Endnotes for Chapter XIII
1 Matloff and Snell, ,Strategic Planning, 1941-42, Pp. 12-15 ; Conn and Fairchild, Framework of Hemisphere Defense, ch. II.
2 Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, pp. 689-91; Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, 2 vols. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1948), 1, 814-16; Morison, Battle of the Atlantic, pp. 30-33.
3 Memo, for file, Col Anderson, WPD, 13 Nov 40, WPD 2917-27; Memo, CofAC for CofS, 20 Nov 40, AG 320.2 (1-8-41) ; Hist Sec, CDC, MS, Army and Navy Boundaries of the Caribbean Defense Command, OCMH, pp. 7-8 ; Hist Div, CDC, Hist of Caribbean Theater, 1, 158-60.
4 See above, pp. 23-24.
5 Hist Sec, CDC, MS, Caribbean Defense Command, Organization, Development and. Reorganization, OCMH, pp. 1-4.
6 For the one quotation see joint Action, ch. 11, par. 9, and for the other, FM 100-5, par. 14, 22 May 41.
7 Ltr, Gen Van Voorhis to Gen Marshall, 10 Jan 41, AG 320.2 (1-8-41) .
8 Hist Sec, CDC, Organization, Development and Reorganization, p. 13; Hist Sec, CDC, Army and Navy Boundaries of CDC, pp. 11-12.
9 Hq CDC, GO 8, 29 May 41, in Hist Sec, CDC, Organization, Development and Reorganization, app. B
10 Pers Ltr, Gen Marshall to Gen Van Voorhis, 4 Jan 41, WPD 4440-1.
11 Ltr, Gen Van Voorhis to Gen Marshall, 10 Jan 41; Ltr, Gen Van Voorhis to TAG, 19 Feb 41. Both in AG 320.2 (1-8-41) .
12 Ltr, Gen Marshall to Gen Van Voorhis, 5 Mar 41; Memo, WPD for CofS, 1 Apr 41; Ltr (drafted in WPD), Gen Marshall to Gen Van Voorhis, 9 Apr 41. All in WPD 4440-5. Ltr, Gen Van Voorhis to Gen Marshall, 12 Mar 41, AG 320.2 (1-8-41); ist Ind, CG PCD to TAG, 7 May 41, on TAG Ltr, 28 Apr 41, AG 320.2 (4-15-41).
13 Hq CDC GO 2, 8 May 41; Hq Caribbean Air Force GO 1, 9 May 41. Both in AG 320.2 (1-8-41). Ltr, Gen Marshall to Gen Van Voorhis, 12 Jun 41, WPD 4270-8.
14 USAF Hist Study 42, Air Def of the Panama Canal, pp. 128-31.
15 Pers Ltr, Gen Andrews to Gen Marshall, 12 Mar 41; Pers Ltr, Gen Andrews to Gen Marshall, 5 Apr 41. Both in AG 320.2 (1-8-41) .
16 USAF Hist Study 42, Air Def of the Panama Canal, p. 187.
17 Memo, GHQ for CofS WD, 25 Jul 41, referred to in Memo, DCofS GHQ for G-3 WD, 12 Aug 41, GHQ G-3 file, Corresp from CDC.
18 Memo, DCofS Bryden for TAG, 7 Aug 41, OCS 20241-192.
19 The question of a supply organization for the Caribbean area was not yet resolved. On this matter, see below, p. 402.
20 Navy Dept, Bulletin to the President, 3 Jul 41, Pearl Harbor Attack, pt. 20, pp. 4352-53.
21 Rad, WD to Gen Van Voorhis, 3 Jul 41, OPD Exec 4, bk. 5.
22 Ibid; Diary of Brig Gen Leonard T. Gerow, entry for 3 Jul 41, OPD Exec 10, item 1.
23 Rad, CG to PCD to CofS, 4 Jul 41, OPD Exec 4, blc. 5.
24 Min, War Council Mtg, 7 Jul 41, SW Conf, binder 1 ; Memos, WPD for TAG, 9 and 10 Jul 41, sub: Restrictions on Traffic, Panama Canal, WPD 3730-22.
25 Memo by Acting Secy State, 18 Jul 41, in U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, Japan, 1931-1941, 2 vols. (Washington, 1943), 11, 263-64.
26 Memo, Lt Col Le Count H. Slocum, WPD, for Gen Gerow, 23 Jul 41, and related papers, WPD 3730-23.
27 Entry of 18 Aug 41, GHQ 314.8-1 Diary; Memo, Lt Col Matthew B. Ridgway for Gen Gelow, 26 Aug 41, sub: Conf with Mr. Welles re Dutch Guiana; Note for Rcd, Col Ridgway, 27 Aug 41, on Memo, ASW McCloy for Gen Miles, 26 Aug 41. Last two in WPD 4580.
