3 (1) GHQ USAFPAC, Basic Outline Plan for " Blacklist " Opns (2d ed), 25 Jul 45 (TS). "Blacklist" operations had been in the making since May 1945 and went to top commands in July of that year. The 1st edition was published 16 July 1945 and presented at Guam 4 days later at a conference of ranking service representatives. (2) Rad (TS) C-15431 CINCAFPAC to AGWAR, 4 May 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 381/61 (TS).
14 USAFPAC, Cir s9, sub: Adm of Recovered Mil Pers Other Than Phil Army, covered forms to be filled out by PW's providing information on treatment, atrocities, etc. Cir 20 made similar provision for civilian personnel. (GHQ USAFPAC Cir sq & 20, 9 Jul 45, Incl s, RPD Forms 44 & 23.)
15 The communications addressed to the Japanese Government by the Department of State concerning the treatment of American PW's and civilian internees totaled approximately 240 from 7 December 1941 to 2 September 1945.
17 (1) From collection of various regulations regarding PW's and issued by PW Int Bur, 22 Nov 43. (2) "The answer of the Japanese Government to the Red Cross regarding the treatment of POW's is that Japan has not ratified the treaty regarding treatment of POW's." (IPS Doc No. 2197, 24 Jun 46 p. 3.)
18 "In the event of unconditional surrender or sudden collapse of the Japanese Govt and Imperial High Command, it is proposed to immediately air drop emergency supplies to prisoners of war and civilian internees of the United Nations held in known Japanese camps... .Supplies to be flown from bases in the Philippines and Ryukyus nonstop...." (Rad (TS) C-32871, CINCAFPAC G-4 to CG China Theater, 12 Aug 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 384. 1/13-2.)
19 "...Swiss representative of International Red Cross reports all POW camps desperately in need of food. Recommend plane drops particularly sugar, chocolate, candy, condensed milk...." (Rad [TS] 281101/z, COM3rdFLT to SCAP, 29 Aug 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383.6 [TS].)
22 This was evidenced by the following extracts from GHQ SWPA Daily Sum and G-2 Est of the Enemy Sit (TS), 20 Aug-4 Sep 45: (a) "COM3rdFLT RA 33 Japan, 30 Aug 45: PW's are tremendously appreciative of food drops. Pilots are urged to select nearby areas for drops, as some packages without parachutes have been plummeting through roofs." (b) "JAP GOVT X 345, 30 Aug 45: Referring to information on civilian internee camp number 25, it was learned that. . .accidents happened as a result of the dropping of the supplies to the camps by Allied aircraft on 27 and 28 August .... Some casualties were caused, although details are still unavailable, within Tokyo prisoners camp No. 4 at Naoetsu and prisoners camp No. 7 at Hanaoka and other places. A drum was dropped at three places in the central area of Tokyo in the vicinity of which no prisoners or internees camps are located. It seems that these accidents were mostly due to the faulty attachment of the dropped material to the parachute, causing the former to come off from the latter when dropped, or the failure of the parachute to open because of the extremely low altitude from which the material was dropped...." (c) "JAP GOVT 453: PW Supply-dropping B-29's Cause Casualties: 4 Sep 45: 'Several' B-29's dropping PW supplies in Higashi Maizuru City (Maizuru area wounded several persons. Request that future supply drops be only made to POW camp at Miyazu."
26 Captured Pers and Mat Br, G-2 WD. Principle sources included NEFIS (Netherlands East Indies Forces Int Sv), AIB (Allied Int Bur), ATIS (Allied Translator and Interpreter Sv, G-2), and what information MIS-X (Mil Int Sv), AFPAC, had been able to obtain through intensive interrogations of released prisoners in the PI CINCPAC/ POA, AGAS (Air Ground Aid Sv). See G-2 GHQ FEC Int Ser, Vol. IV, Operations of the Allied Intelligence Bureau (R); Vol. V, History of the Allied Geographical Section (R).
