1 Biennial Report of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, July 1, 1941 to June 30, 1943 to the Secretary of War (Washington, 1943), p. 6.
2 Henry L. Stimson, Diary, entry of 21 May 41; memo, Brig Gen Leonard T. Gerow for Chief of Staff, 29 May 41, sub: Consultation with Mil Advisor . . . , WPD 3251-49; ltr, Marshall to MacArthur, 20 Jun 41, OCS 20850-15. Chief of Staff is hereafter referred to as CofS and the Office of the Chief of Staff as OCS. General Gerow was at the time acting chief of WPD. The relevant portion of Mr. Stimson's diary was made available to the author by Mr. Rudolph A. Winnacker, formerly historian of the Office of the Secretary of War and the author of a forthcoming volume in this series on the history of that office. Frazier Hunt, in his book MacArthur and the War Against Japan (New York, 1944), page 12, states that MacArthur offered his services to President Roosevelt early in the spring of 1941. The author has been unable to find the documentary evidence in the files of the Department of the Army to support this assertion.
3 Ltr, Marshall to Grunert, 29 May 41, WPD 3251-49.
4 The author has been unable to find a copy of this letter in the files of the War Department but its contents are summarized in a memorandum written by General Gerow and addressed to the Chief of Staff on 6 June 1941 (WPD 3251-50). From internal evidence it appears that MacArthur on the same day wrote a letter covering the same subjects to the President and the Secretary of War. See also ltr, Marshall to MacArthur, 20 Jun 41, WPD 3251-50.
5 Ltr, G-2 Phil Dept to G-2 WD, 18 Jan 41, sub: Comments on Current Events, 8-18 Jan 41, Military Intelligence Division 10641-374-50. Military Intelligence Division is hereafter referred to as MID with appropriate file number.
6 Ibid.; see also ltrs, 13 and 26 Mar 41, MID 10641-374-58, -59.
7 Memo, Gerow for CofS, 6 Jun 41, WPD 3251- 50.
8 Ltr, Marshall to MacArthur, 20 Jun 41, OCS 20850-15; see also unused draft of this letter in WPD 3251-50. The last paragraph of the copy sent stated: "This letter is also an acknowledgment of your letters to the President and to the Secretary of War. Please keep its contents confidential for the present."
9 The writer has been unable to find a copy of this letter. A summary of its contents can be found in a memo, Gerow for CofS, 14 Jul 41, sub: Philippine Islands [P.I.], WPD 3251-52.
10 Ibid.; memo, Gerow for CofS, sub: Emergency Mobilization and Tng of Phil Army, 17 Jul 41, WPD 3251-52.
11 Ltr, Stimson to President, 25 Jul 41, OCS 18136-34.
12 The military order and other material relating to this subject are filed in WPD 3251-52.
13 Rad, Marshall to MacArthur, 26 Jul 41, OCS 18136-35; ltr order, CofS to MacArthur, sub: Active Duty, Tab C, Incl 4, WPD 3251-52.
14 Gen. George C. Kenney, General Kenney Reports (New York, 1949), p. 26.
15 Rad MacArthur to Marshall, No. C-62, 10 Jul 42, OPD Strategy File, III.
16 Unless otherwise noted, this and subsequent material on the strength of American and Philippine troops is taken from Phil Dept., Machine Rcds Unit Station Strength Rpts, 31 Jul 41, Strength Accounting Branch, and from Phil Dept War Plan ORANGE, 1940 Revision (Short title HPD WPO-3). Flyleaf of Copy No. 6 has an AG strength report of 21 Jul 41 attached.
17 The 43d Infantry (PS) is also listed in some reports. Actually, this unit consisted of 329 men, formerly part of the 45th Infantry, who had been detached for duty at Zamboanga in Mindanao and at Camp John Hay, near Baguio on Luzon.
18 HPD WPO-3, G-1 Annex, Exhibit F. Strength figures in this source were computed from tables and are the estimated strengths as of Mobilization (M) Day. Those figures are close to the actual strength at the beginning of 1941 when the plan was prepared, but some of the units listed in Table 1 were not yet organized.
19 Lt. Col. William E. Chandler, "26th Cavalry (PS) Battles to Glory," in three parts, Armored Cavalry Journal, LVI, Nos. 2-4 (March-August 1947).
