Endnotes for Chapter XI

1 See History of the Special Services Division, ASF, and History of the Information and Education Division, ASF, MSS in OCMH.

2 Memo, Civ Aide to SW for Chief of Morale Div AGO, 19 Dec 40, AG 353.8 (12-19-40)(1).

3 Memo, TAG for Civ Aide to SW, 28 Jan 41, AG 353.8 (12-1-40) (1); see also WD Memo 2 ,10-18-42, 1 Dec 42, par.5

4 Originally, only two service clubs for Negro troopsat Fort Bragg, N.C. and at Camp Livingston, La., where 5,000 Negroes were expected- were planned.

5 Ltr, Brig Gen Benjamin O. Davis to TIG, 21 Jun 42, IG 333-1-Spec Insp (Cld Trps) Ft. Sill (1942), AGF 333.1/12 (Ft. Sill) and 3 Inds; 3d Ind, Hq AGF and Memo for Record to CofS, AGF 3331/2 (Cp Wolters).

6 Ltr, Hq SOS to CG's All Sv Comds and CofE, 15 Aug 42, SPX 353.8 (8-14-42) MS-SPOP-M.

7 The results were published in What the Soldier Thinks, 8 December 1942, issued at the time as a confidential document for the use of commanders only.

8 What the Soldier Thinks, pp. 30-31. Italics in original.

9 Address, Brig Gen Frederick H. Osborn, Proceedings of the Conference of Commanding Generals, Service Commands, Third Session, 18 December 1942, New Orleans, La., pp. 38-39. The pages referred to by General Osborn were those of What the Soldier Thinks, topics of which were distributed at the meetings.

10 This was one of a series of studies made by the Research Branch, Special Service Division, on the attitudes of both Negro and white soldiers. The total sample questioned was selected by lot from Army organizations carefully chosen to give proper weight to all types of installations in all regions. As on all surveys, in order to insure frank answers, men were questioned in an atmosphere of anonymity. Local or unit officers were not present and Negro enlisted men only were present in the cases of Negro groups answering questionnaires. The questionnaires in the March survey were based on repeated pretests of over 2,400 soldiers. The first pretest showed that Negro enlisted men did not reveal their personal opinions to white inter­viewers or in the presence of white enlisted questionnaire administrators. Opinions expressed to white interviewers differed greatly from those given to Negro interviewers. When the men filled out their own questionnaires in groups where anonymity was assured, their written answers were about the same as those given orally to Negro interviewers, but markedly different from those given white interviewers. Negro enlisted men were therefore used as group leaders and interviewers of Negro soldiers on this and on all subsequent surveys in order to insure frank answers from Negro troops. Research Branch, Special Service Division, Attitudes of the Negro Soldier, 28 July 1943

11 What the Soldier Thinks, Number 2, August 1943 PP- 58-59. Italics in original. For a detailed postwar analysis of this survey, see Shirley A. Star, Robin M. bWilliams, Jr., and Samuel A. Stoulfer, "Negro Soldiers," in Stouffer et al., The American Soldier: Adjustment During Army Life, "Studies in Social Psychology in World War II," vol. 1, (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949), PP. 566-80.

12 Notes on War Council Meeting, WDCSA, 25 May 42.

13 Report, Maj Robert Dyar, Chief AAF Venereal Disease Control Branch, to the Air Surgeon, no date but Incl in Ltr, CofAS to CG's AAF SEATO, AAFTC, 20 Jun 43, AAF 726.1 Misc. The Southeast AAF Training Center also had the lowest venereal disease rates for most reporting periods, despite its location in a high incidence area.

14 Later investigation showed that general arangements at the post and between the post and Camp Shows, Inc., were poor. Miss Horne, after leaving the post, made an appearance before a large group of soldiers at the nearby town's Negro USO. Ltr, Post IC to CO Cp Robinson, Ark., 28 Dec 44. CofS Files 291.2 Misc.

15 Ltr, TAG to CG's, All Sv Comds, CofE, to Mar 43, AG 353.8 (3-5-43) B-S-A-M and Memo for Record attached to Memo, G-1 for TAG, 5 Mar 43, WDGAP/353.8.

16 Memo, Hq SOS for CofE, 26 Apr .13, and Memo for Record attached, AG 353.8 (14 Aug 42)(1).

17 Report of Inspection Trip, 13-14 Oct 43, Incl to Ltr, AAFCFTC to CG AAF, 16 Oct 43, AAF 726.1, binder 4. Of the thirteen white restaurants inspected in the same town, all showed varying degrees of cleanliness, but none was so bad as the Negro places.