27 "...Following information received from Tokyo ... in order to facilitate repatriation POW and civilian internees Far East. Organization 7 groups delegates Intercross and protecting power who are authorized to go to 7 main camps in Japan, namely Hakodate, Sendai, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, and Fukuoka in order to supervise conditions concerning evacuation POW and CI from internment centers to debarkation centers... Japanese delegation who left for Manila communicated these intentions to Allied Headquarters and acceptance by the Japanese Government of these measures. Junod established contact with all delegates and other interested by group giving all instructions ....Junod asked Japanese Government to increase immediately food rations all POW especially CI. Orders have already been given. Junod established plan with authorities for evacuation of POW and CI which will be ready August 24th. He believes that in view of conditions massive regrouping of prisoners in ports of embarkation impossible but he proposes evacuation of nearer camps to the ports and gradual transportation from faraway camps toward nearby camps which have been previously vacated. This will assure maximum security in feeding of POW and prevent crowding. Transportation towards camps and ports by train 80 percent 3rd class, 20 percent 2nd class, reserved for sick and officers. In consideration of the great number of sick people Junod has spoken to have necessary hospital ships available. Evacuation of CI complicated by great numbers who are residents Japan and occupied territories. Would like to transmit to Junod opinions Governments concerned.... Approximate strength or numbers of POW transmitted to Allied General Headquarters by Japanese Government on June 30 1945: Hakodate 1,579, Sendai 3,844, Tokyo 5,848, Nagoya 3,357, Osaka 4,541, Hiroshima 3,155, Fukuoka 10,457, total in Japan proper 34,509.... Total occupied territories, 69,346 general total POW, 103,855, of whom 11,572 sick. Approximate strength of CI in April : Tokyo 36, Kanagawa 66, Hyogo 163, Nagasaki 41, Saitama 56, Fukushima 140, Hokkaido 24, Miyagi 35, Hiroshima 44, Aichi 35. Total in Japan 640.... This list does not mention civilian internees under Military control. More detailed and more recent lists follow. Would like to have opinion of Governments concerned to enable us to inform Junod Tokyo who will re-transmit to all delegates Far East. Coordinating action interested powers seems indispensable for satisfactory execution of above plan. We ask that all Allied Commands Far East be informed of this plan, and contact our delegates on the spot to assure fast application of necessary measures. We put at disposal Allied authorities all our delegates. If another plan already established and applied would be grateful to be informed so that we may advise Junod. Would like very much to receive ultimate lists of repatriates established by Allied authorities. Same text sent to London delegates." (Rad NR: 1946, Washington to CINCAFPAC, China, India, 24 Aug 45. G-3 Adm 383.6 [S])
* Totals include camps in China, Korea, and Formosa for which separate statistics unavailable. (HQ 20th AF, Tac Mission Rpt No. POW, 27 Aug-20 Sep 45 (C).)
34 On 25 August, General MacArthur had advised Admiral Halsey that "... it is not believed advisable for Third Fleet to undertake any unilateral action re assistance and evacuation prisoners of war Tokyo Bay area. Action being taken by this headquarters to effect coordination in this matter." ( Rad [C] 251457, SCAP to Halsey, 25 Aug 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383-6/1/S.)
Admiral Halsey proposed that immediate action be taken and, in a radio to General MacArthur 29 August, stated that: " ... all facilities under my command are available to you and to the CG Eighth Army for the immediate extension of urgent care, assistance and evacuation of the Allied POW's in eastern Honshu. Suggest that the liaison officers of the Eighth Army be sent to me at Yokosuka in order that I may initiate and expedite this task in accordance with your policies.... Have a tactical organization ready with all the available information and prepared to act. Propose for the most expeditious action: 1. Send medical assistance and food with Red Cross and Japanese liaison to Tokyo Bay waterfront camps promptly reporting to CG Eighth Army and to you on conditions found. 2. Receive released POW's on board hospital ships and APA's in Tokyo Bay for evacuation to points CG Eighth Army directs. 3. Send on 3 Sep with 8th Army liaison party 1 LSV, 1 APA, with appropriate escorts and minesweepers to an East Coast port in the Sendai area to contact camps in that area, extend medical assistance and evacuate to points CG Eighth Army directs. 4. Establish transient hospital, clothing, and supply station for POW's at Yokosuka for use as required." ( Rad[TS], Halsey to MacArthur, 29 Aug 45. In G-3 Adm 383-6.)
