Endnotes for Chapter VI

1 Survey and Recommendations Concerning the Integration of the Negro Soldier into the Army, Submitted to the Secretary of War by the Civilian Aide to the Secretary of War, in Memo, Civ Aide to SW for SW through USW, 22 Sep 41, G-1/15640120. (Referred to hereafter as Hastie Survey.)

2 Hastie Survey, p. 5.

3 Ibid., pp. 18-19.

4 Memo, USW for CofS, 6 Oct 41, 6-1/15640120.

5 Memo, USW for Gen Marshall, 19 Nov 41, OCS/20602-226.

6 Measures Which Have Been Taken or Which Are Being Taken in Connection With Some of the Recommendations Made by Judge W. H. Hastie in Memorandum Dated September 22, 1941, prepared by G-1 in collaboration with G-3 as Incl to Memo prepared for CofS for submission to SW, 1 Dec 41, OCS/20602-219, Incl not used and returned to G-1; D/S, 2 Dec 41, G-1/15640-120. See Chapter IX, below, for a discussion of AGCT scores and their significance.

7 Hastie Survey, p. 24.

8 Memo, G-1 for COB, 6 NOV 41, G-1/15640-120.

9 Memo, CofS for SW,1 Dec 41, OCS 20602-219.

10 Memo, Bureau of Public Relations for TAG, 1 Dec 41, AG 291.21 (12-1-41) (1) .

11 Emmett J. Scott, "The Participation of Negroes in World War I: An Introductory Statement," Journal of Negro Education, Yearbook No. XII (1943) , P. 293.

12 Memo, G-3 for CofS, 3 Dec 41; Memo, G-3 for Col W. B. Smith, SGS, 4 Dec 41. Both in AG
322.97 (12-3-41)(1) .

13 Speech, The Adjutant General's Department, AG 201.21 (12-1-41) (1).

14 P. L. Prattis, "The Horizon: Conference of Negro Editors Was Challenge to War Department Officials," Pittsburgh Courier, December 18, 1941.

15 Norfolk Journal and Guide, December 18, 1941.

16 Chicago Defender, December 18, 1941.

17 Newark Herald .News, December 20, 1941.

18 Ltr, Walter White, Secy NAACP, to Gen Marshall, 22 Dec 41, AG 291.21 (12-22-41) (1) .

19 Ltr, Walter White to Gen Marshall, 2 Jan 42, AG 291.21 (1-2-42) (12-22-41) (1) .

20 Ltr, TAG to Walter White, 8 Jan 42, AG 291.21 (1-2-42) MB (12-22-41) (1) .

21 Memo, ASW for TAG, 13 Jan 42, AG 291.21 (1-13-42) (12-22-41) (1). General Adams penciled on the memo, "I drafted the reply personally after ascertaining from A.C.S. G-3 that no such division was contemplated by the W.D. E.S.A."

22 Informal Memo, J.W.B. for Gen Adams, n.d., AG 291.21 (1-13-42) (12-22-41) 
Omited matter in Paragraph 1 is introductory only.

23 In his letter of appointment, Secretary Stimson had authorized Hastie to visit the field.

24 Memo, G-1 for CofS, 18 Mar 41, G-1/15640-83. See also Walter White-Brig Gen Frederick Osborn Corresp, 1-6 Apr 42, SSB 291.21 (9-27-41)

25 Memo, Civ Aide for USW, 15 Jul 41, USW 291.2 Judge Hastie's Office.

26 Remarks and Memo, Ex0 G-i for Col Boyer, 3 Sep 41, AG 291.21 (9-4-41)(1)

27 Draft Ltr, TAG to Brig Gen L. D. Gasser, NVD Representative OCD, 2 Sep 41, in Memo, G-1 for Col Boyer (AGO),9 Sep 41, AG 291.21 (9-27-41) (1). The letter actually sent, dated 4 September 1941, deleted most of the material quoted here. The draft, according to penciled notes attached, had been worked on and approved by several officers.

28 Memo, USW for DCofs,10 Jan 42, ASW 291.2 Race, Negro (Mist).

29 Memo, USW for SXV, 16 Jan 42, ASW 291.2 Race, Negro (Misc).

30 Memo, Civ Aide to SW for USW, 5 Feb 42, attached to Memo, DCofS for USW, 16 Feb 42. Both in ASw  291.2 Race, Negro (Army Misc).