28 Covering Memo of Lt Col Lee S. Gerow, 29 Aug 41, on Memo, Mal Edward H. McDaniel for Col Gerow, 28 Aug 41, WPD4580-1.
29 Informal Memo, Gen Gerow, WPD, 29 Aug 41, WPD 4580-1; Gerow Diary, entries of 29 Aug and 31 Aug 41, OPD Exec 10, item 1; Memo, WPD for CofS, 2 Sep 41, quoting rads: Talbot to G-2, 31 Aug 41, CofS to CG Trinidad, 1 Sep 4F, and WD to CG CDC, 1 Sep 41, WPD 4580-8; Memo, W.B.S. [Col Walter B. Smith, SGS] for SW, 16 SCP 41, OCS Conf File (9-21-41) ; Trinidad Base Command, Hist Sec, CDC, MS, History of Trinidad Sector and Base Command (hereafter cited as TBC, Hist Sec, CDC, Hist of TS and BC), 1, 123-2 5 .
30 Memo, WPD for CofS, 19 Sep 41, WPD 4580-20; Rads, Ambassador Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., to State Dept, 25 Sep and 6 Nov 41, OPD Exec 8, bk. A; Rad, Ambassador Biddle to Secy State, 10 Oct 41; Rad, TAG to CG CDC, 25 Oct 41. Last two in AG 370.5 (8-7-41).
31 GHQ Staff Confs, 19 Sep and 11 Sep 41, GHQ 337 Staff Confs, binder 1; Memo, WPD for TAG, 23 Sep 41; Memo, Lt Col George P. Hays, G-3 GHQ for CofS GHQ, 10 Sep 41, and related papers. Last two in WPD 4577-2. Ltr, William Joseph Donovan to Under Secy Navy James V. Forrestal, 23 Oct 41; Memo (not used), WPD for COB, 31 Oct 41, sub: Minimum Requirements for Def of Curacao and Aruba. Last two in WPD 4577-3.
32 Memo, WPD for G-2, 31 Jan 41, WPD 3782-10.
33 Ltr, Military Attaché, Quito, to Col Harris, G-2, 26 Mar 41; Memo, Col Ridgway for Chief, Plans Sec, WPD, 3 Apr 41. Both in WPD 4225-11.
34 Notes made by Lt Col Paul McD. Robinett, Min, SLC Mtgs, 21 May and 21 Apr 41. Both in SLC Min, II, items 20 and 26. Tab C (Article from Washington Times-Herald, September 19,1941) and Tab D (General Information on Galapagos), Memo, Maj McDaniel, WPD, for Col Gerow, 3 Oct 47, WPD 3782-11.
35 Min, SLC Mtg, 29 Oct 47, SLC Min, 11 item 35 ; Drew Pearson and Robert Sharon Allen in Washington Times-Herald, Oct 26, 7941.
36 Note for Rcd, M.B.R. (Col Ridgway), 16 Oct 41; Memo, Maj McDaniel for Col Gerow, 3 Oct 41; Memo, Col Gerow for Gen Gerow, 8 Oct 41. All in WPD 3782-11.
37 U.S Dept of the Navy, Bureau of Yards and Docks, Building the Navy's Baser in World War II, Il, 37. Hist Sec, CDC, MS, Procurement, Occupation and Use of Air Bases in the Galapagos Islands and at Salinas (hereafter cited as Hist Sec, CDC, Air Bases in the Galapagos), p. 23.
38 Memo, CofS for Under Secy State, 20 Dec 41, AG 601.1 ( 10-4-39) .
39 Min, SLC Mtg, 20 Dec 41, SLC Min, 11 item 40.
40 The greater interest in Talara was the result not of its more strategic location for the defense of the Panama Canal but because of its important petroleum installations, which were totally undefended and which were a source of fuel for the Chilean copper industry. See Rad 105, GHQ to CG CDC, 16 Dec 41, WPD 4380-8. It should be noted that a reinforced Coast Artillery battery was stationed at Talara in March 1942 and by September an American air base was in operation; but by July 1943 the American air units and ground garrison were withdrawn.
41 It is of interest that in sending detachments of the Caribbean Air Force to operate from and defend outlying bases, General Andrews was doing what he had cautioned against as a subordinate of General Van Voorhis.
42 Air Bases in the Galapagos, pp. 43-44.
43 Memo, WPD for TAG, 2 Dec 41, WPD 4413-4 ; Hist Sec, CDC, MS, History of Procurement, Occupation and Use of Air Bases in Guatemala (hereafter cited as Hist Sec, CDC, Air Bases in Guatemala), p. 12. For a discussion of the Pan American Airways airport development program, see Conn and Fairchild, Framework o f Hemisphere Defense, ch. X.