35 Messages Painted on PW Camps included: "SOS," "406 Prisoners," "503 Men Here," "Have Hospital Cases Here," "Drop Radio Please," "Thanks Yanks, Aussies," "PW US PW 1734 Men," "Men from Corregidor, Bataan Thank Wasp." "Hong Kong Men Thank You," "All Left This Camp." (HQ 10th AF, Tac Mission Rpt, Mission No. POW, 27 Aug-20 Sep 45 [C] .)
36 Upon receiving Admiral Halsey's report of conditions in waterfront camps, Admiral Nimitz sent an urgent message to General MacArthur: "In view of circumstances outlined urge that you immediately authorize Halsey to take immediate action to contact POW and to take such action as necessary for alleviating their condition and moving them into American jurisdiction. In order that the intolerable conditions outlined by him may be corrected in minimum time and to provide for possible failure or delay in communications, COM3rdFLT is hereby authorized, if no reply is received from you by 1300 Tokyo time today, to initiate such local action as to POW's as humanitarian considerations require." ( Rad [C] 281830, CINCPAC ADV to SCAP, 29 Aug 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383-6 /1/S.)
SCAP radioed his concurrence, stating that evacuees should be returned to AFWESPAC, Manila. ( Rad [C] 2 9 0 339, SCAP to CINCPAC ADV, 29 Aug 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383-6.)
37 ". . . On the evening of 29 August 1945, a U. S. Naval Landing unit of about 150 men under the command of a Rear Admiral, broke into the Shinagawa camp of the Allied War Prisoners, Tokyo, and forcibly led away the prisoners...." (Rad [C] CA51551, CINCAFPAC ADV to CINCPAC, 1 Sep 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383.6 [C].)
(USAFWESPAC Semi-Ann Rpt, 1 Jun-31 Dec 45.)
42 Until 12 July 1945, G-1 Section administered problems dealing with recovered personnel through section and base commanders ; thereafter, staff supervision was exercised through Recovered Personnel Division, Adjutant General's Office, actual operation having been turned over to the Replacement Command. (USAFWESPAC Semi-Ann Rpt, 1 Jun-31 Dec 45, p. 24.)
43 One report stated that approximately 11,000 British and American PW's had been transferred from the Tokyo area to Yamaguchi Prefecture in the Ube area. Nearly 3,000 of these had last been reported working in coal-mines near Onda, west of Ube. (GHQ USAFWESPAC MIS-X Sec Rpt, Locations & Strengths PW & CI Camps in Japan, 14 Aug 45.)
(Documents Submitted to SCAP by the Japanese Mission to Negotiate Surrender, Manila, 19 Aug 45, p. 87.)
45 (1) GHQ USAFPAC MIS-X Sec reported on 14 August 1945 that there were 25 civilian internment camps in Japan, with a total of 1,362 internees, 166 of these being Americans. (2) Dept of State Press Release No. 653, 4 Sep 45.
48 On 26 August 1945, 9 officers and 16 enlisted men, making up Recovery Teams Nos. 62, 63, 64, and 65 and liaison personnel of the US, Australian, and Dutch armed forces, reported for duty with the XIV Corps and were placed under the jurisdiction of the IG Section for the movement of the occupation forces into Japan. The activities of the IG Section were to include the supervision and coordination of all recovery work by the teams attached to the XIV Corps. In addition to their normal task of handling Allied prisoners of war and their processing and evacuation, these teams were assigned the task of examining all former camp sites in their assigned area, after the release of the prisoners. (XIV Corps, Rpt No. 1 on the "Blacklist" Opn , 20 Aug-30 Sep 45 [R], p . 9.)