18 Memo, Hq AAF (AFTAJ) (Col. Lewis A. Dayton) for CG AAF, 14 Feb 44, AAF 333.5. The inspector concluded that the situation here was similar to that encountered by Negroes at other airfields, especially in the South where the majority of fields were located.

19 Statement, Actg1st Sgt George L. Chambers, 328th Avn Sq, Pampa AAF, Tea., 13 Dec 43, to Col Lewis A. Dayton, AAF 333-5.

20 See above, Chapter IV.

21 A Venereal Disease Control Program for Colored Troops, Incl to Ltr, Hq AAF to CG's (Attn: Surgeon) , 3 Jun 44, AAF 726.1 Misc. Italics in original.

22 All-Negro posts had Negro units only, but not all-Negro personnel in units or overhead.

23 History of Tuskegce Army Air Field from Conception to 6 Dec 41 (Maj Edward C. Ambler), 14 Oct 43, rev. 5 Mar 44, AF Hist GP 289.28-1 vol. 1, Hist Tuskegee Army Air Field, p. 10.

24 The situation was complicated in Phoenix by successive disturbances involving troops stationed there, a situation affecting Fort Huachuca's troop population adversely although it had not been involved. See ch. XII, below.

25 1st Ind, Hq Ft. Huachuca to CG Ninth SC, 4 Aug 42, to Lit, Ninth SC to CO Ft. Huachuca, 28 Jul 42, 250.1 SPKIM.

26 These installments of the History of Tuskegee Air Field, Air Force Hist Gp 289.28-1, all save the last written by Maj Edward C. Ambler, the post's white intelligence officer and historian, devote considerable space to the living and entertainment problems of white personnel. Their complaints paralleled, both in substance and in quantity, almost exactly those of Negro personnel at many other stations, lacking, of course, references to discrimination against them on the post or in nearby towns.

27 Theater and Education officers, originally members of the Army Specialists Corps and later of Special Services, were usually assigned only to service command or overseas area staffs as field directors of amateur and professional theatricals and of off duty educational programs.

28 Similar directions were less frequently encountered on the north-south lines of the Mississippi Valley. Trains leaving Chicago for the South usually, until after World War II, departed with their Negro passengers already seated in separate coaches.

29 Statement, Sergeant of the 477th Bombardment Group, Atterbury AAB, to the author, Sep 49.

30 Ltr, Vice President, Association of American Railroads, to Manager, Military Transportation Section, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C., 3 Nov 41, in AG 291.21 (5-2-41) (2). See also Charles S. Johnson, Patterns of Negro Segregation (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1943), PP. 45-48. 167-68.

31 AR 30-925, 8 Oct 35, 2a.

32 Ltr, 1302d Sv Unit to Third Corps Area, 2 May 41, sub: Rpt of Trans Furnished, AG 291.21 (5-2-41) (2).

33 Mitchell v. U.S. et al., 61 Supreme Court 873, 23 Apr 41.

34 8th Ind, JAGO (Col Fred W. Llewellyn) to TAG, 3 Jul 41, Mil Affairs JAG 291.2.

35 Lit, OQMG to Arthur H. Gass, Manager, Military Transportation Section, Association of American Railroads, Washington, D.C., 17 Jul 41, QM 201 T-CT (Alexander, Floyd N., Sgt).

36 Ltr, W. A. Aiken, General Superintendent RF&P RR, Richmond, Va., to A. H. Gass, 12 Jul 41, Incl to Ltr, A. H. Gass to TQMG, 18 Jul 41, AG 291.21 (7-18-41) .

37 1st Ind, OQMG to TAG, 22 Jul 41, on Ltr, Gass to TQMQ, 18 Jul 41.

38 Sd Ind, JAG (Col E. C. McNeil) to TAG, 12 Aug 41, on Ltr, Gass to TQMG, 18 Jul 41, JAG 291.2.

39 Memo, Civ Aide to SW for Adm Asst to SW, 18 Aug 41, AG 291.21 (7-18-41) .

40 Memo, JAG for TAG, 15 Oct 41, JAG 291.2 (Mil Affairs).

41 Memo, Civ Aide to SW for Adm Asst to SW, 20 Oct 41, AG 291.21 (5-2-41) (2).

42 Ltr, SW to Attorney General, 14 Nov 41, AG 291.21 (10-15-41) MB.

43 Ltr, Vice President Association American Railroads to Gass, 3 Nov 41, Incl to Ltr, Gass to TQMG, to Nov 41, AG 291.21 (5-2-41) (2) .

