Endnotes for Chapter XI
1 Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 568-70. See Hopkins' notes of a meeting of 30 May and his copy of a cablegram he redrafted and sent to the Prime Minister that day.
2 Quoted in memo, Br CsofS for War Cabinet, 2 Jul 42, sub: Future Opns, WP (42) 278 (also COS (42; 195 (O) ;, Tab 19, ABC: 381 (7-25 42), 4-B. In late May or early June a copy of the British aide-memoire had been given to Hopkins. The text of it is in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 577, and Churchill, Hinge of Fate, p. 342.
3 Quoted in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 575. Transcript of interview of 1 June 1942.
4 Msg, President- to Prime Minister, 31 May 42, quoted in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 569.
General Marshall had expressed the same idea at the morning conference with Molotov on 30 May. (Op., cit, p. 564.) Compare with the President's statement of 6 May to Hopkins, the Secretaries of War and Navy, and the JCS, quoted above, pp. 221-22.
5 Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins. p. 556. Sec also Churchill, Hintge of Fate, pp. 340, 348-53.
6 Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins. pp. 582 83. Sherwood quotes the account Mountbatten sent to the President summarizing the report he had made to the Prime- Minister of the conversation. On 10 June Mountbatten gave an account of this conversation to the CCS. The conversation, fie noted, had lasted five hours. The minutes contain only Very general statements about it.  Min, -11th mtg CCS, 10 Jun 42.: On 19 June the British Chiefs of Staff summarized for the American Chiefs of Staff the points the President had made. (Min 27th mtg CGS, 19 Jun 42.)
7 Stf study, title: Occupation of NW Af by U. S. Forces, incl with memo, CofS for President, 16 ,Jun 42, sub: GYMNAST Opn. GYMNAST and SUPER-GYMNAST Development File, OPD Regd Does. The study is based on a draft filed in Item 53, Exec 10. The memorandum itself bears no indication of its having been sent to the President, but it is doubtless the paper that Marshall took with him to the White- House on the following day, spoken of by Stimson in his diary. "Marshall had a paper already prepared against it [GY1tN.ASTJ for he had a premonition of what was corning." (Stimson and Bundy, On Active .Service, p. 419.) Another reference, undoubtedly to the same memorandum, indicates that it must have been prepared in a great hurry to be taken to the meeting at the White House. (See memo, OPD for CofS, 17 Jun 42, Book 5, Exec 8. ) For the plans (SUPER-GYMNAST), See Ch. VIII, above.
8 Memo, CofS for President, cited n. 7.
9 Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, pp. 419 23. The account contains a quotation, from the Secretary's diary for 17 June, concerning the meeting of that day at the White House, and the full text of the Secretary's memorandum to the President, dated 19 June, which had "the unanimous endorsement of General Marshall and his staff."
10 See thin, 27th mtg CCS, 19 Jun 42. The Chief of the Imperial General Staff, General Sir .Alan Brooke, "explained that the Prime Minister's visit was the outcome of conversations with Admiral Mountbatten who had given an account of his talks with the President." Brooke then listed the problems which, according to Mountbatten 's report, the President had been considering. The list corresponds with the account of Mountbatten's conversation with the President, quoted in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 582 83.
11 Msg, JIC, London to JIC, Washington, 9 Jun 42, WDCSA Russia (S). This message (FEUDAL 26) was a summary of a British JIC paper, JIC (42) 200.
12 Marginal note in pencil on copy of JIC msg cited n. 11 and atchd note signed DE.
13 (1) Min, 27th mtg CCS, 19 Jun 42. (2) Min, informal mtg between Marshall and members of his stf, representing U. S. WD, and Field Marshall Dill, Gens Brooke and Ismay, 19 Jun 42, at Marshall's off, Tab Misc, Book a, Exec 8. (3) Min, 28th mtg CCS, 20 Jun 42.
14  Min cited n. 13 (3).
15 Ibid.
16 Min cited n. 13 (2).
17 Min cited n. 13 (3).
18  CCS 83 21, Jun 42, title: Offensive Opns in 1942 and 1943.
19 See note by Secretaries on cover sheet, CCS 83/1, 24 Jun 42.
20 Memo, Prime Minister for President, 20 Jun 42, Book 5, Exec 8. The memorandum, although bearing the date 20 June, appears to have been given to the President the day before. See memorandum, cited n. 21 (1) by which Hopkins, through Captain McCrea, forwarded it to Marshall and King. The policy on SLEDGEHAMMER that the Prime Minister at this time expounded to the President had been formally adopted on 11 June. (See below, pp. 266-67.)
21 Memo, McCrea for Marshall and King, 20 Jun 42, no sub, the text of which contains memo, Hopkins for McCrea, 20 Jun 42, no sub, .ABC 381 Pacific Bases (1-22-42), 2. The original draft by the President and Hopkins is reproduced in facsimile in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 586-87.
22 (1) Draft memo [CofS for President], n.d., no sub. (2) Draft memo [CofS for President], n.d., sub: Offensive Action Prior to Sept 15, 1942, to Compel Germans to Withdraw Forces from Russian Front. Both in Item 53, Exec 10. On 23 June Marshall sent a memorandum to the President based on the first of these drafts. Memo, CofS for President, 23 Jun 42, no sub, OPD 381 Gen, 62.
