1 Hector C. Bywater, Sea Power in the Pacific (rev. ed., Boston and New York, 1934), p. 254.
2 48 U.S. Statutes at Large, H.R. 8573, pp. 456- 65, The Philippine Commonwealth and Independence Law, P.L. 127, Sec 2(a) 12, approved 24 Mar 34.
3 Ibid., Secs 10(b) and 11.
4 All distances are in airline statute miles.
5 Unless otherwise noted, this description of the Philippine Islands is based upon Civil Affairs Handbook: Philippine Islands, 12 vols., Army Service Forces (ASF) Manual M 365-1 to 12.
6 Data on the central Luzon plain comes from Terrain Study 94, Philippine Series: Central Luzon, I, prepared by the Allied Geographical Sec, GHQ Southwest Pacific Area (SWPA), 18 Oct 44.
7 The Philippine Army: Its Establishment, Organization, and Legal Basis, prepared by Phil Research and Info Sec, U.S. Army Forces in the Far East (USAFFE), 26 Jan 45, p. 1, copy in Office of the Chief of Military History. A large number of the sources used in the preparation of this volume are on file in that office, hereafter referred to as OCMH.
8 Manuel L. Quezon, The Good Fight (New York, 1946), pp. 153-55.
9 Ltr of Instructions to Gen MacArthur, signed by the Acting Adjutant General, 18 Sep 35, in War Plans Division, War Department General Staff (WDGS), file 3389-31. At the time this letter was prepared General MacArthur was still Chief of Staff, U.S. Army. This file is hereafter referred to as WPD with appropriate file number.
10 Ltr of Instructions to CG Phil Dept, signed by Actg TAG, 18 Sep 35, WPD 3389-31.
11 Memo, Maj Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower for President Quezon, 22 Jun 42, Operations Division, WDGS, Executive Office files (hereafter cited as OPD Exec O). This memorandum with accompanying notes is included in an article by Louis Morton, "The Philippine Army 1935-1939: Eisenhower's Memorandum to Quezon," Military Affairs, XII (1948), 103-07.
12 Intervs, author with Maj Gen Richard J. Marshall, ret., 7 Apr 48, and with Col LeGrande A. Diller, formerly aide to Gen MacArthur, 28 Apr 48. The author's notes on these and certain other interviews are on file in OCMH. Interviews on which no notes were taken have no file designation.
13 Message to the First National Assembly on National Defense, 25 Nov 35, in Joseph R. Hayden, The Philippines, A Study in National Development (New York, 1942), p. 738.
14 The Philippine Army: Its Establishment, Organization, and Legal Basis, pp. 4, 18. The Constabulary was separated from the Army in 1938, but again made a part of it late in 1941.
15 The National Defense Act, Commonwealth Act No. 1, Titles II and III, Secs 17 to 59, in The Philippine Army: Its Establishment, Organization, and Legal Basis, App. I, p. 12.
16 Ltr, Maj. Gen William C. Dunckel, ret, to author, 11 May 48, OCMH. General Dunckel was on Mac Arthur's staff, and was responsible for the preparation of the plans. In all, he prepared about seventy documents including estimates of the situation, general and special staff annexes, and the like. Interv, author with Lt Gen Richard K. Sutherland, ret., formerly chief of staff to Gen MacArthur, 12 Nov 46, OCMH.
17 Catherine Porter, "Preparedness in the Philippines," Far Eastern Survey, April 7, 1941, pp. 65- 66.
18 Philippines Herald, January 26, 1940, quoted in Hayden, The Philippines, pp. 740-41.
19 The quotations in this and the preceding two paragraphs are from the speech delivered in 1936 and printed in Cornejo's Commonwealth Directory of the Philippines (1939 ed.), pp. 759-84.
20 Notes on the Philippine Army, 1941-1942, a typescript, undated and unsigned, evidently prepared in Hq USAFFE during the war, pp. 1-3, OCMH; memo, Eisenhower for Pres Quezon, 22 Jun 42, OPD Exec O.
21 Memo, Eisenhower for Pres Quezon, 22 Jun 42, OPD Exec O.
22 Porter, "Preparedness in the Philippines," Far Eastern Survey, April 7, 1941, p. 66; interv, author with Gen R. J. Marshall, 7 Apr 48; ltr, MacArthur to Gen George C. Marshall, Chief of Staff, U. S. Army, 28 Oct 41, WPD 4477-2.
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