44 2d Ind, Civ Aide to TAG, 28 Nov 41, and 4th Ind, OQMG to TAG, to Dec 41, to Ltr, Gass to TQMG, to Nov 41, AG 291.21 (5-2-4t) (2) ; Transportation Accommodations for Negro Mem­bers of the Army, prepared 18 Dec 41, issued as sec. II, WD Cir 269, 26 Dec 41.

45 Ltr, Attorney General to SW, 19 Dec 41, AG file cited n. 44. "It is not altogether unlikely," the Attorney General wrote, "that when the question of the validity of both the State statutes and the regulations of carriers is fully presented to the Supreme Court, it will hold them to be unconstitutional, but until the question is finally determined by that Court any opinion which I might render would not be controlling."

46 Ltr, Hq Third Army, Office of the CG Ft. Sam Houston, Texas, g Feb 43, to Ernest E. Norris, President, Southern Railway System, Washington, D.C., AGF 3331/64 (Third Army).

47 Cf. Inland Transportation of Individuals for the Army During World War II, Monograph 20, Historical Unit, OCofTrans, ASF, pp. 148-50, 162­63, in OCMH; Ltrs, TAG to CG's, 12 Apr 42, AG 250.1 (3-24-42) MB-M, and 21 Jul 42, AG 250.1 (7-14-42) MB-SPAA-PS-M.

48 Memo, CofS for Gen Gullion (TPMG), 4 Nov 42, WDCSA 250.11 (11-4-42) ; Memo, same, 1
Nov42, WDCSA 250.11 (11-17-42) ; Memo, PMG for CofS, 23 Nov 42, SPMG 250.1 Gen; WD Instructions for Mil Pol on Railroad Trains (Not Troop Trains) and in Railroad Terminals and Stations, l943.

49 In general, Negro MP's were not assigned to train duty, though service commanders were free
to do so should they deem it advisable. It was thought that Negro military policemen would re­quire duplicate teams on trains, one of white MP's and one of Negro MP's, with the latter's duties restricted and complicated by the segregation laws of Southern states and by the necessity of their dealing with strange and perhaps unsympathetic military and civilian officials. Memo, PMG for DCofS for SC's ASF, 29 Nov 44, ASF CofS for SC's File 291.2 Misc, and attached Tabs A and B.

50 Ltr, West Point Route to CO Maxwell Fld, Ala., 4 Feb 42, Incl to Ltr, Hq Fourth Corps Area to Hq AGF, n.d., 3;0.5-T-Misconduct on Trains, AGF 250.1/18; Rpt of Inv, Hq 2 Cav Div. 3 May 43,333 9th Armd Div (2d Cav Div), AGO Records.

51 Testimony, SSgt George L. Chambers, 328th Avn Sq, Pampa AAF, Tex., 13 Dec 43, in Incl to Memo, Hq AAF (AFTAI) for CG AAF, 14 Feb 44, AAF 3335: Memo, Col Leonard for ASW, 3 Oct 44. ASW 291.2; Rpts, ASF Insp Team, Rel Racial Matters, various dates 1944-45 in ASF DCofS Files 291.2.

52 Ltr, Office Camp Inspector, Cp Rucker, Ala., to CG Cp Rucker, 18 Mar 43, Cp Rucker 333.1, AGO Records.

53 Historical Report, Engineer Aviation Unit Training Center, MacDill Field, Fla. (18 Mar 43­1 Aug 44) , Folder1, AF Archive 3767-1 79.

54 By Orrin C. Evans, Philadelphia Record, inserted in Congressional Record, 22 May 1944, pp. A2679-A2680.

55 Ltr, Hq ASF to CG's Third, Fourth, and Eighth Sv Comd's, 29 May- 44, SPX 291.2 (23 May 44) .

56 Ibid. 

57 Ltr, TAG to CG's AAF, All Sv Comd's, MDW, 9 Jul 44, AG 353.8 (5 Jul 44) GB-S-A-N, based on DF WD G-1 for TAG, 5 Jul 44, WDGAP 291.2 (29 Jun 44).