23 Draft memo, cited n. 22 (1). This begins: "My comments on the Prime Minister's memorandum of June 20th to the President follow." A penciled note states that Hull prepared the draft and that a copy went to Arnold. On Marshall's initiative, the War Department staff had already been investigating possible reductions in transport vehicles for the assault divisions. See (1) min, 18th mtg JCS, 4 Jun 42; (2) memo, CofS for Eisenhower, 4 Jun 42, no sub, (3) memo, OPD for CofS, 19 Jun 42, sub: Reduction of Transport and Heavy Equip in BOLERO Assault Divs, and (4) memo, OPD for SOS, 19 Jun 42, no sub, last three in Item 4, Exec 1.
24 Draft memo cited n. 22 (1) .
25 Draft memo cited n. 22 (2) .
26 For accounts of this meeting, see: (1) Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, pp. 423-24 (the account of the Secretary, who was not present, was based on reports from Hopkins and Marshall) ; and (2) Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, pp. 591-92.
27 Paper, incl with memo, Gen Smith for CofS, 21 Jun 42, Item 4, Exec 1. The memorandum begins: "Attached is a draft of General Ismay's notes of today's conference approved by General Brooke."
28 British paper [21 Jun] cited n. 27.
29 Stf paper, incl with memo cited n. 27.
30 Memo cited n. 27. They had apparently brought the difference up with Brooke, for they passed on his suggestion that they "wait until tomorrow before discussing the matter."
31 CCS 83/1, 24 Jun 42. The original version by General Ismay was also modified to provide for study of operations both against the Iberian Peninsula and against northern Norway. (For later considerations of these alternatives, see below, Chs. XII and XIV.) The Prime Minister, whose personal project it was, expected the invasion of Norway to be an affair mainly for British forces. But partly in response to his eagerness to invade Norway, the War Department organized a special regimental combat force of selected L'. S. and Canadian volunteers, the First Special Service Force, under Lt. Col. Robert T. Frederick. The project (PLOUGH) provided for training the force to operate in snow, using a special-purpose tracked vehicle in the development of which the Prime Minister had taken an active interest. The existence of this elite unit turned out to be something of an embarrassment. The Prime Minister did not readily give up the Norway venture, but it was not well regarded by his own staff; it was out of keeping with American views on operations against Germany; and its specific value to him became relatively less as operations in North Africa lessened his need for a great military success, and development of other routes to the Soviet Union reduced the importance of the protection of the northern route, the principal military purpose of JUPITER. (See below, Ch. XIV, p. 310.) The PLOUGH Force was finally committed to the Kiska operation (15-19 August 1943) and was sent to Italy in November 1943 to participate in the Italian campaign. (See especially, Lt. Col. Robert D. Burhans, The First Special Service Force (Washington, Infantry Journal Press, 1947).)
32 Churchill received the news of the fall of Tobruk at the White House while on his second visit to Washington. For his reaction to this heavy blow, see Hinge of Fate, p. 383.
33 For the negotiations in London, see above, Ch. X.
34 WD Itr, 16 Jun 42, sub: Comd in African Middle Eastern Theater, AG 320.2 (6-13- 42 ) MS-E-M. For preceding action, see: (1) memo, OPD for CofS [8 Jun 421, sub: Comd in African-Middle East Theater, (2) D/F, OPD for TAG, 13 Jun 42, sub: Comd in African Middle Eastern Theater (with this are filed a memo for red and an undated first draft), and (3) memo, Upston for Exec OPD, 19 Jun 42, same sub, all three in OPD 384 Africa, 7: and (4) 1700 Rpt, 11 Jun 42, OPD Current Gp Files, DRB AGO.
35 (1) WPD ltr cited n. 34. (2) See Motter, Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia, Ch V.
36 See (1) memo, SOS for G-3, 20 Jun 42, sub: Activation of Units for Militarization of N  Af and Iranian Missions, and (2) memo, G 3 for SOS, 23 Jun 42, same sub, both in OPD 320.2 Africa, 5.
37 Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Maxwell, 15 Jun 42, CM-OUT 3813 (6/16/42) (R).
38 For HALPRO, see Ch. VI, above.
39 See memo, AAF for CofS, 16 May 42, sub: Modified Plan for HALPRO, WDCSA, HALPRO (SS), for a description of the project as of this time. The British had earlier worked out plans for the same enterprise. The U. S. military attaché in Cairo, Col. Bonner F. Fellers, reporting the plans, had recommended that the United States should furnish the planes. See (1) msg, Fellers to G-2, 6 Apr 42, CM-IN 1711 (4/ 7/ 42)  (R) : (21 msg, Fellers to G-2, 24 Apr 42, CM-IN 6969 (4/26/42). (R) ; and .(3)  msg, Fellers to G- 2, 1 May 42, CM-IN 1043 (5/4/42) (R). Air War Plans had also been in favor of assigning planes for the purpose, whereas the Strategy Section in OPD had objected to it, "due to other commitments." (Memo, Col Nevins for Chief, S&P Croup, 9 May 42, sub: Recommendation for Execution of War Plan BLACK and Bombing of Ploesti, OPD 381 Africa 5. For the President's personal interest in carrying out a raid over Ploesti, see ltr, Maj Chester Hammond to CofS, 28 Apr 42, sub: Info Relative to Certain Bombing Flights, WDCSA 381 War Plans (S).
40 four of the planes were forced down in Turkey, where the crews were interned. The others landed at various places in Syria and Iraq. (See OPD Daily Sums for 13-17 Jun 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO.)
41 (1) Msg, Br CsofS to Dill [War Cabinet Offs to Jt Stf Miss, COS W 197], 8 Jun 42, Item 15, Exec 10. (2) Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Halverson, 10 Jun 42, CM-OUT 2175. (31 OPD Daily Sum, 17 18 Jun 42, and work sheet of African-Middle East See with OPD Daily Sum, 18 19 Jun 42, Current Gp File, DRB .AGO.
