- 1 Col Milligan was senior among those eligible to be director of the WAC. She was promoted to temporary lieutenant colonel on 7 Jun 45; to permanent lieutenant colonel on 15 Aug 51.
2 LtCol Luta C. McGrath, the executive officer, and LtCol Rebecca S. Parks, the plans and policies officer, were replaced in 1957 by LtCol Eunity F. Elderdice and LtCol Marie Kehrer, respectively. In 1961, they were in turn replaced by LtCol Catherine H. Foster and Maj Carol M. Williams Lt Col Pauline V. Houston, the chief of WAC Career Br from April 56 to Dec 59, was replaced by Lt Col Miriam L. Butler, who served from Jan 60 to Dec 64.
3 ACofS, G-1, was retitled DCSPER on 3 Jan 56.
4 Sidney Shaller, "This Lady's Army," Saturday Evening Post, 7 Jul 57, p. 22.
5 Interv, BrigGen Elizabeth P. Hoisington with the author, 3 Nov 80.
6 Memo, DWAC to WAC Staff Advisers, Dec 58-Jan 70. Thereafter, WAC news was transmitted through the
WAC Journal, a quarterly magazine published by WAC School, 1970-75. WAC staff advisers conferences were held 1942-49, 1951, 1954, 1955, 1959-64, and 1972-75. The memos, WAC Journal, and conference reports are in the History Collection, WAC Museum, and in the ODWAC Ref File, CMH.
7 Chronological Record of Events, ODWAC, 1942-1978, ODWAC Ref File, CMH.
8 Capt Helen M. Roy developed the WAC Regular Army recruiting program (1947-51). She was succeeded by LtCol Hattilu White Addison (1952-58) and LtCol Helen Hart Corthay (1958-62). In 1962, the Army transferred its recruiting function to HQ, CONARC, Fort Monroe, VA. Chiefs of WAC recruiting from that time were: LtCol Josephine L. Redenius (1963-66); LtCol Julia Ledbetter (1966-69); LtCol Frances V. Chaffin (1969-72); and LtCol Doris L. Caldwell (1972-75). In 1975, the position was eliminated and the Recruiting Command created a new branch to manage WAC recruiting.
9 The term "service uniform" includes the skirt, shirt, jacket, hat, or cap; the "duty uniform" might be hospital whites, cook's whites, fatigues, or the service uniform. Officers received a one-time $200 uniform clothing allowance and thereafter purchased their own uniforms. ODWAC Ref File, Uniforms, CMH.
10 History of the Second Year of the Occupation Forces in Europe, 1 Jul 46-30 Jun 47, Office, Chief of History, European Command, p. 26, CMH Ref Br;
New York Times, 29 Jul 49, p. 1.
11 Treadwell, Women's Army Corps, Appendix C, "A Summary of Controversy on Legal Status of WAAC," pp. 782-83.
12 Bills introduced on WAAC credit: 80th Cong: S 592; 81st Cong: S 924; 82d Cong: S 3078; 83d Cong: S 2040; 84th Cong: HR 2560, HR 4786; 85th Cong: HR 2408, HR 2883, HR 8115, S 2305; 86th Cong: HR 938, HR 3748, HR 9167, HR 1888, HR 3321.
13 PL 142, 86th Cong, 1st sess, 7 Aug 59.
14 ODWAC, Information Sheet for Mr. Frank Slatinshek, Counsel for Subcommittee 3, House Armed Services Committee, Jan 59, and SecDef decision, 2 Apr 80 (based on sec 40, PL 202, GI Bill Improvement Act of 1977, 95th Cong), ODWAC Ref File, Legislation, CMH.
15 PL 773, 83d Cong, 2d sess, 3 Sep 54.
16 Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 30 Jun 55.
17 ROPA Amendments Act of 1960, PL 559, 86th Cong, 2d sess, 30 Jun 60.
18 National Manpower Council, Womanpower (New York: Columbia Univ Press, 1957), pp. 17, 136; Interv, LtCol Irene M. Sorrough with the author, 10 Oct 79.
19 Treadwell, The Women's Army Corps, pp. 92-95; Jack J. Sternberg, Frank S. Greenberg, and Edmund F. Fuchs, "Identifying Army Jobs Suitable for WAC Assignment," Personnel Research Branch, TAGO, Research Study 58-3, Washington, DC, Aug 58, ODWAC Ref File, Studies, TAG, Utilization of Women, CMH.
20 Jack J. Sternberg, John deJung, and Charles Hammer, "Distribution of Aptitude Area Scores among High School Senior Women," Research Study 61-2, May 61; Jack J. Sternberg, John deJung, and Frank S. Greenberg, "Opinion Survey, Effect on WAC Recruiting of Offering Electronics Training Options," Research Study 59-4, Jun 59; Jack J. Sternberg and Frank S. Greenberg, "Review of Research and Predicting Performance of Women in Electrical and Mechanical Work," Research Memorandum 59-7, Aug 59. All studies conducted by Personnel Research Branch, TAG Personnel Research and Procedures Division, later redesignated Human Factors Research Office, TAG Research and Development Command. All studies in ODWAC Ref File, Studies, TAG, Utilization of Women, CMH.
