Endnotes for Chapter III
1 German efforts from 1940 onward to establish and maintain weather stations on Greenland's east coast might be construed as an exception to this generalization.
2 Hans Louis Trefousse, Germany and American Neutrality, 1939-1941 (New York: Bookman Associates, 1951), describes the evolution of attitudes during the prewar period in detail.
3 Dept of State Interv with Dr. Erich Kordt, 15-16 Dec 45, OCMH Geog M-Germany-383.6.
4 WD Interv with Field Marshal Hermann Goering, 25 Jul 45, OCMH MS ETHINT-31; Fuehrer Conferences, 1940, I, 81.
5 Statement of General Franz Halder, 28 Feb 47; Statement of General Kurt von Tippelskirch, 28 Feb 47. Both in OCMH MS B-809. WD Interv with Marshal Goering, 25 Jul 45.
6 Statement of Field Marshal Wilhelm Keitel, 24 Jul 45, OCMH MS A-912; WD Interv with General Walter Warlimont, 28 Jul and 9 Aug 45, OCMH MS ETHINT-2 and ETHINT-8.
7 Various items in the 1940 and 1941 volumes of Fuehrer Conferences; Trefousse, Germany and American Neutrality, 1939-41, pp. 40ff.
8 Quoted in Halder Journal, III, 189, entry of 4 May 40.
9 Langer and Gleason, Challenge to Isolation, pp. 517-18.
10 Dept of State Interv with Dr. Kordt, 15-16 Dec 45; WD Interv with General Warlimont, 9 Aug 45; Langer, Our Vichy Gamble, pp. 47-49.
11 "We did not think about the possibility of invading England until after the surprisingly rapid and complete victory over France and the British auxiliary forces." Statement of General Alfred Jodl, 28 Jul 45, OCMH MS A- 914. Actually, the German Navy had drafted preliminary plans for conducting a cross-Channel invasion soon after the war began in 1939. Churchill, Their Finest Hour, pp. 301-02.
12 Halder Journal, IV, entry of 13 Jul 40; WD Interv with General Warlimont, 28 Jul 45; Helmuth Greiner, Operation SEELOEWE and Intensified Air Warfare Against England up to 30 October 1940, OCMH MS C-059a. The Greiner manuscript contains a complete resume of German plans for the English invasion, July-October 1940.
13 Fuehrer Conferences, 1940. I, 65-66, 73-79.
14 Ibid., p. 69.
15 WD Interv with General Warlimont, 28 Jul 45; F. H. Hinsley, Hitler's Strategy (Cambridge, England: University Press, 1951), pp. 65-67.
16 Statement of General Friedrich von Boetticher, 27 Apr 47, OCMH MS B-484.
17 Langer, Our Vichy Gamble, pp. 60-61.
18 Both Fuehrer Conferences, 1940, I, 81, and Halder Journal, IV, 126-27, contain reports of the 21 July conference.
19 Halder Journal, IV, 144.
20 Fuehrer Conferences, 1940, II, 22-23; Halder Journal, IV, 193-94; Statement of General Jodl 28 Jul 45; Greiner, Operation SEELOEWE and Intensified Air Warfare Against England up to 30 October 1940.
21 One reason for the curtailment cf German air attacks against Britain was the German wish to conserve and build up their air strength against American aircraft production, which was scheduled to get into its stride by the spring of 1941. "We shall have to keep an air fleet and strong fighter forces in readiness against that time." Halder Journal, IV, 224, entry of 7 Oct 40.
22 Stimson Diary, entry of 4 Oct 40; Memo, WPD for CofS, 27 Nov 40, WPD 4175-15; Hull, Memoirs, I, 908-09; William L. Langer and S. Everett Gleason, The Undeclared War (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1953), Ch. I.
23 On Japan's design, see Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (JAG, SSUSA: 1949) (hereafter cited as Far East judgment), pp. 848, 885, 948, and Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, pp. 48-52.
24 Far East Judgment, Ch. VII, pp. 845-48, 948. Herbert Feis, The Road to Pearl Harbor (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1950), contains a detailed narrative of the development of Japanese plans.