42 Msg, Halverson to Marshall, 17 Jun 42, CM-IN 5576 (R).
43 See msg (originator OPD), Marshall to  Maxwell, 18 Jun 42, CM-OUT 4477 (R) , sent in reply to msg cited n. 42.
44 (1) Msg, Marshall to Stilwell, 24 May 42, CM-OUT 5022 (R). (2) See also pp. 227 ff., above.
45 (1) Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Stilwell, 23 Jun 42, CM-OUT 5699 (R). Information copies went to Brereton (CM-OUT 5700) and to Maxwell (CM-OUT 5701). (2) Msg, Brereton to Marshall, 25 Jun 42, CM-IN 8183 (R). (3) OPD Weekly Status Rpt, 25 Jun 42, AGO 061 (4 Sep 45). (9) Romanus and Sunderland, Stilwell's Mission to China, Ch. V.
46 Msg, Maxwell to Marshall, 29 Jun 42, CM-IN 9610 (R).
47 See (1) Ch. VI, above, and (2) memo for red, sub: Activation of 23d Pursuit Gp, OPD 320.2 CTO, 31, for the history of the flight.
48 The Chinese Government learned of the decision, as then understood by OPD, from Stilwell, who had received an information copy (CM-OUT 6083) of msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Brereton, 24 Jun 42, CM-OUT 6075 (R). For the Generalissimo's protest, see msg, Stilwell to Marshall, 26 Jun 42, CM-I 8586 (R). The War Department's message was written in ignorance of the President's precise intention, a result of haphazard liaison with the White House. See (1) memo, Brig Gen St. Clair Streett for Gen Handy, 29 Jun 42, sub: Restrictions on Mvmt of Dawson Miss . . . , OPD 452.1 :Middle East, 2; and (2) tel conv, Gen Handy with Gen Smith, 29 Jun 42, Tab Misc, Book 6, Exec 8.
49 Msg, President (through Stilwell) to Generalissimo, 27 Jun 42, CM-OUT 7014 (R). Successive drafts, concluding with the memo for WDCMC and with notes of each action taken, are filed in Item 19a, Exec 10. General Arnold in mid-July asked the President to release the A -29's arriving at Khartoum, but the President refused, saying he would make a decision when all the planes were assembled there. (Msg, Lt Gen Joseph T. McNarney to Gen Marshall, 18 Jul 42, CM-OUT 4970.) For further indication of the President's determination, see remarks by Assistant Secretaries Lovett and McCloy and General Arnold. (Notes on War Council, 20 Jul 42, SW Confs, Vol II, WDCSA.1
50 (1) Memo for red, Handy, 24 Jul 42, Tab Misc, Book 6, Exec 8. (2) Msg, Brereton to Marshall, 28 Jul 42, CM-IN 8953. (3) Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Maxwell, 28 Jul 42, CM-OUF 8212.
51 For a brief account of the "three demands," in connection with American planning later in the summer, see below, Ch. XIV. A full account is to be found in Romanus and Sunderland, Stilwell's Mission to China, Chs. V and VI1.
52 See above, Ch. X.
53 Memo, Col Upston for Gen Streett, 20 Jun 42, sub: Opns Rpt-Tobruk Area, OPD 381 Africa, 15.
54 CCS 61/1, 22 Jun 42, title: Aircraft Sit of U. N. The schedules contained in Annex A of the agreements are given in Craven and Cate, AAF I, pp. 568--69.
55 (1) Memo, CofS for Prune Minister, 23 Jun 42, sub: Prospective Mvmts of Planes to Middle Fast, Tab Misc, Book 5, Exec 8. (2) Memo, CofS for President, 26 Jun 42, same sub, WDCSA Middle East (s). (3) Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Brereton, 24 Jun 42, CM-OUT 6203 (6/25/42) (R). (4t OPD Daily Sum, 2
5- 26 Jun 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO. (5) Min, 29th mtg CCS, 25 Jun 42.
56 (1) Min cited n. 55(5). (2) Memo for red, Handy, 25 Jun 42, OPD 381 Middle East, 7. (3) Msg (originator SGS), Marshall to Brereton and FitzGerald, 1 Jul 42, CM-OUT 0162.

57 Memo, CofS for Dill, 25 Jun 42, no sub, OPD 452.1, 51. This action superseded the action that Colonel Wedemeyer was taking through the JPS and the British planners with the same end in view. (See informal memo, A. C. W. [Wedemeyer] for Handy, 25 Jun 42, OPD 452.1, 51.)
58 Min, 30th mtg CCS, 2 Jul 42. For remarks on the qualification, which was extremely important, see: (1) memo, Lt Col Russell L. Vittrup for JPS, 25 Jun 42, sub: Aircraft Sit of U. N, with CCS 61 /1 in ABC 452.1 (1-22 -42), 1 ; and (2) min, 21st mtg JPS, 26 Jun 42.
59 See p. 235, above.
60 Min (rev), 27thmtgCCS, 19 Jun 42.
61 Ibid.
62 Min, 28th mtg CCS, 20 Jun 42.
63 CMT 24/D, 22 Jun 42, title: CMTC/ Directive/ U. S. Reinforcements for Middle East.
64 Memo, Lt Col Richard C. Lindsay- for Col Wedemeyer, 24 Jun 42, sub: Mtg of CMTC in Conjunction with CPS on Jun 23, 1942, 4:00 P. M., ABC: 381 Middle East (3-10- 42) , 1 - B, before 1. For the schedules drawn up at this meeting, see annexes to min, 29th mtg CCS, 25 Jun 42, circulated as CCS 84, title: U. S. Reinforcements for Middle East.