50 (1) The first US ship to enter Yokohama was the USAHS Marigold, carrying the 42nd General Hospital. (Med Hist of 42d Gen Hosp, Ann Rpt of Activ for 1945, gives this date as 30 August 1945; however, Occupational Monogr of the Eighth US Army in Japan, Vol. I, Aug 45-Jan 46, gives the date as 31 August.) (2) The first medical unit to arrive in Japan was the 5th Portable Surgical Hospital, which landed with elements of the 11th Airborne Division, 28 August. (Occupational Monograph of the Eighth US Army in Japan, Vol. 1, Aug 45 Jan 46 [C], p. 216.) (3) Early in September the Surgeon's Section (I Corps) had been informed of the desirability of having an officer from its section go to Japan, with an advance echelon for the purpose of evacuating Allied PW's. G-4 of Corps accepted the recommendation of the Surgeon that one evacuation hospital participate in this advance operation. The 54th Evacuation Hospital, then located at Urdenata, Luzon, was alerted and within 24 hours had loaded out on an LST. The loth Replacement Depot which accompanied the advance echelon received medical augmentation which enabled them to accomplish their mission. (HQ Eighth US Army, CWS Hist Rpt, Mil Occupation of Japan through Nov 45, pp.12-13.)
54 (1) Secretary of State James Byrnes made public on 5 September a 10,000-word report on the maltreatment of American PW's by the Japanese Army in which he said: "Persons who mistreated PW's in violation of the Geneva Convention Land Warfare and International Law ought to be punished severely. In this respect, Japanese war criminals will be held responsible to the utmost as was the case in Germany."
The State Department report is based on about 200 protests presented to Japan since the outbreak of war by former Secretary of State Hull, former Secretary of State Stettinius, and former Ass't Secretary of State Grew. Many of them have been withheld from publication on the ground that the war was in progress. In the report in question, the names of those who are responsible for the maltreatment of Allied prisoners of war are enumerated. ( Tokyo, Asahi Shimbun, 8 Sep 45.)
(2) According to a Manila report, prisoners of war who arrived there on their way home have told the press as follows regarding treatment by the Japanese Army: Without any provocations, the Allied PW's were beaten badly. High Allied officers were humiliated, and the Japanese Army schemed to ferment division of opinions among the lower ranks of the Allied troops. B-29 flyers were especially maltreated. Food and medicines were not satisfactorily provided for the Allied prisoners. In many instances, Allied patients died because diagnosis was refused until they were at the stage when operations were necessary. All kinds of sickness were prevalent among the PW's: malaria, dysentery and TB were common diseases. These were due to lack of proper diet and treatment. TB patients were made to stand in the cold outdoors, and Japanese guards would pour water over them every half an hour. In spite of the Geneva Convention, officers were put to forced labor. (Tokyo, Asahi Shimbun, 12 Sep 45.)
(Documents Submitted to SCAP by the Japanese Mission to Negotiate Surrender, Manila, 19 Aug 45 LC], Part 1, p. 97. Aggregate from footnote 41 supra. The surrender data were too low.)
56 (1) Time Magazine, 17 Sep 45. (2) Evidence presented in the War Crimes Trials held in Yokohama described the fate of captured American fliers held by Western Army of Kyushu after April 1945. (Interview with Mr. Paul K. von Bergen, Legal Sec, GHQ SCAP, 13 Jun 49) Kyushu Imperial University was located a few miles away from Western Army Headquarters in Fukuoka City. With the consent of authorities of Western Army and under the observation of staff officers, several fliers were taken from their cells to the medical college where they were used for medical experiments. While there were modern, adequate operating facilities available, the fliers were actually vivisected in an old, wooden, dirty room used by medical students in the studies of autopsy and anatomy, on a tin covered table used by the students to dissect corpses. At the time the army was particularly interested in obtaining a blood substitute. In this instance sea water was used on the prisoners : blood was drained and sea water injected until the victims bled to death. New techniques in the removal of lungs were attempted. Instruction on the practical technique of stomach resection was demonstrated. In one instance a slit was made in the heart muscle, then sutured, after which the suture was removed so that other surgeons could practice. In one or more operations a complete liver was removed. There was at least one brain operation. After the prisoners were killed, other medical scholars dissected the corpses and obtained specimens including the brain.
