Endnotes for Chapter XIV
1 The quotation is from -G. P. de T. Glazebrook, A History of Canadian External Relations (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1950), p. 419.
2 John Bartlet Brebner, North American Triangle (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1945), pp. 310-11.
3 Ibid., p. 314.
4 FDR Public Papers and Addresses, 1938, pp. 492-93.
5 The quotation from Mr. Mackenzie King's address is from Robert MacGregor Dawson, Canada in World Affairs, Vol. II, Two Years of War 1939-1941 (Toronto: Oxford University Press, 1943) (hereafter cited as Canada in World Affairs, 1939-41), p. 237.
6 Ltr, with Ind, JPC to JB, 31 May 40, sub: Jt A&N Basic War Plan-RAINBOW No. 4, JB 325, set 642-4. See also Chapter II, above; Watson, Prewar Plans and Preparations, pp. 104-07.
7 Jt A&N Basic War Plan, RAINBOW 4, JB 325, set 642-4.
8 Col. Charles P. Stacey, The Canadian Army, 1939-1945 (Ottawa: E. Cloutier, King's Printer, 1948), pp. 24-25, 42-43; Col. Charles P. Stacey, Six Year of War: The Army in Canada, Britain and the Pacific Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War (Ottawa: E. Cloutier, Queen's Printer, 1955), pp. 178-179, 181.
9 Paper, 17-18 Jul 40, written in Ottawa, title: A Programme of Immediate Canadian Action, WPD 4330.
10 Memo, TAG for WD Rep, President's Ln Com, 1 Jul 40, WPD 4323-1.
11 Ibid.; Memo, Col Charles Hines, Chmn A&NMB, for CofS, 25 Jul 40; Memo, Brig Gen Richard C. Moore for CofS, 7 Aug 40, sub: Release of Equipment. Both in AG 400.3295 (12-9-39) Release of Information to Canadian Government re Manufacture of Small Arms Ammunition. Memo, TAG for CofOrd, 30 Jul 40, sub: Exchange of Surplus Rifles . ., WPD 4323-1.
12 In addition to references cited in preceding note, see Memo of Conf between General Marshall and Gen Strong (WPD), 13 Jul 40, OCS Misc Confs Binder 3; Memo, A. B. P. [Mr. A. B. Purvis, British Purchasing Comm] for Mr. Philip Young, n.d. [forwarded to SW, 12 Jul 40], sub: Canadian Army Requirements; Ltr, Mr. Young to Mr. Purvis, 19 Jul 40. Last two in AG 400.3295 (12-9-39) Release of Information to Canadian Government re Manufacture of Small Arms Ammunition; Stanley W. Dziuban, Military Relations Between the United States and Canada: 1939-1945 (Washington: 1959), (hereafter cited as Dziuban, U.S.-Canadian Relations), Ch. IV.
13 Dawson, Canada in World Affairs, 1939-41, pp. 20-21, 105-09; Craven and Cate, AAF I, pp. 110-12; Memo, CofS for Mr. Green, Dept of State, n.d. [June 19401, sub: Training of Canadian Pilots in the U.S. OCS Conf Binder 2, Emergency Measures, 1939-40.
14 Hopkins Calendar, Book IV, Item 2, FDRL.
15 Ltr, Actg SW to Secy State, 8 Jul 40, WPD 4330; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, pp. 702-03.
16 Quoted in W. P. Maddox, "Canadian-American Defense Planning," Foreign Policy Association Report, XVII, No. 17 (November 15, 1941), 220.
17 See Hugh L. Keenleyside, MS, The Canada-United States Permanent Joint Board on Defence, 1940-1954, 1947, p. 3, PJBD 100-2, Organization and Agendas (2) (hereafter cited as Keenleyside MS; Dziuban, U.S.-Canadian Relations, Ch. I; Dawson, Canada in World Affairs, 1939-1941, pp. 214-15; Churchill, Their Finest Hour, pp. 403-16; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, pp. 702-05; and the Stimson Diary, entry of 17 Aug 40.