31 Ibid

32 Memo, DCofS for USW, 13 Feb 42, ASW 291.2 Race, Negro (Misc) .

33 Memo, DCofS for USW, 16 Feb 42, ASW 291.2 Race, Negro (Misc).

34 Ibid.

35 Memo, WPD for Cofs (not used), Mar 42, OPD 291.21/3, 3-25-42.

36 Ibid., and attached list, White Units Due for Activation Between March 1 and December 31, 1942 and Suitable for Activation by Colored Troops.

37 Ibid

38 Draft Memo (initialed E.W.C.) for Gen Edwards, G-3 Negro File, 1942-44. 

39 Ibid.

40 Ibid

41 AGF M/S 4, G-4 to Plans, 2 Nov 42, AGF 322.999/ 1.

42 AGF M/S 3, G-3 to G-1, 1 Nov 42, AGF 322.999/1.

43 AGF M/S 4, G-4 to Plans, 2 Nov 42, AGF 322.999/ 1.

44 AGF M/S, plans to DCofS,4 Nov 42, AGF 322.999/1.

45 Memo, Gen McNair for G-3, 11 Nov 42, AGF 922.999/1 (Cld Trps). Paragraph 1 (omitted) in
troductory only.
46Memo, G-3 for CG ASF, 23 Mar 43, WDGCT 322.999/1. 281.21(3-23-43)
 
47 Memo, AGF for G-3, 16 Apr 43, AGF 322-999/359.

48 1st Ind, CofE to CG SOS, 18 Feb 43, to Memo, Hq ASF for Chiefs Svs, Surg Gen, QMC, PMG, and Dir SSD, 6 Feb 43, SPOPU 381.2 (2-6-43).

49 M/S, ACofTC for Opus to Col Hodson, 7 Apr 43; Memo, Col Hodson for CofTC Tng Div, 7 Apr 43. Both in TC 353 Tng Negro Units (Gen Files, 2d Sec).

50 Ltr, TAG to ASW, 27 Aug 42, AG 334.8 (7-18-42) OF-A. In addition to Mr. McCloy, the committee members were Brig. Gen. Benjamin O. Davis, Inspector General's Office; Brig. Gen. Idwal H. Edwards, WD G-3; Brig. Gen. Donald Wilson, WD G-1; Brig. Gen. Joseph H. Dalton, SOS; Col. Edward Barber, ACT; Col. John H. McCormick, AAF. While the personnel of the committee changed from time to time, the same staff agencies and major commands were permanently represented. This committee was known variously as the Negro Troop Committee, the Special Troop Policies Committee, and the McCloy Committee. For convenience, it is referred to hereafter as the Advisory Committee.

51 Memo, USW Robert P. Patterson for ASW McCloy, 23 Sep 42, ASW 291.2 NTC.

52 War Council Notes, 23 Sep 42, WDCSA files. 

53 Memo, USW for SW, 24 Sell 42, USW 291.2 Race, Negro, Army.

54 Memo, Lt J. M. Hall, OASW, for Mr. McCloy, 28 Sep 42, ASW 291.2 NTC.

55 Memo, G-1 for CofS, 18 Jul 42, AG 334 Advisory Com on Negro Trp Policies (11- Jul- 42) (1) . (1); D/F, G-1 to TAG, 11 Aug 42, AG 334 Advisory Corn on Negro Trp Policies (11 Jul 42) (1).

56 Ltr, OTIG (Col Elliot D. Cooke) to TIG, 25 Jun 2, and ist Ind, TIG to COB, 29 Jul
WDCSA 333 (6-29-42) .

57 Memo, G-1 for CofS, 18 Jul 42, AG 334 Advisory Com on Negro Trp Policies (1) .

58 Penciled note dated 30 Jul 42, signed D. W., [Gen Wilson] on Info Memo OCS signed J. T. M. [Gen McNarneyl for COB, 27 Jul 42, in AG 334 42, Advisory Com on Negro Trp Policies (18 Jul 42)(1)
59 Memo, Civ Aide for ASW, 30 Jun 42, ASW 291.2 NT 1942.