On the night of 19 June 1945, Fukuoka City had its one air raid after which the remaining eight plane crash survivors were taken out into the compound and decapitated in retaliation. On or about 10 August 1945, approximately eight prisoners were taken to Aburayama and used in the training of the guerrilla squad, a unit of specially selected young officers training to lead the civilians in a last ditch stand, in karate, a hand-to-hand combat technique in which fliers were punched and kicked in vital areas. One prisoner was subjected to bow and arrows, and all of them ultimately to decapitation.
On 15 August 1945, after the broadcast of the Imperial rescript of the Emperor, the remaining seventeen American captives held were summarily decapitated in the fear that otherwise they would have been able to disclose the previous atrocities.
The fliers were reported to the Occupation authorities as having died in the Fukuoka and Hiroshima bombings and in an incident where, after the 15th of August, a plane of the special attack corps came from Tokyo, took up the remaining prisoners and suicide crashed into the Bay.
58 (1) Rad DX715I7, CG 8th Army to CINCAFPAC ADV, CINCAFPAC, COMNORPAC W CINCPAC 3rd FLT CTG 30.6, 6 Sep 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383.6 (S); (2) Rad o51525/T, CG 8th Army to COM3rdFLT, 6 Sep 45, In G-3 Adm.
60 (1) "The prisoners did something else which I shall always remember. Making up bundles of their old Red Cross shoes, blankets, and clothes, these starved men went into the villages and out in the countryside to find the squalid huts in which lived the Jap foremen who had befriended them on their work details. They knew these small-timers hated the Jap military and monopolistic industrial machine. They knew their families were facing another hard winter. They gave these Jap civilians their pitifully shabby collection of clothes." (Weinstein, op cit, pp. 290-1.) (2) "A Good Deed by US POW's: A railway accident occurred at Sasago on the 6th with some casualties. Immediately after the accident, a train bearing 80 American POW's arrived at the Sasago station on its way from Kayano to Yokohama. The railway officials were worried over a possible delay in the POW transportation, but on learning of the accident the POW's proposed to help those in need and a dozen men, getting out of the train, began giving first aid to the wounded with what medical supplies they had with them. In the meantime, other POW's opened canned foods and gave them to the wounded. Offering their own blankets, these POW's made impromptu beds for the wounded.
"When the repairs were completed and the POW train was about to pull out of the station, canned goods, blankets, coats, overcoats, etc., were thrown out of the windows one after another to help out the injured.
"At the request of the Kofu Railway Control Section (that) their thanks be conveyed to the POW's, Transportation Ministry, Kobiyama, was instructed to obtain grapes, well known product of Kofu, to present to the POW's as a token of gratitude." (Tokyo, Asahi Shimbun, 12 Sep 45.)
62 "Reurad NR 311012-Z. Urgency of situation indicates advisability of immediately extending evacuation of prisoners of war to 6th Army and 5th Flt areas. 8th Army and 3rd Flt working jointly to evacuate those within 8th Army and adjacent Honshu area to screening point at Yokohama. 6th and 8th Armies assisted by 3rd or 5th Flt units and regardless of Army and Fleet boundaries to extend opns to include all of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku. It is desired that POW and civilian internees evacuated from western Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu be evacuated to Okinawa. Navy hospital ship to be made available at Okinawa for sceening purposes as majority of this personnel is Allied and destined for Manila, Australia and NEI. Naval vessels carrying Army contact teams to approach ports suitable for evacuation to naval vessels at pre-arranged ports. Army teams available at Yokohama now. Request conference earliest at Yokohama for complete planning with fleet representatives as designated by you. Plan discussed with Fleet Liaison who concurs. In view of reported conditions especially in Kyushu it is desirable to place rescue teams there simultaneously and at earliest practicable date." (Rad ZAX 5029, SCAP ADV to CINCAFPAC, 3 Sep 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383-611/S.)
