Chapter VIII

1 Phil Landing Opns (Amphibious), ATIS Doc 1989-6A.

2 Ibid.

3 Proceedings of the trial, United States of America vs. Masaharu Homma Before the Military Commission Convened by the Commanding General, United States Army Forces Western Pacific, p. 3050, testimony of Homma.
The transcript of the trial includes 30 volumes of testimony before the military tribunal, 5 volumes of exhibits, and 1 volume of the trial review by Lt. Gen. Wilhelm D. Styer. The volumes of testimony are numbered 1 through 30—each volume covering one day of the trial, held during the period December 19, 1945, to February 11, 1946— and are paginated seriatim. They will be hereafter referred to as USA vs. Homma with appropriate page. The 5 volumes of exhibits include 3 kinds of documents: Prosecution Exhibits, 1-425, Defense Exhibits, A-Y, and Commission Exhibit 1, and will be hereafter cited as USA vs. Homma, Prosecution, Defense, or Commission Exhibits with appropriate number or letter. When used, the transcript of the proceedings of this tribunal and the exhibits were on file in the War Crimes Division of the Office of the Judge Advocate General.

4 Interv, author with Col Blackburn, 11th Div (PA), 13 May 49. Colonel Blackburn was stationed near Bauang at this time.

5 Ltr, Chief, Hist Div SSUSA to G-2 GHQ FEC, 9 Nov 48, 3d Ind, 16 Aug 49. The breakdown of the troops landing between 22 and 28 December 1941 is as follows:

14th Army
Shipping Units
Army Air Force

6 Order of Battle of the Japanese Armed Forces, WD G-2, 1 Mar 45, p. 108; USA vs. Homma, p. 3054-55, testimony of Homma; Handbook of Japanese Military Forces, TM-E-30-480, 15 Sep 44, p. 37.

7 One of these was a heavy tank regiment, whose tanks were the equivalent of the U.S. 13-ton light tank; the other was light. The Japanese do not indicate which is the heavy and which is the light tank regiment, but it appears that the 4th contained the light tanks.

8 14th Army Opns, I, 46; II, 8, Untranslated Chart 5; Japanese Naval Opns in Phil Invasion, p. 14; Morison, Rising Sun in the Pacific, p. 162.

9 14 Army Opns, II, 1-5, 8, Untranslated Charts 1 and 5; Handbook of Japanese Mil Forces, pp. 327-30.

10 Answers by 1st Demob Bureau to Questionnaire on Phil Campaign prepared by author, 5 Aug 49, ATIS Doc 49692.

11 Japanese Naval Opns in Phil Invasion, p. 14; Interrogs of Vice Adm Kazutaka Shiraichi, CofS, 2d Fleet, 15 Oct 45, and of Capt Masamichi Fujita, 2d Fleet staff, 20 Oct 45, USSBS, Interrogations of Japanese Officials, I, 26, 72; Morison, Rising Sun in the Pacific, p. 178.

12 The landing plan was drawn up in Formosa on 1 Dec 41 and is reproduced in 14th Army Opns, II, 1-5. The author used the untranslated version.
Unless otherwise noted, the account of the Lingayen landing and the consolidation of the beachhead is based on the following sources: 14th Army Opns, I, 46-48, 51-52; 5th Air Gp Opns, pp. 31-37; Statement of Col Moriji Kawagoe, former CofS, 48th Division, 30 Jun 49, ATIS Doc 62707, in Statements of Japanese Officials on World War II, GHQ FEC, Mil Intel Sec, II, 124- 28; Japanese Naval Opns in Phil Invasion, pp. 8- 9, 13-14; Morison, Rising Sun in the Pacific, pp. 179-83; USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns, pp. 31ff; NLF and II Corps Rpt of Opns, pp. 7-10; Wainwright, General Wainwright's Story, pp. 33-35; Lt Col William E. Chandler, "The 26th Cavalry (PS) Battles to Glory," Armored Cavalry Journal, Nos. 2 and 3 (March-June 1947), Part 1, pp. 14- 16, Part 2, pp. 7-11; ltr, Col Clyde A. Selleck to Board of Officers, 1 Feb 46, sub: Statement for Reinstatement of Rank, pp. 7-9, copy supplied author by Col Selleck, and in OCMH; and ltr, Col Halstead C. Fowler, formerly CO 71st FA (PA) to author, 30 Apr 49.

13 The name Kamijima also appears as Uejima.

14 Answers to Questionnaire on Phil Campaign, 5 Aug 49, ATIS Doc 49692; Interrog of Gen Maeda, CofS, 14th Army, 10 May 47, Interrogations of Former Japanese Officers, Mil Hist Div, GHQ FEC, I; USA vs. Homma, p. 3049, testimony of Homma.