60 Memo, ASW for Judge Hastie, 2 Jul 42, ASW 291.2 NT 1942.

61 M/S, Col Edward Barber for CofS AGF, 24 Oct 42, AGF G-1,/380.

62 Memo, Donald Young for Francis Keppel, Secy JANCWR, and Gen Osborn, to Sep 42, SSB 291.2 (9-27-41) (1) ; Memo, Howard C. Peterson, Special Asst to USW, for Mr. McCloy, 14 Oct 42, ASW 291.2 Gen 1942.

63 M/S, Col Barber for CofS AGF, 24 Oct 42, AGF G-1/380.

64 Memo, Civ Aide for ASW, 4 Nov 42, ASW 291.2 NTC. 

65 Memo, Davis for Committee [Fall of 1942],ASW 291.2 NTC.

66 Memo,TIG for CofS, 13 Nov 41; Memo, Civ Aide for USW, 30 Dec 41; Memo, USW for DCofS, 10 Jan 42. All in G-1 15640-15646.

67 Memo, Advisory Com on Negro Trp Policies (Col John H. McCormick, A.C., recorder) for COB, 24 Dec 42, WDSA 291.21 (12-24-42) .

68 AG 320.2 (2-1-43) OB-I-GNGCT, 25 Feb 43; AG 322 (7 Dec 43) OB-I-GNGCT, 8 Dec 43; AGF 322/129 (Inf) GNGCT, 19 Dec 43. The company was activated 30 Dec 43; the battalion, 25 Nov 44.

69 Estimated at 36 percent of the cadet training program in the spring of 1942. 3d Ind, AAF Div of Individual Tug to CG AAFFTC, 19 Apr 42, AAF 3539 Tug of Negroes.

70 Ltr, AAFFTC to Air Surgeon, 28 May 42, AAFFTC 291.2 (5-28-42) . These limitations did not apply to the first Tuskegee classes.

71 See CofAS for Col St. Clair Streett, 31 Oct 41, 13 attachments and subsequent correspondence in ASWA 291.2. See also AAF 291.2 Cld Trps and AAF 353.9 Cld Tug.

72 Memo, CG AAF to CofS, 2 Jul 42, AAF 3539 Tng of Negroes.

73 See chs. III and V, above.

74 The following were white officers at this time: Commanding Officer, Director of Training, Executive, Adjutant, Administrative Inspector, Senior Surgeon, Utilities Officer, Signal Officer, Intelligence Officer, Public Relations Officer, Post Quartermaster, and twelve flying instructors.

75 Memo, CG AAF for Hastie, to Aug 42, AAF 3539 Tng of Negroes.

76 2d Wrapper Ind, Hq SEAAFTC to CG AAFFTC, Ft. Worth, Tex., 19 Nov 42, AAF 291.2 Negro Misc. See also, 1st Ind, AAF for Civ Aide, 29 Oct 42, AAF 3539 Cld Tng.

77 Memo, Civ Aide for ASWA, 30 Jun 42, and attached note, ASWA 291.2.

78 Memo, Lt Col Richard T. Coiner (EXO ASWA) for Lovett, 4 Jul 42, ASWA 291.2.

79 Note for Lovett, dated 2 1 Jul 42, signed RTC, ASWA 291.2.

80 Memo, CG AAF for COf.S, 2 Jul 42, AAF 353.9 Tng of Negroes.

81 Ltr, Hq AAF to CG AAFTTC, Knollwood Fld, N.C., 5 Aug 42, AAF 353-A Negro Tng.

82 Draft Ltr attached to R&RS, AFRIT-3 (Individual Tng) for CofAS, 26 Oct 42, AAF 353-A Negro Tng.

83 Record of Corresp received, 27 Sep 42, No. 601Tex., in ASWA 291.21; Ltr, Hq AAFSETC, Maxwell Fld, Ala., to CG AAF, 20 Nov 42, AAF 666 Ft. Davis, Ala.; Memo, A-4 for Gen Arnold, 21 Nov 42, AAF 676.3 Installations-H.