20 USAFFE GO 4, 4 Aug 41, copy in History of Fifth Air Force (and Its Predecessors), Air Hist Off; Army Air Action in the Philippines and the Netherland East Indies, p. 11, prepared by the Asst Chief of Air Staff Intel, Hist Div, and filed in Air University Hist Off.
21 Army Air Action in Phil and NEI, p. 11. The aircraft in the 4th Composite Group at this time were as follows: 21 P-26's, 56 P-35's, 31 P-40B's, 10 O-46's, 3 O-19E's, 10 A-9's, 1 C-39, 9 A-27's, 14 B-10Bs, and 18 B-18's.
22 Extract of rad from CG USAFFE in memo, Maj Gen William Bryden, DCofS for ACofS G-1, 13 Oct 41, OCS 18136-78; see also memo, Bryden for WPD, 7 Oct 41, OCS 18136-71.
23 Extract of rad from CG USAFFE in memo, Bryden for ACofS, G-1, 13 Oct 41, OCS 18136-78.
24 Memo, Bryden for TAG, n.d., sub: Order for Gens Grunert and MacArthur, AG 210.311. Note on memo: "Action taken, October 23, 1941."
25 Notes on the Philippine Army, 1941-1942, p. 2; Sixth Annual Report of the U.S. High Commissioner to the Philippine Islands, 1 July 1941-30 June 1942 (Washington, 1943), p. 16; Admin Plan for Ten Reserve Divs . . ., Hq USAFFE, 10 Aug 41, OCMH; Report of Operations of USAFFE and USFIP [U.S. Forces in the Philippines] in the Philippine Islands, 1941-1942, pp. 3 ff. This last report with its eighteen annexes constitutes the basic Army report on the various aspects of the Philippine campaign and was prepared in 1946 by a staff under General Wainwright, formerly commander of USFIP. Each of the annexes is separately titled and paginated and was prepared by officers in the relevant headquarters. The basic report is cited hereafter as USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns; its annexes will be referred to by their own titles, listed in The Sources, page 588, below.
26 USAFFE GO 6, 19 Aug 41, copy in OCMH; Sixth Annual Report of High Commissioner, p. 15.
27 USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns, pp.. 13, 14.
28 Col Richard C. Mallonée, senior instructor of 21st FA(PA), Bataan Diary, 2 vols., I, 23. The diary was borrowed by the author and a photostat copy is on file in OCMH. See also South Luzon Force (SLF) and II Corps Rpt of Opns, p. 4, Annex V, USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns.
29 Memo, CofS for Secretary of War (SW), n.d., sub: Reinforcement of the Philippines, OGS 18136- 124; memo, Col Joseph K. Evans, Chief, SE Asia Sec, for Maj Thomas R. Clarkin, SW Pacific Sec, OPD, 5 Aug 42, sub: US and PA Divs in Phil Campaign, OCMH; memo, Col John R. Deane for Admiral Harold R. Stark, 7 Feb 42, OCS 18136- 232; intervs, author with numerous officers on the division and corps level who served in the Philippine campaign. The author had been unable to find any strength reports of the Philippine Army by USAFFE after 31 October 1941.
30 USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns, pp. 3-4; interv, author with Brig Gen Clifford Bluemel, 14 Apr 48, OCMH. General Bluemel commanded the 31st Division (PA).
31 USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns, p. 8.
32 SLF and II Corps Rpt of Opns, p. 6.
33 Visayan-Mindanao Force (V-MF) Rpt of Opns, p. 17, Annex XI, USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns.
34 Ibid., pp. 17-20; SLF and II Corps Rpt of Opns, pp. 6-7; USAFFE-USFIP Rpt of Opns, pp. 19-20.
35 This account is drawn from the Report of General Bluemel on the 31st Division Philippine Army. It was borrowed from the author and a copy is on file in OCMH. Cited hereafter as Bluemel, 31st Div (PA) Rpt of Opns.
36 In addition to General Bluemel's report, see Col. Clyde A. Selleck, Notes on the 71st Division, pp. 2-8, and Col. Ray M. O'Day, History of the 21st Division (PA), 2 vols., I, 1-5. Colonel Selleck commanded the 71st Division (PA) and Colonel O'Day was the senior American instructor with the 21st Division (PA). Both documents were borrowed from the authors and copies are on file in OCMH.
37 Bluemel, 31st Div (PA) Rpt of Opns, p. 4.
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