58 Hastie Survey, 22 Sep 41, G-1/15640-120 and papers attached.

59 Memo, G-3 for TAG, 11 Feb 42, G-3/6451-399­

60 Ltr, TAG to CG's Corps Areas, Def Comds, Hawaiian Dept, CofAAF, CO's Bases, 14 Feb 42, AG 322.97 (2-11-42) MSC-C-M.

61 Extract of Circular 158, Hq Gulf Coast Air Corps Training Center, Randolph Field, Texas,1 Oct 42.

62 Memo, Hq 28th Inf Div, Camp Livingston, for R, SB, and Sv Comd Co's, 8 Jun 42, in AGF 322.999/ 5 (Cld Trps).

63 Attitudes of Negro Soldier, 28 July 1943, Research Branch, Special Service Division.

64 Percentages on questions added up to more than 100 percent since each soldier was asked to list three questions.

65 Attributed to Joe Louis by a public speaker; quoted in Sterling A. Aroreri, "Out of Their Mouths," Survey Graphic, XXXI (Novernber, 1942) , 483.

66 Brig Gen Horace L. Whittaker, ASFTC, Fort Francis E. Warren, WYO., 20 Feb 45, in Question­
naire for Camp and Troop Commanders, ASF 291.2

67 Ltr, Asst IG DTC Hq. to CG DTC, 11 Aug 42, and Incls, AG 291.21 (7-21-42) (1).

68 Ibid., and attached comments of Civ Aide to SW, AG 291.21 (7-21-42) (1) .

69 CO 828th TD Bn, Cp Hood, Texas, to Investigating Officer, 26 Aug 42, in IG 333.9-828th TD Bn (3-13-42).

70 Reorganizations in this squadron including removal of the officers and the first sergeant and reduction of seven noncoms-cleared the air; within the month the unit received commendation from the Air Freight Forwarding Squadron at Biak and from its wing headquarters for the "faithful and diligent manner in which it has performed its duties." Hist Rpt, 54th Troop Carrier Wing JA (Capt Paul Boucher, JAGD, Wing JA), in Hist, 54th Troop Carrier Wing, Sep 44 (on 345th Avn Sq), Biak, Air Archivc WG-54-HI Sep 44.

71 Statement, 27 Jun 44, to IGD In O, in Rpt of Inv of Irregularities surrounding Training and Conduct of 457th Aviation Squadron conducted at Warner Robins Air Service Command and Herbert Smart Airport . . . . 26 June-3 July 1944, AAF Files Bulky, 3335 14 Oct 44. In this case the soldiers involved were not asking primarily for improved physical facilities nor for assurances of their usefulness in the Army, but for a more effective squadron commander and more efficient training.

72 The proposal that troops be used to help harvest the Arizona cotton crop involved both white and Negro troops, including a small body of Air Forces troops. But the main body of troops involved would have been elements of the gad Division at Fort Huachuca and the 364th Infantry at Phoenix. After the War Manpower Commission advised on 24 February that the request was not justified by the Arizona labor situation, arrange
ments to move troops to cotton fields were halted. News of this planned use of troops had, however, been printed in the public press. Minutes of the General Council, 22 Feb 43, p. 5; Ibid., 1 Mar 43, p. 2; Ltr, Walter White to SW, OSW 291.2; Editorial, The Crisis, L. (March, 1943) , P. 72.

73 Negro plasma was labeled "AA" (Afro-American). The Surgeon General's Office, after a time, began
to explain the Blood Bank policy to persistent inquirers with: This action was taken in the interest of removing any possible objection to this form of therapy on the part of a patient who holds a prejudice against the injection of Negro whole blood or plasma processed therefrom, notwithstanding the assurance of competent authorities [that] there is no biological difference between any human  serum. With the two types of dried plasma at hand a white or colored patient may have his choice of serum which removes a possible alibi for refusing a form of treatment that is not universally popular. Ltr, Asst to TSG to Laurence Foster, Pennsylvania State Temporary Commission on the Condition of the Urban Colored Population, 8 Apr 43, SGO 291.2 1943. See also Memo, Civ Aide to SW for TAG, 26 Dec 41, AG 707 (12-26-41) (6-18-41) (1) ; American Red Cross National Headquarters, Statement of Policy Regarding Negro Blood Donors, 21 Jan 42; Ltr, Adm Asst to SW to Sen Arthur H. Vandenberg, 23 Jan 42, AG 291.21 (12-27-41) (1) ; Ltr, Edward H. Cavin, Asst Adm Gen Services, Red Cross, to Truman K. Gibson, 6 Nov 43, ASW 291.2 Alpha.

