 10, Exec 10.
69 Msg, President to Prime Minister, 18 Feb 42, . 106, with
JPS 11 in ABC 323.31 POA (1-29-42),1-A..
70 Msg, CsofS to Jt Stf Mis, 23 Feb 42, W. 76, with CPS 19,13 in
ABC: 323.31 POA (1-29-42), 1-A.
71 Sum of conf at White House on "Strategic Responsibility of
United Kingdom and United States," 7 Mar 42, circulated by JCS on 9 Mar 42
as JCS 19.
72 Min, 5th mtg JCS, 9 Mar 42.
73 Memo, Gen Eisenhower for JCS, 8 Mar 42, sub: Strategic Responsibility
of the U. K. and the U. S., Env 36, Exec 4. This paper,
presented to the JCS by General Marshall, was circulated as JCS 19/1, 9
March 1942, with the omission of one politically controversial sentence
about moving the advisory Pacific Council from London to Washington.
74 Msg, President to Prime Minister, 9 Mar 42, No. 115, cope filed
with CCS 56/1 in ABC: 311.5 (l -30- 42). The President declared
that all possible aid to Russia would be continued and noted that the
grand strategy of actual operations in the three areas would remain the
subject of study and decisions be the combined staffs and the joint committees
on shipping raw materials, and munitions.
75 Msg, Prime Minister to President, 18 Mar 42, No. 46, with JCS 19/1
in ABC 371 (3 -5-42).
76 Memo, Admiral King for JCS, 16 Feb 42, sub: Changes in ABDA and/or
Anzac Areas Evolving from Developments in Far East, with ruin, 5th mtg
CCS, 17 Feb 42, in ABC 381 SWPA (1-12-42). King also proposed in this
memorandum that Burma be separated from the ABDA Command and transferred
to a new India-Burma-China Theater.
77 (1) WPD brief, Notes on . . . CPS 19/D, with CPS 19/D. (2)
WPD brief, Notes on . . . CCS 9th mtg, 3 Mar 42, Demarcation of New
Strategic Areas in Japanese War Zone, with CCS 53.Both in ABC 323.31 POA (1- 29-42), 1-A.
78 For exchange of information with Brett, sec: (1) msg, Brett
(Melbourne) to TAG (for Marshall), 27 Feb 42, . 87, (2) msg, same to
same, 28 Feb 42, . 390, and (3) msg, Brett (sans origine) to same, 3 Mar 42, . 467, all three in Tab ABD.4-U. S. Reps, Book 4, Exec 8:
msg (originator WPD), Marshall to Brett, 5 Mar 42, No. 543, WPD Msg
File 10, 401 : (5) msg (originator WPD), Marshall to Brett, 8 Mar 42,
WPD Msg File 11, 726: and (6) memo, OPD for Actg CofS [Maj Gen Joseph
T. McNarney], 16 Apr 42, sub: Comd in SWPA, Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec 8. Final recommendations of the governments of Australia and New Zealand,
which envisaged a supreme Allied command containing Australia, New
Zealand, and the remnants of the ABDA area, were circulated as CCS 57, 7
Mar 42, title: Governmental and Strategical Contls and Comds in Anzac
79 JCS 18, 8 Mar 42, title cited n. 78. This paper was drafted by the Navy.
80 OPD brief, Notes on . . . JCS 18, with JCS 18 in ABC 323.31
POA (1-29-42), 1-.A.
81 Memo, CofS for JCS [9 Mar 42], sub: Creation of SWPA, Tab Collab,
Book 4, Exec 8. This memorandum, prepared by General Eisenhower, was
circulated as JCS 18/2
82 (1) Min, 5th mtg JCS, 9 afar 42. (2) For Admiral King's restatement
of the point at issue, see memo, King for President, 5 Apr 42, with CCS
57/2 in ABC 323.31 POA (1-29-42), 2.
83 In May, when Admiral Nimitz took command of the Pacific Ocean
Area, Lt. Gen. Frank hi. Andrews, Commanding General, Caribbean Defense
Command (CDC), asked what would be the effect of the new division of
the Pacific theater, so far as his command was concerned. The War
Department informed him: "Pacific Ocean Areas placed under CINCPAC
not include Southeast Pacific Area. Consequently there is no change in
command status, Pacific Sector, Panama Sea Frontier." (Msg
(originator OPD), Marshall to Andrews, 9 May -42, CM-OUT 1941.)