84 Ltr, AAFTC, Knollwood Fld, N.C., to CG AAF, 25 Oct 42, AAF 353.01 Est.

85 Ltr, Hq AAF to CG's Tng Sv Comds and Numbered AF's, 19 Aug 42, AAF 220.9; Ltr, Dir Pers AAF (Col J. M. Bevans) to same, 5 Oct 42, AAF 353.9 Tng of Negroes; Rpts in AAF 3539 Trig of Negroes.

86 R&RS's, AFRIT-3 to AFCAS, AFCAS to AFDPU, AFDPU to AFCAS, AFCAS to AFFAP, AFAAP to AFCAS, 26 Oct to 2 NOV 42, AAF 353A Negro Tug.

87 R&RS, AFCAS (Lt Col Millard A. Libby) for AFRIT, 2 Nov 42, AAF 353A Negro Tug. General Smith noted on the R&RS (handwritten) : "File without further action-Cleared verbally with Lt Col Libby. LSS" and "Barbey: This constitutes a policy for further action-LSS 11/6."

88 R&RS's, 4 Nov 42 and 6 Nov 42; R&RS, AFRIT for AFCAS, 11 Nov 42; Memo, AAF (DCofAS) for CofS, attention G-3, 13 Nov 42, all in AAF 3539 Cld Tug (dispatched 17 Nov 42); Ltr, TAG to CG's Major Comds, Sv Comds, RTC's, 7 Nov 42, AG 324.71 (11-7-42) OC-S-M.

89 Tel Conv, Maj Gen Walter Weaver, Knollwood Fld, N.C., and Brig Gen T. J. Hanley, Washington, 11 NOV 42, AAF 291.2 Negroes. See also AAF 291.2 (Races) binder 1.

90 R&RS, Dir Individual Tug for AFAAP, AFACT, AFCAS, in turn, 11 Nov 42, AAF 353-A Negro Tog.

91 AFAAP (Col F. Trubee Davison) simply wrote "Non-concur" (penciled); AFACT ("R. W. H.(arperl," also penciled) explained: "Non-concur" in conversion of Jeff Bks to all-colored. Segregation better done by small number of colored units scattered throughout the country." Both comments dated 11 Nov 42. R&RS cited n. go.

92 R&RS, DCofAS for AFDPU (Col Moore) 12 Nov 42, AAF 353-A Negro Tug.

93 Memo, AAF (DCofAS) for CofS (Attention G3) , 13 Nov 42, prepared in AFDPU, draft fwd to DCofAS 14 Nov, dispatched 17 Nov 42, AAF 352.01 Est, AAF 353-A Negro Tug.

94 Immediate Action Ltr, AAF Hq Tech Tug Comd, Knollwood Fid, N.C., to CG AAF, 16 Nov 42, and 1st Ind, Hq AAF to CG AAF TTC, 19 Nov 42, AAF 353 Cld Tng.

95 Draft Ltr, Dir Individual Tug for CG AAFTTC, 18 Nov 42, and attached drafts and comments, AAF 353-A Negro Tug.

96 Ltr, Dir Individual Tug for CG AAFTTC and Incl, Outline of Plan, 1 Dec 42, AAF 353-A Negro Tng.

97 Ltr, Hq TTC to CG AAF, 30 Nov 42, and ist Ind, Hq AAF (Brig Gen L. S. Smith) to CGTTC, 9 Dec 42, AG 353, AAF 353 Cld Tug.

98 Ltr, Representative Pat Cannon to ASW McCloy, 16 Jun 42, and subsequent corresp, ASWA
291.21.

99 See papers in ASNVA 291.2, Oct-Nov 42. 

l00 Memo, Civ Aide for ASNVA, 26 Nov 42, ASWA 291.2.

10l Memo, ASWA for Civ Aide, 17 Dec 42, ASWA 291.2.

102 Memo, Civ Aide for SW through USW, 5 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide.

103 Ibid.

104 Memo, Civ Aide for SW through USW, 6 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide.

105 Memo, Civ Aide for SW through USW, 5 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide.

106 Ibid.

107 R&RS, Dir Pers to Dir Individual Tug, 5 Jan 43, and Comment 2, Dir Individual Tog to Dir Pers, attention Mil Pers Div, 9 Jan 43. Both in AAF 353-A Negro Tng.