65 See paper, unsigned, n.d., no title, Tab Misc-, Book 6, Exec 8, for the expected composition of a task force built around the 2d Armored Division. This paper bears initial H [Gen Handy] in tipper right-hand corner. For the selection of General Patton to command the American task force for Egypt, see: (1) : memo for rcd, 23 Jun 42, sub: U. S. Army Comd in Midd1e Fast, OPD 384 Africa, 1, and (2) memo for rcd, Handy, 25 Jun 42, OPD 381 Middle East, 7. This notes only that Patton was to be released and to see the Chief of Staff before leaving. The decision had already been made not to send a task force. Army planners concluded that it would take as much as five months from the time an American armored division was alerted until the time it actually reached the fighting front in the Middle East. This finding in itself raised serious doubts of the practicability of the project. (See Tab A to draft memo [OPD for CofS, probably written 22-23 Jun 42], sub: Mvmt of One U. S. Armored Div to Middle East, Item 56, Exec 10, and ltr, Lt Col William H. Baurner, Jr., for Gen Ward, OCMH, 3 May 51, OCMH Files.)
66 For discussion of the project in July and August, see below, Ch. XII.
67 Min, 29th mtg CCS, 25 Jun 42.
68 (1) Memo for rcd, Handy, 25 Jun 42, OPD 381 Middle East, 7. (2) Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Eisenhower, 26 Jun 42, CM-OUT 6557 (R). (3) Memo, OPD for AGF and SOS, 26 Jun 42, sub: U. S. Armored Forces in Middle East, OPD 370.5 Middle East, 1, amended by memo, same addressees, same sub, 27 Jun 42, OPD 370.5 Middle East, 2. (4) Memo, 4 Jul 42, sub: Tanks and Self-Propelled Mounts for Shipt to Middle East, Tab Misc, Book 6, Exec 8. (5) Memo, OPD for CofS, 4 Jul 42, sub: Sum of Sit in Middle East, ABC 381 Middle East (3-10-42), 1-B, 4. (6) See also OPD 381 Middle East, 17, 18. The Middle East Command declined the offer of cadres to train an armored division in the United Kingdom in the use of American equipment, but otherwise welcomed the proposal. (See mtg of Gen Council, 7 Jul 42, OPD 334.8 Gen Council, 9, and pers ltr, Dill to Marshall, 27 Jun 42, WDCSA Middle East (S).)
69 The strength of heavy bombers in the Middle East from 25 June through 16 July was between one and two squadrons. By the end of July, with reinforcements beginning to arrive from the United States, it had reached three squadrons-besides five medium bombers. (OPD Weekly Status Maps, AG 061 14 Sep 45).)
70 OPD Daily Sums, 7-8, 16-17, 17-18 Jul 42, Current Gp File, DRB .AGO. In .August the 33d Pursuit Group was also ordered to be moved to Cairo. (OPD Daily Sum, 18-19 Aug 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO.) This order was soon countermanded, and the 79th Fighter Group substituted. (Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Maxwell, 21 Aug 42, CM-OUT 7145 (8/23/42) (R) and OPD 381 Africa, 26, and other cases in that file.) The needs of the North .African campaign (TORCH) required the change. (For the discussions, see Ch. XIV, below.)
71 (1) Informal memo, Marshall for Arnold, 28 Jul 42, WDCSA 452.1 (S). (2) Memo, AAF for CofS, 29 Jul 42, sub: Aircraft Status and Commitments in Middle East, WDCSA Middle East (S. (3) OPD Weekly Status Rpts, AG 061 (4 Sep 45). (4) OPD Daily Sum, vols for Jul and Aug 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO. A large group arrived on 27 and 28 July.
72 (1) OPD weekly Status Rpts, AG 061 (4 Sep 45 ) . (2) OPD Daily Sum, vol for Aug 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO.
73 (1) Msg, McNarney Marshall, 18 Jul 42, CM-OUT 5028. (2) OPD Daily Sum, 30-31 Jul 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO.
74 (1) Memo, Somervell for Marshall, 29 Aug 42, WDCSA Middle East (S). (2) Paper, unsigned, 8 Sep 42, title: Sit in Middle East, OPD 381 Middle East. 30.
75 Memo G-2 [Gen Strong] for CofS, 29 Jun 42, sub: Stoppage of Reinforcement and Supplies for Egypt, ABC 381 Middle East (3-10-42), 1-B, 3.
76 Tel conv, Handy with Smith, 30 Jun 42, Tab Misc, Book 6, Exec 8.
77 See paper, title: Recd by Telephone from Hopkins at 12:10, Jun 30, 1942/from the President to Marshall, WDCSA Middle East (S). Quoted in full in Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 595.
78 Memo, CofS for President, 30 Jun 42, no sub, OPD 381 Middle East, 14. For OPD draft corrected in ink by Handy, see Item 53, Exec 10.