84 (1) Min, 6th mtg JCS, 16 Mar 42. (2) Memo, CNO for CofS,
19 Mar 42, sub: Comd Areas in Pacific Theater, with JCS 18/2 in ABC
323.31 POA (1-29-42), 2. (3) Win, 7th mtg JCS, 23 Mar 42. The boundary between the Indian and Pacific theaters was definitely
fixed on 24 March 1942. The CCS also agreed at the meeting of that day that the directive to the Supreme Commander, SWPA, would be issued
by the United States Government "in direct consultation as necessary
with the Australian Government." ( Min, 13th mtg CCS, 24 Mar 42.)
85 (1) Memo, WPD for TAG, 10 Mar 42, sub: Far Eastern Sit. This memorandum
had notation that this message from Marshall to Brett was No.613 (2) For Presidential "OK-FDR,"
See memo, SGS for Hopkins, 10 Mar 42, no sub. Both in Item 10, Exec 10.
86 (1) WD press release, 17 Mar 42, copy in Item 10, Exec 10 (2) For MacArthur's trip to Australia, see Morton. Pall of the
Philippines, Ch. XX.
87 Msg, President to Prints Minister, 17 Mar 42, Item 10, Exec 10. The President noted that
authorized a press release in order to
forestall enemy propaganda to the effect that the United States was abandoning
88 Msg„ (originator WPM, Marshall to MacArthur ( CG USAFFE, Melbourne ), 18 Mar
42, . 739, WPD msg File 13, 1885. The directive setting up SWPA did not receive approval "through
established channels" by all the ;governments concerned till mid-April. In
the meantime, a.; Eisenhower pointed out, "for
all practical purposes" MacArthur was the "Supreme Commander in the Southwest
Pacific. "He formally assumed command on
18 April and soon thereafter adopted the title, by which he was
subsequently known, of Commander in Chief, SWPA. (Memo, WPD for Actg CofS, 16
Apr 42, sub: Comd in SWPA, Tab Misc-, Book 4, Exec
89 (1) cited n. 88. (2) The final directive to MacArthur also
provided specifically that he was ineligible to "command directly any
National force. "Msg (originator OPD, Marshall to MacArthur,
3 Apr 42, CM-OUT 0482.
90 (1) Msg, Brett to Marshall, 21 Mar 42, No. 792, W PD Msg File 14,
2180. Brett reported bring informed of his appointment by the Australian
Government. (2) Msg (originator WPD), Marshall to
MacArthur, 21 Mar 42, No, 791, WPD Msg File 14, 2201. The War Department
approved, providing the appointment were satisfactory to MacArthur. (3) Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 21 Mar 42, No.3, W PD Msg File 14, 2234.
MacArthur stated that, since his air forces were "in a most
disorganized condition, " it was " most essential as a
fundamental and primary step" to put Brett in charge of air forces,
relieving him of his other duties.
91 Msg cited n. 90 (3). MacArthur added that "coordination with
Australian Forces for the present in accordance with your radio will be
scoured through cooperation." He requested "immediate approval" of his proposal "as a fundamental step in order to
bring some order into what is at present a most uncoordinated and
ineffective system which is a menace to the safety of the country."
92 Memo, WPD for TAG, 22 Mar 42, sub: Instns to Gen MacArthur as
Supreme Comdr, Item 7, Exec 10. The text was sent to General
MacArthur at Melbourne as radiogram . 810.
93 Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 24 Mar 42, No. 19, Vol V, Item li,
Exec. 2. It was on this basis that MacArthur set up the SWPA Command in
April: Allied air forces to be under General Brett; Allied land forces
under an Australian officer, General Sir Thomas Blarney: Allied navel
forces under Admiral Leary: U. S. Forces in the Philippines under Lt.
Gen. Jonathan LI. Wainwright; and USAFIA under General Barnes.
MacArthur characterized USAFIA as a "Service Command,"
though it actually retained additional functions. (See msg, MacArthur to
Marshall, 20 Apr 42, CM-IN 5422.)
94 (1) Min, 8th mtg JCS, 30 Mar 42. (2) Memo. S. Secy CCS for
Marshall, 1 Apr 42, with CCS 57/2 in ABC 323.31 POA (1-29-42), 2. (3) Memo, CofS and COMINCH for President 30 Mar 42, no sub, and incl
directives for CINCPOA and Supreme Comdr, SWPA, Photostats in ABC
323.31 POA (1-29-42), 1-B and OPD 384 PTO, 4. (4) Msg (originator OPD), Marshall
to MacArthur, 3 Apr 42, CM-OUT 0482. This message is quoted
from the directive to the Supreme Commander, SWPA, 30 March 1942.
95 Msg cited n. 88.
96 The War Department continued its
helpless preoccupation with the Philippines
to the end of the Philippine Island Campaign.
For the detailed story of the close of that
campaign, see Morton, Fall of the Philippines.