1 The physical description of the islands south of Luzon is based upon Civil Affairs Handbook: Philippine Islands, Vols. I-XII, ASF Manual M 365-1 to 12.
2 Col William H. Braddock, Rpt of Force Surgeon, Visayan-Mindanao Force, in V-MF Rpt of Opns, p. 550, Annex XI, USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns. The Visayan-Mindanao Force Report contains, in addition to General Sharp's report, the reports of unit and sector commanders, listed as appendixes but numbered seriatim.
3 The account of shortages in the Visayan-Mindanao Force is based on V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 16-26, 41-42, 47-48, 68-71; Gen Chynoweth, 61st Div (PA) and Visayan Force Rpt, pp. 1-7, OCMH; Col Hiram W. Tarkington, There Were Others, Chs. I-II. The last is a manuscript volume which Colonel Tarkington has made available to the author.
4 V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 26-28.
5 For MacArthur's views on the importance of Mindanao, see above, Chapter XIV.
6 V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 62-63.
7 Ibid., pp. 6-7, 29-33, 44-45; ltr, Sutherland to Chynoweth, 3 Feb 42, sub: Instructions, AG 430 (25 Dec 41) Phil Rcds.
8 Statement of Col Takushiro Hattori, in Statements of Japanese Officials on World War II, I, 316; Southern Army Hist, pp. 14, 17; Hist, Army Sec, Imperial GHQ, pp. 42-43.
9 14th Army Opns, I, 214-15.
10 V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 32-33, 79-81.
11 Col Scudder, Rpt of Mil Activities in Cebu, 2 Dec 41-4 Mar 42, Col Cornell, Narrative of Events, Hq Samar-Leyte Sector, and Col Hilsman, Hist of the Negros Sector, all in V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 96, 397-98, 484, 490-92; Chynoweth, 61st Div (PA) and Visayan Force Rpt pp. 7, 11.
12 Chynoweth, 61st Div (PA) and Visayan Force Rpt, pp. 7, 12-15; Tarkington, There Were Others, pp. 47-49.
13 Tarkington, There Were Others, p. 48.
14 The account of operations on Cebu is based upon: Chynoweth, 61st Div (PA) and Visayan Force Rpt, pp. 13, 16-24, 33; Tarkington, There Were Others, pp. 265-81; Scudder, Rpt of Mil Activities in Cebu, and Lt Col Howard J. Edmands, Rpt of Invasion of Cebu, last two in V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 401, 436-51.
15 Chynoweth, 61st Div (PA) and Visayan Force Rpt, p. 17.
17 Ibid., p. 23.
18 Rads, Wainwright to Sharp, Sharp to Wainwright, No. A-43, and Wainwright to Christie, all dated 16 Apr 42, USFIP G-3 Journal, 19 Mar- 19 Apr 42, AG 461 (1 Apr 42) Phil Rcds.
19 The account of operations on Panay is based on Tarkington, There Were Others, pp. 297-306. The Visayan-Mindanao Force Report of Operations contains no report of activities on Panay after Chynoweth's departure, and none was prepared by Colonel Christie. Interv, author with Christie, 6 May 47. The only Japanese account is in 14th Army Opns, I, 215.
20 Rads, Wainwright to AGWAR, 16 Apr 42, and Del Monte, no sig, to Ft Mills, 20 Apr 42, both in USFIP G-3 Journal, 19 Mar-19 Apr 42, AG 461 (1 Apr 42) Phil Rcds.
21 The landing at Davao is described above, in Chapter VI.
22 The landing at Zamboanga was made by about 220 Japanese of the 32d Naval Base Force on 2 March 1942 after a brief fight with Lt. Col. Albert T. Wilson's troops of the Zamboanga Sector. On 6 March Sharp ordered Wilson to withdraw to the mountains and conduct guerrilla operations. The Japanese, having secured the town of Zamboanga and established a seaplane base there, made no effort to expand their control. Wilson, The Defense of Zamboanga, in V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 484-86; Japanese Landing at Zamboanga, ATIS Doc 62680, 20 Jul 51, Mil Hist Div, GHQ FEC, pp. 1-5.