79 For interest in British plans see, besides papers cited above, tel conv, Handy with Smith, 1 Jul 42, Tab Misc, Book 6, Exec 8, and papers filed with memo, OPD for CofS, 2 Jul 42, sub: Notes on Mtg in Off of Secy State, Book 6, Exec 8. The subject of the meeting was British policy with reference to the French Fleet units in Alexandria. General Maxwell at once withdrew part of the mission personnel to Asmara, Eritrea. On preparations for withdrawal of U. S. forces and equipment, see: (1) msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Maxwell, 24 Jun 42, CM-OUT 6044 (R) : (2) msg, Maxwell to Marshall, 3 Jul 42, CM-IN 1253 (7/4/42) (R) ; (3) msg (originator SGS), Marshall to Brereton and FitzGerald, 1 Jul 42, CM-OUT 0162; (4) memo, OPD for CofS, 4 Jul 42, sub: Sum of Sit in Middle East, ABC 381 Middle East (3-10--42), 1-B, 4; (5) notes on War Council, 6 Jul 42, SW Confs, Vol II, WDCSA: and (6) OPD Daily Sums, 2-3, 9- 10 Jul 42, Current Gp File, DRB AGO.
80 Sherwood, Roosevelt and Hopkins, p. 599. (1) Brereton, with Maxwell's concurrence, had recommended on 29 June the diversion of the entire consignment, of which twenty planes were then reported operational. (Msg, Brereton to Marshall and Arnold, 29 Jun 42, CM-IN 9738 (R).) (2) The War Department had replied that "in view of military situation as a whole," it was "not considered advisable" to ask for the release of the planes. Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Maxwell, 30 Jun 42, CM-OUT 7832 (R).) The President and Stalin acted very promptly on Churchill's hesitant request (of 4 July), and the War Department notified Basra of the release of the planes on 7 July. (Msg (originator AAF ), Marshall to AMSIR, 7 Jul 42, CM-OUT 1958 (7/ 8/42) (R).)
81 (1) Pers ltr, Dill to Marshall, 3 Jul 42. (2) Informal memo, Col Deane for CofS, 9 Jul 42. Both in WDCSA Middle East (S).
82 (1) Memo, Deane for Dill, 9 Jul 42. This was to inform Dill that all the necessary orders had been given. (2) Vote, Dill to Deane, 9 Jul 42, acknowledging Deane's memo. (3) Memo, SOS [Brig Gen Lucius D. Clay] for SGS, 16 Jul 42, sub: Airplane Shipt of 37-mm Am to Egypt. This memorandum listed steps taken, noting that 900 rounds had been lost in transit. Note and memos in WDCSA Middle East (S).
83 Pers ltr, Dill to Marshall, 30 Jul 42, WDCSA Middle East (S).
84 For Fellers' estimate of the situation in June, see, in particular, msg, Fellers to G, 2, 17 Jun 42, CM-IN 6008 (6/19/42) (R), and paraphrased rnsg, Alexander C. Kirk to State Dept, 30 Jun 42, Tab Misc, Book 5, Exec 8. Mr. Kirk, the American minister in Cairo, was in perfect agreement with Colonel Fetters and more outspoken. See, for example: ( 1) msg, Kirk to Secy and Under Secy State, 2:i Jun 42, No. 1058, WDCSA Middle East (S), and (2) paraphrased msg, Kirk to Under Secy State, 2 Aug 42, OPD 381 Middle East. 25.
85 For this proposal and War Department reaction, see:(1) memo for red, Handy, 1 Apr .12, and 2 ) paper, Hull, title: Comments Regarding U. S. Orgn of Alien Mil Forces in Middle East, filed with memo cited above, both in OPD 320.2 Middle East, 1: (3) msg, Fetters to G-2, 25 Apr 42, CM-IN  7165 (4/27/42). (R) : (4) mtg of Gen Council, 4 May 42, OPD 334.8 Gen Council, 1: (5) memo, Hull for ACofS OPD, 11 May 42, sub: Formation of an Allied Legion in Middle East Theater, OPD 322.9 Foreign Legion, 1: and (6) msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Fetters, 15 May 42, CM-OUT 2983 (R).
86 See, for example, msg, Fellers to G-2, 24 Apr 42, CM-IN 6969 (4/26/42) (R). This message carne to the attention of the President.
87 (1) Msg, Fellers to G-2, 30 May 42, CM-IN 9024 (5/31/42) (R). (2) Msg, Fellers to G-2 21 Jun 42, CM-IN 7184 (6/22/42) (R). He recommended sending two armored divisions, one infantry division, and two tank destroyer battalions, the Tenth Air Force, and an air support command mainly of B-24's.
88 (1) Msg, Fellers to G 2, cited n. 84. (2 ). Msg, Fellers to G 2, 19 Jun 42, CM-IN 6311 (6/19/ 42) (R),. (3) Msg, Fellers to G-2, 19 Jun 42, CM-IN 6491 (6/20/42) (R). (4) Msg, Fellers to G-2, 21 Jun 42, CM-IN 7266 (6/22/42) (R). (5) Paraphrased msg cited n. 84.
89 Memo, CofS for President, 23 Jun 42, sub: Amer Forces in Middle East, WDCSA Middle East (S). No. 1156 is msg cited n. 87 (2).
90 See below, Ch. XIII.
91 On memo cited n. 89 appear the following notes in pro: "Secretary of War, Please glance at this. /G. C. M.." and "I approve/ HLS."
92 Ltr, SW to Secy State, 2 Jul 42, drafted by Col Upston and forwarded via CofS for signature of SW, by memo, OPD for CofS, 1 Jul 42, sub: Designation of CG USAFIME, OPD 384 Middle East, 3.
93 Msg, Brereton and Maxwell to Marshall, 29 Jun 42, CM-IN 9515.
94 Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Maxwell and Brereton, 29 Jun 42, CM-OUT 7389 (R).