15 Interrog of Gen Maeda, 10 May 47; Phil Landings Opns (Amphibious), ATIS Doc 1989- 6A.

16 Interrog of Capt Ishihara, 3d Fleet staff, 22 Oct 45, USSBS, Interrogations of Japanese Officials, I, 83.

17 Apparently many of the transports were shallow draft, converted fishing vessels, presenting difficult targets for the undersea craft.

18 Rad, MacArthur to AGWAR, No. 34, 22 Dec 41, AG 381 (11-27-41 Gen) Far East; account of 86th FA Bn, from diary of an unidentified officer who died at Cabanatuan as a prisoner of war, OCMH.

19 Collier, Notebooks, II, 10. This information is not corroborated by naval sources or by the meager official accounts, but it corresponds with the known facts.

20 Mallonée, Bataan Diary, I, 58. The author has been unable to find a copy of this radio message.

21 USA vs. Homma, p. 3054, testimony of Homma; Interrog of Gen Maeda, 10 May 47; Phil Landing Opns (Amphibious), ATIS Doc 1989- 6A; interv, author with Col Blackburn, 13 May 49. The ammunition had been buried in the sand.

22 The remainder of the regiment was at Bauang. 71st Infantry (PA), extract from the diary of Maj William J. Priestley, pp. 1, 2, copy on file in OCMH. This diary consists of a series of notebooks prepared by Major Priestley in prison camp after talking with the officers and men of the various units whose contribution to the Philippine campaign he describes.

23 Ibid., p. 1.

24 Collier, Notebooks, II, 35.

25 Mallonée, Bataan Diary, I, 60. The four divisions were the 11th, 21st, 71st and 91st Divisions (PA). With the state of training, lack of equipment and transportation, and the absence of communication, such an attack was impossible.

26 Phil Landing Opns (Amphibious), ATIS Doc 1989-6 A.

27 USA vs. Homma, pp. 3053-54, testimony of Homma.

28 Miller, Bataan Uncensored, p. 94; ltr, Weaver to Wainwright, 20 Nov 45, copy made available to author by General Weaver, and in OCMH; Weaver, Comments on Draft MS, Comment 3, OCMH; Prov Tank Gp, Rpt of Opns 1941-42, p. 9, Annex X, USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns.

29 Colonel Horan's radios to MacArthur are in AG 370.2 (19 Dec 41) Phil Rcds.

30 Rad, Horan to CG USAFFE, 22 Dec 41, AG 370.2 (19 Dec 41) Phil Rcds.

31 Interv, author with Col Blackburn, 13 May 49; Liles, 12 Inf (PA), pp. 5-6; unsigned account of 13 Inf (PA), pp. 9-10.

32 Rad, Koran to CG USAFFE, 24 Dec 41, AG 370.2 (19 Dec 41) Phil Rcds.

33 Mallonée, Bataan Diary, I, 62-63. See also Collier, Notebooks, II, 35-38.

34 Wainwright, General Wainwright's Story, pp. 35-36.

35 Ibid., p. 39.

36 USA vs. Homma, p. 3232, testimony of Homma. The strength of the division at this time is computed from Order of Battle information and from Japanese tables of organization.

37 Except as otherwise noted the account of the Lamon Bay landings is based upon: 14th Army Opns, I, 28, 32, 54-55; II, 6-7; Luzon Campaign of 16th Division, 24 Dec 41-3 Jan 42, ATIS Enemy Pub 355, pp. 1-3; Japanese Naval Opns in Phil Invasion, p. 15; Jones, Diary, pp. 8-11; and SLF and II Corps Rpt of Opns, pp. 12-15.

38 American sources do not confirm the attack by the Sculpin.

39 SLF and II Corps Rpt of Opns, p. 13; ltr, Jones to Ward, 3 Jan 52, OCMH; ltr, Col S. C. MacDonald to Jones, 21 Dec 51, OCMH.

40 Craven and Cate, The Army Air Forces in World War II, I, 224, states that 12 P-40's and 6 P-35's attacked a Japanese landing force at San Miguel Bay, 85 miles from Lamon Bay, on the morning of the 23d. There was no such landing, and it is possible that Lamon Bay is meant. Japanese sources state that there was an American air attack at the time of the Mauban landing. General Jones denies that American aircraft hit the Japanese at this time. Ltr, Jones to Ward, 3 Jan 52, OCMH.

41 1st Lt John Shaw, 52d Inf (PA), p. 1, Chunn Notebooks, OCMH.

42 Phil Landing Opns (Amphibious), ATIS Doc 1989-6A.

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