25 Ltr, Ambassador Grew to President, 14 Dec 40, Roosevelt Papers, FDRL.
26 Far East Judgment. Ch. V11, pp. 905-06; Hull, Memoirs, II, 984; Joseph C. Grew, Ten Years in Japan (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1944), p. 368.
27 Translated Japanese msg, Tokyo to Washington, 15 Feb 41, Pearl Harbor Attack. Pt. 12, pp. 311-13; Memo, Dir Navy WPD for CNO, 15 Feb 41, Ibid., Pt. 15, p. 1861.
28 Feis, Road to Pearl Harbor, pp. 160, 171ff.
29 Halder Journal, IV, 140-41, entry of 30 Jul 40; Memo of German Ambassador in Madrid, Berlin, 8 Aug 40; Ltr, Franco to Mussolini, 15 Aug 40; Ltr, Mussolini to Franco, 25 Aug 40. Last three in United States Department of State, The Spanish Government and the Axis (Washington: March 1946), pp. 3-8. Helmuth Greiner, Operation FELIX, OCMH MS C-065h; British Cabinet Office, Hist Br, "Operation FELIX: German Plans for Spain and the Capture of Gibraltar (June 1950)," Pt. I, Political Considerations, pp. 7-8, in Axis Plans and Operations in the Mediterranean, September 1939-February 1941. The following paragraphs are also based in part on information derived from these four sources.
30 On the Azores project in particular, see: Ltr, Maj. Freiherr von Falkenstein to an unidentified general, 29 Oct 40, Office of United States Chief Counsel for the Prosecution of Axis Criminality, Nazi Conspiracy and Aggression Opinion and Judgment (Washington: 1946), III, 289; Report of Conf between Adm Raeder and Hitler, 14 Nov 40, Fuehrer Conferences, 1940,II, 40-41; Greiner, Operation FELIX.
31 Report of Conf between Adm Raeder and Hitler, 26 Sep 40, Fuehrer Conferences, 1940, II, 24-26.
32 Halder Journal, IV, 219.
33 Halder Journal, IV, 232-33, entry of 15 Oct 41, contains a good summary of the conflicting claims of France, Spain, and Italy. Langer and Gleason, Undeclared War, Chapter III, provides a detailed account of Hitler's October negotiations and their aftermath.
34 Halder Journal, IV, 244-45, entry of 24 Oct 40. Halder subsequently recorded (V, 6, entry of 4 Nov 40) that General Franco confirmed this oral pledge in a letter to Hitler, and that on 11 November the Spanish Foreign Minister signed a protocol substantiating Franco's oral pledge.
35 Hull, Memoirs, 1, 849.
36 Helmuth Greiner, Draft Entries in the War Diary of the National Def Br, Wehrmacht Operations Office, August-November 1940, entry of 4 Nov 40, OCMH MS C-065j; Fuehrer Conferences, 1940, II, 33-34.
37 Helmuth Greiner, Draft Entries in the War Diary of the National Def Br, Wehrmacht Operations Office, Dec 40-Mar 41, entries of 1-4 Dec and 5 Dec 40, OCMH MS C-065k; Halder Journal, V, 55, entry of 5 Dec 40. The FELIX plan is described in Greiner, Operation FELIX, and in more detail in British Cabinet Office, Hist Br, "Operation FELIX: German Plans for Spain and the Capture of Gibraltar (June 1950)," Pt. II, Military Preparations, pp. 34-38, in Axis Plans and Operations in the Mediterranean, September 1939-February 1941.
38 Halder Journal, V, 60-62, entries of 8 and 9 Dec 40; Greiner, Draft Entries in the War Diary of the National Def Br, Wehrmacht Operations Office, Dec 40-Mar 41, entry of 10 Dec 40.
39 Report of Conf between Adm Raeder and Hitler, 8-9 Jan 41, Fuehrer Conferences, 1941, 1, 1-4.
40 Report of Adm Ghormley, relating his conversation with Sir Dudley Pound and Sir John Dill, 31 Aug 40, Kittredge MS, Ch. l0, App. C, p. 178.
41 For German moves in 1941, see Ch. V, below.
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