95 (1) Msg, Maxwell to Marshall, 30 Jun 42, CM-IN 9743 (6/29/42). (2) Msg, Brereton to Marshall, 30 Jun 42, CM-IN 0044 (7/1/42).
96 (1) Note, Dill to Marshall, 7 Jul 42. (2) Informal mono, Marshall for Dill, 6 Jul 42. (3) Drafts of msg, Dill to Auchinleck. All three in WDCSA Middle East (S). (4) Msg, Br Minister of State in Cairo [Richard G. Casey] to Dill, 16 Jul 42, incl with pers ltr, Dill to McNarney, 17 Jul 42, Tab Misc, Book 6, Exec 8.
97 Memo, Arnold for McNarney, 18 Jul 42, sub: Replacing Comdr in Middle East Theater, WDCSA Middle East (S).
98 Note, GCM to McNarney, atchd to pers ltr cited n. 96(4).
99 The idea that Maxwell would in time be given command of SOS USAFIME, with another officer taking over command of USAFIME, remained under consideration. (See for example, note for rcd, OPD 384 Middle East, 8.) This eventually happened in the fall (4 November 1942), when Lt. Gen. Frank M. Andrews became CG USAFIME.
100 (1) Notes on War Council, 29 Jun 42, SW Confs, Vol  II, WDCSA. (2) Cf. Ibid., 22 Jun 42. Marshall said, "We have had a series of conferences with the British including the Prime Minister . . . . The main issue has been with regard to plans for Bolero and diversion from this project. The fall of Tobruk has made the situation more complicated. Our main consideration has been to keep political considerations and British face-saving diversions from interfering with strategy and thus disrupting the Bolero plan."
101 (1) Samuel Eliot Morison, Coral Sea, Midway and .Submarine Actions: May 1.942-August 1942 (Boston, Little, Brown and Company, 1949), p. 158. (2) Craven and Cate, AAF I, pp. 457-61. The AAF units that took part in the Battle of Midway claimed credit for having sunk or damaged several Japanese vessels during the engagement. These claims were disputed at the time and have since been discredited, but they did influence Army views on operations in the Pacific.
102 Penciled note, D. E., at bottom of memo, Streett for Eisenhower, 10 Jun 42, sub: Gen Richardson's Rpt on Hawaii, OPD 320.2 PTO, 4.
103 (1) Ltr, Richardson to CofS, 1 Jun 42, sub: Hawaii, OPD :320.2 PTO, 6. (2) Memo cited n. 102. (3) Memo, McKee for ACofS OPD, 15 Jun 42, sub: Reinforcements for Central Pacific Area, OPD 320.2 P-1-O, 7. (4) Memo, McKee for Streett, 16 Jun 42, sub: Hawaii, OPD 320.2 P110, 4. For Richardson's mission see OPD 333 Gen Richardson's Trip. For McKee's mission, see msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Emmons, 2 May 42, CM-OUT 0418 (R).
104 The bsc study was memo, Col Joseph Smith ,S&P, OPD), Col Carl D. Silverthorne (Theater Group, OPD), and Col Frederic E. Glantzberg
 (AWPD), for ACofS OPD, 3 Jul 42, sub: Garrison of Hawaii and Central Pacific Bases, OPD 320.2 P-FO, 6. For initiation of the study, see other papers in the same file, Cases 4 and 6. See also (1) memo, Col Elmer J. Rogers, Jr., for Col Wedemeyer, 3 Jul 42, sub: Reinforcement for Central Pacific Areas, OPD 320.2 PTO, 6: (2) memo, Wedemeyer for Streett, 3 Jul 42, sub: Add Pers, Armament, and Equip for Def of BIRCH and HOLLY, OPD 320.2 PTO, 7: and (3) memo, Wedemeyer for Handy, n.d., no sub, OPD 320.2 PTO, 6.
105 OPD's recommendations were approved by General Marshall at a conference with General Handy and Colonel McKee on 13 July. For this conference, see memorandum for record filed with the directive that followed (metro, OPD for .AGF and SOS, 16 Jul 42, sub: Reinforcements for Hawaii, OPD 370.5 Hawaii, 18). For staff action immediately thereafter on the defense of Hawaii, see in particular: (1) OPD 320.2 Hawaii, 121, 126, 145: (2) OPD 320.2 PTO, 6: and (3) OPD 370.5 Hawaii, 18, 40.
106 Of the correspondence dealing with the performance of Army aviation and Army-Navy command relations in the North Pacific, see in particular:  I ; msg, Gen Marshall to Gen DeWitt, 6 Jun 42, CM-OUT 1492 (R) : (2) msg, Maj Gen Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr., to COMALSEC, 7 Jun 42, copy in OPD 384 WDC, 5: (3) msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 10 Jun 42, CM-OUT 2348 (R) :(4) msg, DeWitt to Marshall, 17 Jun 42, CM-IN 5444: and (5) msg, Buckner to Marshall, 20 Jun 42, CM-IN 6347.
107 See note for red, 9 Jun 42, with OPD 320.2 ADC 7 5, and msgs, Marshall to DeWitt, 9 and 17 Jun 42, CM-OUT 2170 (R) and 4143 (R). Brig. Gen. Laurence S. Kuter, Deputy Chief of Air Staff, held a more extreme view than that of the General Staff. (1) Msg, DeWitt to Marshall, 23 Jun 42, CM-IN 7506. (2) Msg, Marshall to Buckner, 23 Jun 42, CM-OUT 5708 (R). (3) Ltr, DeWitt to CofS, 2 Jul 42, WDCSA Alaska (SS). (4) Memo, AAF for OPD, 5 Jul 42, sub: Miss of Army Forces in Alaska. (5) Memo, Streett for Col Stephen H. Sherrill, 8 Jul 42, same sub. (6) Memo, OPD for AAF, 10 Jul 42, same sub. Last three in OPD 381 WDC, 49.