64 "Subject evacuation of POW and civilian internees from western Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu. Request 5th Fleet use Ports of Wakanoura and Nagasaki. Task Group with hospital ship to proceed Wakanoura to receive personnel transported there by rail from camps western Honshu and Shikoku. Ten recovery teams from 8th Army will proceed by destroyer from 3rd Fleet to join task group at Wakanoura and execute initial processing and 2d Task Group with hospital ship proceed to Nagasaki for similiar action and 6th Army to provide to recovery teams at Okinawa to be picked up by Nagasaki Task Group and hospital ship to evacuate North American bed cases to Marianas and other British nationals in accordance with arrangements to be made with CINCBPF and ambulatory except Navy to be evacuated to Okinawa then to Manila via air and surface vessels and hospital ship to Okinawa no longer required and notify SCAP, 8th Army and 3rd Fleet date of rendezvous at Wakanoura and notify SCAP, 8th Army and 6th Army date of arrival ship at Okinawa to receive recovery teams and personnel to be evacuated estimated 10400 at Nagasaki, 10600 at Wakanoura and standard procedure now effective with 3rd Fleet and 8th Army will furnish 5th Fleet and 6th Army representative for guidance upon ship arrival." (Rad ZAX, SCAP to GHQ Manila, 6 Sep 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm.)
66 Processing (of liberated PW's) began on 4 September 1945 and ended on 21 September 1945. The average number processed per day was 1033 with as many as 2450 in one 24 hour period. A total of 17,731 PW's were processed through this hospital unit. (Med Hist of 42d Gen Hosp, Ann Rpt of Activ for 1945 24 Jan 46.)
69 "We clambered aboard the U. S. S. Rescue and were promptly told to strip and throw our lice-covered rags overboard. Into a steam-filled shower room we crowded. Oh, the first heavenly thrill of plenty of soap and piping-hot water squirting through the needle valves of the shower! We scrubbed and scrubbed our bodies, peeling off one layer of filth after another. We squirmed with pleasure under the jets. As we left the showers, medics with flit guns sprayed our heads and bodies with DDT while we pirouetted slowly, arms raised. In freshly washed pajamas sweet with cleanliness we walked through a line of docs who checked us over quickly. On the softest mattress, between the whitest sheets I have ever seen, I slipped into bed in the hundred-bed ward....
"Better than food was the God-sent feeling of safety. We had been living at the mercy of barbarous, hair-trigger personalities for so many years that the gentleness and kindness we were shown was enough to make us sob silently in our pillows. Terms like 'freedom of speech,' 'trial by one's peers,' 'the right of redress,' 'habeas corpus,' were no longer a series of glib words that rolled off the tongue. They had a flowing, vivid quality to the liberated prisoners who had existed for years without the protection of these monuments of civilization. They were music to our ears. We could never forget their significance." (Weinstein, op cit, pp. 296-7.)
73 (1) Rad 060535/z, CinC BPF to CinC Hong Kong, 7 Sep 55; (2) Rad 081117/z, CinC BritPacFlt to COMGEN AFWESPAC, 9 Sep 45; (3) Rad 060533/z, SHA No. 404 to GHQ Manila, 9 Sep 45; (4) Rad 140211/z, VABPF to COM3rdFLT, 15 Sep 45. In G-3 GHQ Adm 383.
78 "An officer among the Prisoners of War can give his services out of his own volition but he will not be paid for his labor. The amount of pay for a POW general will be 35 yen less than that for a Japanese general; 30 yen less for POW field officer; and 27 yen less for company officer. Surplus money of POW's will be turned over to the National Treasury." (IPS Doc No. 2197, 24 Jun 46. In PW Info Bur.)
80 This memorandum requested information regarding Japanese vessels sunk while carrying Allied prisoners of war or internees, the name of the ship, port of embarkation, date, place and circumstances of sinking and a nominal roll of prisoners of war or internees who had died of illness or from other causes while aboard Japanese vessels. (Memo, SCAP for IJG, AG-560, 26 Nov 45.)
83 31,617 recoverees had been received in the Philippines through 31 October; only 183 remained in need of hospitalization on that date, a total of 2,676 having been hospitalized during the preceding period.
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