18 Stimson Diary, entry of 17 Aug 40.
20 Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, pp. 358-59.
21 Canadian House of Commons Debates, 12 Nov 40, Statement of Mr. Mackenzie King, in Dawson, Canada in World Affairs, 1939-41, p. 307. The text of the declaration is given in Dawson, p. 310.
22 Dawson, Canada in World Affairs, 1939-41, p. 308; Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, p. 706; Glazebrook, A History of Canadian External Relations, p. 427.
23 Memo, WPD for Lt Col Orlando Ward, SGS, 19 Aug 40, WPD 4330.
24 The American members, in addition to Mayor La Guardia, were: General Embick, senior U.S. Army member; Capt. H. W. Hill, USN, of Navy War Plans Division; Col. Joseph T. McNarney, AC, and Cmdr. F. P. Sherman, USN, who represented the aviation arms of their respective services; and Mr. J. D. Hickerson of the Department of State, who acted as secretary. Their Canadian counterparts were: Col. O. M. Biggar, a retired officer and distinguished lawyer, chairman of the section; Brigadier K. Stuart, Deputy Chief of the Canadian General Staff; Capt. L. W. Murray, RCN, Deputy Chief, Naval Staff Air Commodore A. A. L. Cuffe, RCAF; and Mr. H. L. Keenleyside of the Department of External Affairs, secretary of the Canadian section.
25 Memo, sub: Common Defence Measures in Eastern Canada and Newfoundland by United States and Canadian Forces, incl in Ltr, Brigadier Stuart to Gen Strong, 5 Aug 40, PDB 104-1; Memo, Canadian Legation, Washington, for Actg Secy State Welles, 20 Aug 40, SW tile, Naval Bases-Destroyer Transaction.
26 Stimson Diary, entry of 24 Aug 40; Paper, 23 Aug 40, title; Summary of Mtg of Canadian Staff Conf Members, WPD 4330-2.
27 In addition to the journal of Discussions and Decisions file of the Permanent Joint Board, see Maddox "Canadian-American Defense Planning," Foreign Policy Association Report, XVII, No. 17 (November 15, 1941), and Dziuban, U.S.-Canadian Relations, Ch. II.
28 A copy of the First Report, with War Department comments and recommendations, is in WPD 4330-12. A draft copy of a Second Report dated 29 April 1941, which apparently went no farther than the files of the American section of the board, is in PJBD 135-3.
29 The recommendations of the board are in PJBD 124-1. See also Keenleyside MS, in PJBD 100-2, Organization and Agendas (2).
30 First Recommendation, 26 Aug 40, PJBD 124-1.
31 First Joint Draft, Canadian-U.S. Basic Def Plan-1940, 11 Sep 40, WPD 4330-5.
32 Quoted in Dawson, Canada in World Affairs, 1939-41, pp. 241-42.
33 The acquisition of a site for a U.S. base in Newfoundland in the destroyer-base arrangement made it necessary to plan for a peacetime garrison. See Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States.
34 Memo, Gen Embick for CofS, 7 Sep 40, WPD 4330-4; First Joint Draft, Canadian-U.S. Basic Def Plan-1940, 11 Sep 40, WPD 4330-5.
35 Air Plan, Newfoundland-Greenland Theater, 29 Aug 40; Operations Plan, for U.S. participation in the Def of Newfoundland and Greenland, undated. Both in WPD 4330. The story of American operations in Greenland is covered in Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States.
36 Memo (not used), WPD for CofS, 17 Sep 40; Memo, WPD for CofS, 20 Sep 40. Both drafted by Col. Clark and both in WPD 4330-5.
37 Col. Charles P. Stacey, "The Canadian-American Permanent Joint Board on Defence, 19401945," International Journal (Spring 1954), p. 117.