108 The units taken from WDC were the 53d Infantry, the 203d Coast Artillery (AA), and the 75th Field Artillery Battalion. See (1) msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 9 Jun 42, CM-OUT 2170 (R) ; (2) note for red cited n. 107; and (3) D/F, OPD for TAG, 13 Jun 42, sub: Mvmt of Trs to Alaska, OPD 370.5 WDC, 52. For the shifting of troops already assigned to Alaska to more exposed positions, see msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 9 Jun 42, CM-OUT 2170 (R) : msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 11 Jun 42, CM-OUT 2847 (6/12/42) (R) ; and memo, OPD for CofS, 15 Jun 42, sub: Augmented Garrison for Nome, Alaska, OPD 320.2 .ADC, 84.
109 For background on the temporary diversion of the 54th Fighter Group to WDC, see: (1) memo, AAF for OPD, 3 Jun 42, sub: Transfer of Pers from 33d and 54th Fighter Groups, OPD 370.5 WDC, 33 ; (2) msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 4 Jun 42, CM-OUT 0859 (R) ; and (3) memo, AAF for OPD, 5 Jun 42, sub: Air Reinforcement for WDC, and (4) D/F, OPD for AAF, 10 Jun 42, same sub, last two in OPD 320.2 WDC, 116. Marshall personally authorized sending one squadron of B-24's at once. See msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 12 Jun 42, CM-OUT 3037 (6/13/42) (R) : notation by Marshall on Navy msg, DeWitt to Marshall, 12 Jun 42, and OPD memo for red, 13 Jun 42, sub: Reinforcements for Alaska, both in OPD 320.2, WDC 124.
110 (1) Memo, DeWitt for CofS, 21 Jun 42, sub: Plan for Suggested Offensive Opn in NW Pacific. (2) Memo, DeWitt for CofS, 6 Jul 42, same sub. Both in OPD 381 Security, 206. (3) AAF R&R sheet, Arnold for Handy, 28 Jun 42, sub: Air Opns in Aleutian Islands. (4) Memo, Handy for Arnold, 5 Jul 42, same sub. Last two in OPD 384 ADC, 2. (5) Msg, Marshall to DeWitt, 11 Jul 42, CM-OUT  3385 (R).
111 Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 28 May 42, CM-IN 8352 (5/29/42) (R).
112 (1) Msg, Marshall to MacArthur, 1 Jun 42, CM-OUT 0095 (R). (2) Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 2 Jun 42, CM-IN 0469 (R).
113 Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 8 Jun 42, CM-IN 2264 (R).
114 For stf studies, see: (1) memo, Chief of Strategy Sec for ACofS OPD, 8 Jun 42, sub: Offensive Action in SWPA in Case of War Between Russia and Japan, OPD 381 SWPA, 63: (2) memo, Col Robert H. Wylie for CG SOS, 8 Jun 42, sub: Transportation Plan-Amph Div, SW Pacific, ind to OPD, 10 Jun 42, OPD 370.5 SWPA, 1; and (3) msg, Marshall to MacArthur, 10 Jun 42, CM-OUT  2319 (R).
115 General McNarney, representing Marshall, and Generals Handy, Streett, and Crawford of OPD, took part. (1) Msg, Marshall to MacArthur, 8 Jun 42, CM-OUT 1815 (R). (2) OPD memo for red, 8 Jun 42, with OPD 381 SWPA, 51.
116 Memo, OPD for CofS, 11 Jun 42, sub: Admiral King's Communication to Honorable Walter Nash, New Zealand Legation, OPD 370.5 Fiji, 6.
117 Memo, CofS for King, 12 Jun 42, sub: Opns to SW Pacific, OPD 381 SWPA, 73.
118 (1) Msg cited n. 114(3). (2) Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 11 Jun 42, CM-IN 3328.
119 (1) Memo, Col Ritchie for Gen Streett, 23 Jun 42, sub: Offensive Opn in SW Pacific. (2) Sum, 22 Jun 42, title: Est South. Both in OPD 381 SWPA, 80. (3) Msg, Marshall to MacArthur, 23 Jun 42, CM-OUT 5704. (4) OPD memo for rcd, 23 Jun 42, OPD 381 SWPA, 75. (5) Memo, OPD for CofS, 24 Jun 42, sub: Opns in SW Pacific, OPD 381 SWPA, 76. A detailed account of the divergent Army and Navy plans and views is contained in John Miller, jr., Guadalcanal: The First Offensive, UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1949), pp. 8-21.
120 Memo cited n. 119 (1) . It should be noted that from 21 to 25 June, the JCS were preoccupied with a critical situation in the Middle East and the reconsideration of strategy for 1942. (See section on "Crisis in Egypt," pp. 250-55, above.)
121 For an early anticipation of such a proposal, see memo, CofS for COMINCH, 24 Feb 42, sub: Estab of  U. S. Garrisons in Efate . . ., Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec 8. This memo is quoted and discussed in Ch. VII, above.
122 Memo, King for President, 5 Mar 42, no sub, Tab Misc, Book 4, Exec 8.
123 See msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 24 Jun 42, CM-IN 7976. MacArthur declared that in his message of 8 June (cited n. 113) he had omitted purposely the step-by-step explanation of what he proposed to do, and that the Navy had misconceived his plan for the operations in the New Britain-New Ireland region.