23 Inactive for many years, the 43d Infantry (PS) was reactivated with two companies, C and E, at the start of the war with Scouts from the 45th Infantry (PS) on duty at Zamboanga.
24 Tarkington, There Were Others, p. 345.
25 14th Army Opns, I, 214-15.
26 Rads, Sharp to Wainwright, No. F-317, 27 Apr 42, No. F-144, 28 Apr 42, and Wainwright to Sharp, 30 Apr 42, and USFIP Combined G-2 and G-3 Rpts, 36-38, 26-28 Apr 42, all in USFIP G-3 Journal, 20 Apr-3 May 42, AG 461 (1 Apr 42) Phil Rcds; 14th Army Opns, I, 215.
27 Rad, Del Monte, no sig, to CG USFIP (20X), 30 Apr 42, USFIP G-3 Journal, AG 461 (1 Apr 42) Phil Rcds; 14th Army Opns, I, 215.
28 The account of operations in the Cotabato-Davao area is based upon the following reports in the Visayan-Mindanao Force Report of Operations: Brig Gen Joseph P. Vachon, Cotabato-Davao Force Summary of Events, 29 Apr-10 May 42, pp. 301-15; Col Nelson, Rpt of Events and Opns, pp. 318-28; Lt Col Reed Graves, Opns Rpt Digos Sector, 28 Apr-10 May 42, pp. 343-45; Col Ben-Hur Chastaine, Rpt of Opns in Samar-Leyte and Agusan Sectors, pp. 163-67; Lt Col John H. Mc- Gee, Diary of 101st Inf (PA), 30 Apr-11 May 42, pp. 331-34. The author also used the basic report itself, pp. 51-54, and Tarkington, There Were Others, pp. 314-419.
29 This reconstruction of the Japanese plan is based upon a statement made by Colonel Miura to General Vachon after the surrender. Vachon, Cotabato-Davao Force, Summary of Events, in V-MF Rpt of Opns, p. 315.
30 The 1st Division (PA) was a part of the regular establishment of the Philippine Army. Division headquarters and the other two regiments, the 1st and 3d, fought on Luzon. The 2d Infantry was stationed in the south before the war. Its strength was 880 men, but approximately 300 of these were sick with malaria when the Japanese attacked.
31 This account of operations in the Lanao Sector is based upon: Tarkington, There Were Others, pp. 333-40; Col Eugene H. Mitchell, Hist of 61st Inf (PA), and Brig Gen Guy O. Fort, Hist of 81st Division (PA), last two in V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 185- 93, 272-85.
32 Japanese sources state that a landing was made at 0300 at a point south of Malabang. 14th Army Opns, I, 215. The author has made the most reasonable reconstruction possible with the few facts available.
33 Tarkington, There Were Others, p. 338.
34 The account of operations in the Cagayan Sector is based upon: V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 54-61; Col Morse, Rcd of Action and Events, in V-MF Rpt of Opns, pp. 349-54; Tarkington, There Were Others, Ch. XV. Detailed accounts of the action of specific units in V-MF Rpt of Opns are as follows: Maj Paul D. Phillips, Hist of 2.95 Gun Det, pp. 176-84; Woodbridge, Narrative Activities of 81st FA, 3-10 May 42, pp. 229-34; Tarkington, Narrative of Action of 61st FA, 3-10 May 42, pp. 235- 42; Lt Col Allen Thayer, 62d Inf (PA), pp. 248- 51; Maj John C. Goldtrap, Narrative of Events 93d Inf, pp. 252-66; Webb, Mindanao Campaign of 103d Inf, pp. 287-94; Maj Allen L. Peck, initialed memo dealing with opns of Cos C and E, 43d Inf (PS), 29 Apr-9 May 42, pp. 381-87.
35 V-MF Rpt of Opns, p. 56.
36 Rad, Sharp to MacArthur, 9 May 42, GHQ SWPA G-3 Journal, P.I. Opns Rpts.
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