74 "Prologue to Blood Plasma," What's New (Abbott Laboratories) , Dec 44, pp. 8, 27.

75 Memo, Bureau of Public Relations for CofS, 10 Nov 43, AG 461 (10 Nov 43) (1) , and attached papers.

76 Ltr, Div IG to CG 92d Div, 28 Jun 43; Interoffice R/S, CofS 92d Div to Div IG, 10 Jul 43; Interoffice R/S, Div IG to CofS 92d Div, 12 Jul 43. All in Corresp Regarding Pers and Sundry Papers, item19, Div Files.

77 Memo, Davis for TIG, 7 Aug 43, copy in AGF 210.31/449.

78 Ibid. General Almond took strong exception to General Davis' report of the situation at Fort Huachuca, terming it unfair to him and to the division, but he did not make a formal official rejoinder. He informed General Peterson that General Davis' report was based on the view of the division taken by imaginative, raceconscious personnel of the post complement, especially the medical officers of Station Hospital No. r. In his view the division had high morale and the incidents cited by General Davis had less than their indicated significance. Some were not accurately or fully reported: the two captains awaiting disciplinary action were white; the car stoner did not belong to a unit of the division and was drunk; messing problems had been solved and neither they nor the shovel attack had been followed by any resentment except as fostered by agitators and post complement personnel; policy in the division had not changed, only the attitudes of officers resenting reclassification proceedings had altered. Personal Ltr, Gen Almond to Gen Peterson, 14 Sep 43, with Incl, Analysis of Memo for TIG, dated 7 Aug 43, Correspondence Regarding Personnel and Sundry Papers, No. 21, Div Files. Also Personal Lit, Almond to Davis, 8 Sep 43, same file.

79 Memo, AGF for Logistics Group OPD, 25 Jan 43, ACT 353/167 (Readiness Rpt) .

80 Respectively, the 25th, 368th, and 369th Infantry regiments.

81 The gad did have as a component the 25th Infantry with the El Caney blockhouse in its coat of arms, but its 369th Infantry was not the legitimate descendant of the famed 369th of World War I. This latter unit had become the 369th Anti­aircraft Artillery Regiment, taking its World War I battle honors with it. The division's 368th Infantry had been a component of the 92d Division in World War I; it had become a Regular Army regiment at the beginning of mobilization but, out of its World War I history little could be gleaned for troop morale, for it was the regiment most frequently cited to show the ineptitude of the 92d Division in that war.

82 The original patch, a red hand, desired by two of the division's regiments as former members of the French 157th (Red Hand) Division, had been denied the division at the close of World War I.

83 Ltr, Hq ACT to CG 93d Div, 28 Oct 42, AGF 421.7/298 and to Inds; Ltr, Hq 93d Div to TQMG, 17 Dec 42, and 1st Ind, Hq AGF, 30 Dec 42, 93d Div Files 421.7.

84 Negro soldiers of the Regular regiments, especially the cavalry regiments, were known as  Buffalo Soldiers" by the Indians. See Fairfax Downey, Indian Fighting Army (New York: Scribner's Sons,
1941) .

85 See Lt. O. E. McKaine, "The Buffaloes," Out look, CXIX (May 22, 1918) , 144-47.

86 The The 371st Infantry as a whole and Company C, 370th Infantry, both units of the 93d Division in World War I, received the Croix de Guerre with palm, unit decorations which were rarer in World War I than in World War II. The third regiment, the 365th, had received divisional commendation for meritorious conduct in the Bois Frehautin the last days of the war; however, the direct descendant of the old 365th, like the 93d's 369th, was not the infantry regiment but the 184th Field Artillery.

87 Statement, Lt Col Benjamin O. Davis, at Press Conference,10 September 1943, reprinted from Washington Afro-American, 18 Sep 43, in Married Men Exemption, Hearings . . . U.S. Senate . . . on S. 763 [Drafting of Fathers], 1943, PP. 437-42.

88 Ibid

89 Pvt Trezzvant W. Anderson, "Come Out Fight­ing" [761st Tank Battalion, 1942-451, p. 15.

90 761st Tank Bn Corresp Files, Sep 44-Oct 45, Org Rec Br, AGO.