124 Memo, King for CofS, 25 Jun 42, sub: Offensive Opns in S and SWPA, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
125 Memo, CofS for King, 26 Jun 42, sub cited n. 124, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
126 Memo, King for CofS, 26 Jun 42, sub cited n. 124, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
127 Memo, CofS for King, 29 Jun 42, no sub, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
128 (1) Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 28 Jun 42, CM-IN 9329. (2) Sec msg, COMINCH to CINCPAC, 27 Jun 42, Tab Navy, Book 5, Exec 8, for the message from King to Nimitz referred to in the text.
129 (1) Msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 29 Jun 42, CM-IN 9591. (2) Cf. earlier protestation in msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 29 Mar 42, No. 41, Item 7a, Exec 10.
130 Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to MacArthur, 29 Jun 42, CM-OUT  7501.
131 Informal memo, CofS for King, 1 Jul 42, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
132 Jt Directive for Offensive Opns in SWPA, 2 Jul 42, OPD 381 SWPA, 83.
133 For this proposal, see Navy draft msg containing Jt Directive . . ., 30 Jun 42, Item 67a, Exec 10.
134 Memo, CofS for King, 1 Jul 42, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
135 Memo [King] for Marshall, 2 Jul 42, OPD 381 SWPA, 80.
136 Msg (originator OPD), Marshall to MacArthur, 3 Jul 42, CM-OUT  0677.
137 Unused memo, WPD for TAG, 19 Jan 42, sub: Def of New Caledonia, WPD 3718-14.
138 Informal memo, EJK [King] for ACofS WPD, 19 ,Jan 42, WPD 3718-14. King objected that "this set-up" was "not consonant with (a) the projected creation of the ANZAC area, (b) the facts of the case in connection with the U. S. Army General comdg U. S. troops, etc. in Australia."
139 For the continued confusion over Emmons' responsibilities, see: (1) msg, Emmons to Marshall, 27 June 42, CM-IN 9002; and (2) msg (originator OPD), Marshall to Emmons, 4 Jul 42, CM-OUT 1179.
140 For the arrangements made in May for joint action in the defense of the Hawaiian Islands group, under a state of "fleet opposed invasion," by which Emmons was made the "task force Commander Hawaiian Defense Sector," see: (1) msg, COMINCH to CINCPAC, 14 May 42, OPD 384 Hawaii 1; and (2) ltr, Gen Richardson to CofS, 1 Jun 42, Rpt 2, copy under Tab Misc, Book 5, Exec 8.
141 Navy paper, title: Agenda for Evening of Monday 16 Feb, WPD 4449-8. The War Department staff advised General Marshall on the first question that the limitation of Emmons' assigned mission doubtless did make him "unwilling to commit his long-range striking aircraft to any offensive mission planned by the CinCPac which might contribute only indirectly to the defense of Hawaii." On the other question, the staff expressed doubt that Nimitz had authority to move Army units outside the Hawaiian Coastal Frontier. (See WPD study, sub: Notes for CofS, WPD 4449-8. For details of the transaction, see also other papers filed with the above. )
142 See above, Ch. VII.
143 Msg, COMINCH to CINCPAC. 4 Apr 42, Item 7c, Exec 10.
144 Ltr, Emmons to CofS, 20 May 42, sub: Army Comd in SPA, OPD 384 PTO, 18.
145 Memo for rcd. OPD 384 PTO. 16.
146 (1) Draft memo, OPD for CofS, n.d., sub: Army Comd, .SPA, with atchd informal memo, Handy for Harmon, 13 Jun 42, OPD 384 PTO, 18. (2) Memo, OPD for CofS, 25 Jun 42, same sub, with incl ltr, CofS to King, 26 Jun 42, same sub, OPD 384 PTO, 16.
147 Ltr, King to CofS, 2 Jul 42, sub cited n. 146, with atchd informal memo, GCM for Handy, OPD 384 PTO, 18. For notification to the Army commanders in the Pacific, see: (1) msg, :Marshall to MacArthur, 3 Jul 42, CM-OUT 0840: and (2) msg, Marshall to Emmons, 4 Jul 42, CM-OUT 1100. The 19th Bombardment Group (H) was designated as the Australian Mobile Air Force, and the 11th Bombardment Group (H) as the Hawaiian Mobile Air Force. (See msg, MacArthur to Marshall, 11 Jul 42, CM-IN 3694, and msg, Emmons to Marshall, 16 Jul 42, CM-IN 5463. )
148 Ltr, OPD to Harmon, 7 Jul 42, sub: Ltr of Instns to CG USAFISPA, with atchd memo for red, OPD 384 PTO, 18. Harmon arrived in the South Pacific and assumed command at the end of the month.
149 See above, Ch. X.
150 Msg, MacArthur and Ghornley to Marshall and King, 18 Jul 42, Navy 081012, with JCS 112 in ABC 370.26 (7-8-42 ), 1.
151 Memo, King for CofS, 10 Jul 42, sub: MacArthur-Ghornley Seven-Part Despatch on SW Pacific Offensive Opns, Item 67a, Exec 10.
152 Pointed out in OPD brief  [14 Jul 42], Notes on . . . JCS 25th mtg, 14 Jul 42, Strategic Police and Deployment of U. S. and Br Forces (CCS 91 , with CCS 91 in ABC 381 ( 9-25 42 ), 2.

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