44 Rads, CG CDC to GHQ, 25 Dec 41 and 5 Jan 42, WPD 4372-10; Hist Sec, CDC, Air Bases in Guatemala, pp. 14-17.
45 Memo, Col Harold F. Loomis for ACofS WPD, 3 Jan 41, WPD 2674-31; Memo, WPD for CofS, 24 Mar 46, WPD 2674-36.
46 The quotation is from notes on General Marshall's remarks at the Standing Liaison Committee meeting on 3 January 1941 (SLC Min, 11, item 1). See also, Ltr, Gen Van Voorhis to COB, 3 Jan 47, WPD 2674-31.
47 Stimson Diary, entry of 9 Jan 41.
48 Min, SLC Mtg, 24 Mar-41, SLC Min, 11, item 13; Rad, State Dept to Amer Ambassador, Panama, 31 Mar 41, WPD 2674-37. A brief of the aide-mémoire from the Panamanian Govt, Mar 41, and letter of transmittal, Ambassador William Dawson to the Secretary of State, 5 Mar 41, are in OCS Conf, binder 11. See also, Min, SLC Mtg, 4 Feb 41, SLC Min, 11, item 5 ; and Memo, Col Orlando Ward for CofS, 10 Jan 41, OCS Conf, binder 8.
49 The quotation is from Memo, WPD for CofS, 9 Jun 41, WPD 2674-41. See also, Rad 1093, Gen Van Voorhis to TAG, 12 Apr 41, WPD .2674-34; Min, SLC Mtg, 21 May 4:1, SLC Min, II, item 26; and Memo, Col Robinett for CofS, 21 Apr 41, SLC Min, II, item 19.
50 Hist Div, CDC, Hist of Caribbean Theater, II, 337, 339 ; AG Hist Sec, PCD, Hist of PCD, III, 91; CDC PCD, Acquisition of Land, pp. 58, 67, 70-71.
51 Langer and Gleason, The Undeclared War, pp. 613-15 ; A. R. W right, "Defense Sites Negotiations Between the United States and Panama," The Department of State Bulletin, XXYII, 685 (Aug 11, 1952), pp. 216-17.
52 The text of the agreement is in Caribbean Defense Command, Panama Canal Dept, MS, Acquisition of Land, Appendix A.
53 The terms of the general agreement have been published as Executive Agreement Series 452, State Department Publication 2431. The article by A. R. Wright, cited note 51 above, describes the negotiations.
54 Details of the procedure are described in Caribbean Defense Command, Panama Canal Dept, MS, Acquisition of Land, pp. 91-95
55 Ltr, Gen Andrews to TAG, 29 Nov 4 1, GHQ 381 CDC, binder 1. The phrase quoted above is from this letter also.
56 Ibid. On other reactions to the 27 November warning, see above, chs. IV and VII.
58 CDC, Preliminary Study of Garrisons of the Puerto Rican Dept, Pt, II, p. 7 ; Hist Div, Antilles Dept, CDC, The Puerto Rican Induction Program and the Use of Puerto Rican Troops, pp. 18, 23-24.
59 OPD Weekly Status Maps, AG 061 (9-4-45) ; CDC, Preliminary Study of Garrisons of the Puerto Rican Dept, pt. II, p. a.
60 The above figures are the officially accepted figures, from the Table, Tentative Strength of the Army Based on Progress Reports as of Dec. 7, 1941, which was compiled some time afterward by The Adjutant General's Office, Miscellaneous Division, Returns Section, a copy of which is in GHQ Secret Papers, binder 1. A summary of the reports received by GHQ from the several commands during the week of 2-9 Dec 1941 gives the following: Jamaica-876 officers and men; Antigua-309; St. Lucia-351; British Guiana-557; Trinidad-2945. The Surinam force of approximately 900 men is perhaps included in the Trinidad strength. Total strength of the Caribbean Defense Command is shown as 58,487. The foregoing summary is in Memo, DCofS GHQ for CG FF, 10 Dec 41, GHQ Theater Studies file, Policy bk.
61 Joint Action, ch. v ; Office of Naval History, MS, The Development of the Naval Districts, 1903-45, PP- 31-39.
62 Hist Sec, CDC, Organization, Development and Reorganization, pp. 54-57 ; CDC, MS, Developments Regarding Unity of Command in the Caribbean Area, OCMH, (hereafter cited as CDC, Unity of Command), pp.. 24-25; Ltr, Gen Andrews to Gen Marshall, 14 Oct 41, AG 580 (10-14-41).
63 Hist Sec, Unity of Comd, p. 12.
64 Hist Sec, CDC, Organization, Development and Reorganization, p. 58.
65 Hist Sec, CDC, MS, Procurement, Occupation and Use of Peruvian Bases, OCMH, pp. 9-10.
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