108 Immediate Action Ltr, .Hq AAF (Brig Gen L. S. Smith, Dir Individual Tng) to CG TTC, Knollwood Field, N.C., 10 Jan 43, AAF 353-A Negro Tng. Quotation marks are in the original, a transcript of General Stratemeyer's telephone conversation forwarded to Knollwood.

109 Memo, CofAS for ASW, 12 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide. Draft prepared by Col John H. McCormick, then assistant A-1 and Air Forces representative on the Advisory Committee.

110 Memo, Civ Aide for AS`V,19 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide.

111 Ltr, SW to Hastie, 29 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NTCiv Aide.

112 Memo, Civ Aide for ASW, 30 Jan 43, ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide.

113 See ASW 291.2 Files, 1943.

114 ANP dispatch, headed "N\ ar Department Wasted Talents," Atlanta Daily World, 29 Jan 43.

115 Editorial, "Judge Hastie's Resignation," Louisiana Weekly, January 30, 1943.

116 Memo, ExO to ASW for Gen Surles (BPR), 4 Feb 43; Memo, SW for Truman K. Gibson,
Feb 43. Both in ASW 291.2 NT-Civ Aide. The directive that matters of policy pertaining to Negroes be referred to the Civilian Aide's office for comment or concurrence was reissued with Gibson's name substituted for Hastie's. WD Memo, W600-13-43, 13 Feb 43, Policies Pertaining to
Negroes, AG 291.21(2-13-43) OB-C-MB-FH.

117 Memo, G-1 for CofS, 18 Jul 42, AG 334 Advisory Com on Negro Trp Policies (18 Jul 42) (1) .

118 Hastie's statements to the press were later developed into a pamphlet, On Clipped Wings: The Story of Jim Crow in the Army Air Corps (New York: NAACP, 1943) , 26 pp.

119 Memo, Gibson for ASNV, 3 Feb 43, ASW 291.2 N TC:.

120 Press Release, Bureau of Public Relations, 28 Jan 43, "Army to Expand Its Program for Training Negro Fliers."

121 Rpt of AAF Representative, (Gen Hanley),Min Gen Council,1Feb 43.

122 Examples: Memos, Gibson for Poletti and Gibson for ASW, 2o Feb 43, on command in the 366th Infantry; Memo, Gibson for ASW, 4 Mar 43, on ambiguous policy on assignment and promotion of Negro officers; Memo, Gibson for Poletti, g Mar 43, on use of Negroes in military government plans; Memo, Gibson for Poletti, 16 Mar 43, on Liberia Task Force problems; Memo, Gibson for Poletti, 18 Mar 43, on adequacy of investigation of problems in 76th CA; Memo, Gibson for Poletti, 22 Mar 43, on Air Forces training program; Memo, Gibson for Poletti, 23 Mar 43, on revised policy on promotion of Negro officers. All in ASW 291.2 NT and ASW 291.2 NT-Gen, 1943. During much of this period, Assistant Secretary McCloy was out of the country; this, in part, accounted for the high proportion of items presented to Poletti rather than directly to the Assistant Secretary.

123 Memo, Gibson for ASW, 3 Feb 43, and Memos (2) , Gibson for Poletti, 9 Feb 43. All in ASW 291.2 NTC.

124 Memo, Gibson for Osborn, 11 Mar 43, SPSP 291.21.

125 Memo, Osborn for Gen Joe N. Dalton, 11 Mar 43, SSB 291.21 (9-27-41)(1).

126 R&RS, Stratemeyer to ACofAS G-3, copy to Arnold, Lovett, Dir Individual Tug, A-1, 11 Mar 43, copy in ASWA 291.21, action proposals and recommendations in AAF 353-A, Negro Tng.

127 Memo, Gibson for ASWA, 1 May 43, ASWA 291.2.

128 Min of Mtg of Advisory Com, Col J. S. Leonard, 22 Mar 43, ASW 291.2 NTC.

129 Memo, AMV for Admin ASST John AV. Martyn), 21 Sep 13, ASZV 29;.2 Nf-Cix Aide.

page created 15 January 2002


Return to the Table of Contents

Return to CMH Online