91 Ltrs in 761st Tank Bn Corresp Files, AGO Records.

92 The less technical units, often in greater need of such programs, usually had fewer officers, thus reducing the amount of attention to such corrective programs that the unit could give. Quartermaster fumigation and bath or troop transport companies, with an average of 85 and 110 men, for example, had three, five, or more officers; aviation squadrons, with 250 or more men, usually had three and sometimes fewer officers assigned.

93 For examples, see Memo, Hq AAF AFTAE for CG AAF, 14 Feb 44, AAF 333.5; Memo, TIG for CofS, 4 Jun 43, AGF 291.2/22; Ltr, TIG to DCofS, 8 Jun 43, AG 291.2/25.

94 Memo, TIG for CG ASF, 23 NOV 44, 250-Camp Ellis, III., and Incls; Ltr, CO 3143 QM Service Co, Camp Ellis, to TIG, 15 Nov 44; and Memo, Hq QM Gp, ASFUTC Camp Ellis, for Col William H. Browne , IGD. All in SPTR 291.2.

95 Ltr, IG to TIG, 24 Mar 43, IG 333.1-CP Jos. T. Robinson, AGF 333.1/1 (92d Div).

96 Memo for Files (Col Edward S. Greenbaum, Asst to USW), 8 Mar 43, copy in AGF 322/1 (93-l Div).

97 History, Hq and Hq Btry, 93d Inf Div Arty, Quarterly Report, 1 Jan-31 Mar 44, AGO Hist Rec
Br, 493-11.4 (6367)

98 Camp Stoneman, Calif., a part of the staging area of the San Francisco Port of Embarkation.

99 History cited n. 97.

100 Memo, SGO for G-3, 26 Feb 42, SGO 320.2 (2-26-42), AG 320. (11-15-40) (1) sec. 11; Unit Hist, 715th Medical Sanitation Co, AGO Hist Rec Br, 98-45-1 (15258).

101 Ltr, signed Members 457th Aviation Squadron, Herbert Smart Airport, Ga., to Secretary Stimson, Gen Arnold, CO Patterson Field, Ohio, CO Herbert Smart Airport, 2 May 44, and other papers in AAF Files, Bulky, 3335 457th Avn Sq.

102 Ltr, 328th Avn Sq and 908th QM Co to Secretary Stimson, 22 :Nov 43, AAF 333-5. This letter was written by one or possibly two men with the stated concurrence of certain other men in the units. It was taken home by one of the men on furlough and mailed from there.

103 Memo, Enlisted Div G-1 Sec Hq AGF for CofS AGF, 16 An, 44, AGF 3331/1 (92d Div).

104 Quoted by Lt. Charles H. DeBow, "I Got Wings" (as told to William A. H. Birnie) , American Magazine, CXXXIV (August, 1942), 29.

105 History of Tuskegee Army Air Field (Maj Edward C. Ambler), 1 Jan 43, PP. 44-41; 29 FC'1) 44, pp. 94-95; AF Hist Gp 289.28-3, Vol. I.

106 Leonard Committee Report to ASF Mil Tog Div, 3 Oct 44.

107 Memo, OTIG Sixth Sv Comd for CG Sixth Sv Comd, 28 Jan 44, Cp Ellis 3331, AGO Records.

108 Chambers testimony cited n. 51. See above, page 321, Sergeant Chambers' statement on buses.

109 Capt Nathan M. Shaw, Jr., AC, 19 Dec 43, in Incl to Memo, Hq AAF (AFTAI) for CG AAF, 14 Feb 44, AAF 333-5.

110 The History of Seymour Johnson Field, 1 Jan 45-31 Mar 45 (Installment 3), AAF 288.57, vol. I. See also The History of Seymour Johnson Field, 6 Jul 44-1 Oct 44 and 1 Oct 44-31 Dec 44, AF 288.57-5, 6.

111 Interv, SSgt Donald R. Sutherland with Col Dudley B. Howard, AC, Comdr Seymour Johnson Army Air Field, 31 Mar 45, app. r to History of Seymour Johnson Army Air Field, 1 Jan-31 Mar 45, AF Hist Gp 298.57 Vol. II.

112 Lt. Everett C. Morrow, a former member of the staff of NAACP.

113 Memo, Civ Aide to SW for ASW, 13 Jan 45, ASW 291.2 NT. 

114 Ltr, Roy Wilkins to John J. McCloy,11 Jan 45, ASW 291.2 NT. 

115 OTIG, Hq DTC to CG DTC, 20 Mar 43, AG 291.2 (3-5-43) (1).

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