38 Journal of 11 Sep 40, PJBD files.
39 Memo, Gen Embick for ACofS WPD, 18 Oct 40, WPD 4330-5.
40 Memo, Gen Embick for CofS, 15 Oct 40, WPD 4330-12.
41 Memo, Col Jonathan W. Anderson, Actg ACofS WPD, for Gen Embick, 9 Nov 40, WPD 4330-5.
43 Memo, Col McNarney for Gen Embick, 9 Nov 40, WPD 4330-5.
44 Watson, Prewar Plant and Preparations, pp. 119-25; Morison, Battle of the Atlantic, pp. 45-49.
45 Journal of 27 Feb 41, PJBD files.
46 Memo, WPD for Senior Army Member, PJBD, 2 May 41, WPD 4330-22.
47 Stacey, "The Canadian-American Joint Board on Defence," International Journal (Spring 1954), pp. 118-19.
48 Journal of 28-29 May 41, PJBD files; Memo, Gen Embick for WPD, 23 Apr 41, sub: Revision of Jt Def Plan No. 1, Canada-U.S.; Memo, WPD for Gen Embick, 7 May 41, sub: Revision of Jt Def Plan No. 1, Canada-U.S. Both in WPD 4330-24. Other papers on the subject of command in relation to both defense plans are in WPD 4330-19, WPD 4330-21, WPD 4330-23, WPD 4330-24, and WPD 4330-25.
49 1st Ind,. Gen Gerow, ACofS WPD, for Senior Army Member, PJBD, 17 Jun 41, on Memo, Gen Embick for WPD, 7 Jun 41, WPD 4330-21.
50 Memo, Gen Embick for WPD, 7 Jun 41, WPD 4330-21.
51 Jt Canadian-U.S. Basic Def Plan No. 2 (ABC-22), Sec. II, Special Provisions, Pearl Harbor Attack, Pt. 15, p. 1587. Cf Joint Action of the Army and the Navy, Ch. II, pats 8-10, as revised 30 Nov 38.
52 Jt Canadian-U.S. Basic Plan No. 2 (ABC-22), Sec. 1, Purpose of This Plan, Pearl Harbor Attack, Pt. 15, pp. 1586-87; U.S.-British Staff Convs Report (ABC-1), Sec. 12, General Strategic Concept, Ibid., pp. 1490-91.
53 ABC-22, Sec. 5, Pearl Harbor Attack, Pt. 15, pp. 1589-90.
54 Jt Canadian-U.S. Basic Def Plan No. 2 (ABC-22), Annex II, Pearl Harbor Attack, Pt. 15, pp. 1592-93. The ABC-22 plan was approved by the Chief of Staff on 18 August 1941, by the President on 29 August, and by the Canadian Government on 15 October.
55 See chapters on "The New Atlantic Bases," and "Bermuda and the North Atlantic Bases," in Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States.
56 Note for Record by Lt Col C. L. Bissell, 24 May 41, WPD 4330-27.
57 Penciled note, Bissell to Gen Embick, atchd to Note for Record by Col Bissell, 24 May 41, WPD 4330-27.
58 Ltr, Maj Gen Gerald C. Brant to Maj Gen William Bryden, DCofS, 29 Oct 41, WPD 4351-9, Sec. 6.
60 International Jt Def Plan for Strait of Juan de Fuca and Puget Sound Area, 21 Oct 40, WPD 4330-9.
61 Journal of 16 Apr 41, PJBD files; action copy of Memo, WPD for TAG, 26 Mar 41 sub: Jt Plan, Puget Sound Area; and other documents on this general subject in WPD 4330-9, Memo, CofS for Col Russell H. Brennan, n.d.; Memo, Lt Col R. W. Crawford for Gen Gerow, 16 Dec 40; Memo, Col Bissell for Col Crawford, 16 May 41. Last three in WPD 4323-9. See also, AG 472.1 (12-18-40), which deals exclusively with this subject. Charts of Canadian coast defenses on the west coast as of December 1941 are in large envelope attached to WPD 4486.
Return to the Table of Contents
Return to CMH Online