21 Memos, LtCol Emily C. Gorman, CONARC representative, to DWAC, 23 Jul 59, sub: Conference at Fort Monmouth, NJ, and 29 Jul 59, sub: Conference at Fort Gordon, GA, ODWAC Ref File, Studies, TAG, Utilization of Women, CMH. At Fort Monmouth, the group included Maj Bernice C. Skutas, Signal School, and lstLt Jeane W. Wolcott, WAC detachment commander; at Fort Gordon, 1stLt Mildred E. Pons, WAC detachment commander, and LtCol Lillian F. Foushee, WAC Staff Adviser, HQ, Third Army, Fort McPherson.
22 Min, DACOWITS Spring Mtg, Apr 60, Tab C, p. C-1-4, ODWAC Ref File, DACOWITS, CMH.
23 Edmund F. Fuchs and Aaron Katz, "Enlisted Women in Electronics Jobs," Human Factors Research Office, TAG Research and Development Command, Research Study 62-4, Jul 62, p. 4, ODWAC Ref File, Studies, TAG, Utilization of Women, 1958-1962, CMH.
24 DCSPER Summary of Major Events and Problems for FY 1962, Chapter V, Women's Army Corps Management, p. 118, CMH Ref Br. Also see change 3, 7 Jul 62, to AR 611-201, 15 Jun 60, Military Occupational Specialty Manual, CMH Library.
25 AR 330-112, 8 Mar 60, Inventory and Projection of Army Strength Report (CSGPA-45), CMH Library; ODCSPER Annual Summary of Major Events and Problems for FY 1960, p. 62, CMH Ref Br; and Inventory and Projection of Army Strength Report (CSGPA-45), 30 Jun 61, RG 319, Modern Military Br, NARA, Washington, DC. White Book Conferences began in 1960 and were conducted by TAG until the 1962 DA reorganization, when the Enlisted Personnel Directorate, Office of Personnel Operations, took over the function. At the same time, CSGPA-45 became OPO45.
26 SR 345-50-8, 27 Dec 48, Inventory and Projection of Army Command Strength (Report CSGPA-45), CMH Library.
27 SR 615-260-50, 27 Dec 48, Report of Immediately Available Enlisted Personnel; AR 614-208, 12 Aug 55, Report of Surplus Enlisted Personnel; AR 310-41, 3 May 57, Tables of Distribution; and AR 616-1, 16 Jan 61 and 3 Feb 64, Manpower Management. All in CMH Library.
28 Chronological Record, Oct 60. ODWAC Ref File, CMH.
29 Ibid., Jan 61.
30 PL, 117, 87th Cong, 1st sess, 1 Aug 61.
31 DOD Press Release, 12 Aug 61, and DA Msgs 901078 (16 Aug 61), 569161 (17 Aug 61), 569627 (21 Aug 61), and 574456 (27 Sep 61), Summary of Major Events and Problems FY 1962, DCSPER, CMH Ref Br.
32 Change 2, 2 Nov 61, to AR 635-210, 17 Feb 61, Enlisted Personnel Separations, and Change 27, 16 Apr 71, to AR 635-200, 15 Jul 66, same title, CMH Library. Also see ODWAC Ref File, Build-up Actions (1961-2), CMH.
33 Fact Sheet on WAC Reserve Call-up Action, 4 Apr 62, and Ltr, WAC Staff Adviser, HQ, Fifth US Army, to DWAC, 19 Dec 61, sub: Recall of WAC Reservists, ODWAC Ref File, Build-up Actions (1961-2), CMH.
34 AR 601-215, 8 Dec 58, Regular Army Enlistment and Reenlistment Options. The Career Field Option went into effect on 1 Jan 59. The career fields open to women were clerical, communications, finance, general supply, pictorial, medical care and treatment, and food service.
35 Strength of the Army Report (DCSPER 46,) 30 Jun 61. Effective 30 Jun 60 the publication number of the strength report changed from STM-30 to DCSPER-46.
36 LtCol Mary Charlotte Lane, Historical Report, WAC C&S, 1960-61, p. 4, CMH Ref Br.
37 Memo, Chief of WAC Recruiting, TAG, to DWAC, 3 Aug 61. This and other correspondence on this subject are in ODWAC Ref File, Build-up Actions (1961-2), CMH.
38 Msg, DCSPER to Maj Coms 18 Aug 61, and MFRs, ODWAC Executive Officer, 18 and 24 Aug 61, sub: Conference with Col Corthay on Changes in Recruiting Standards, ODWAC Ref File, Build-up Actions (1961-2), CMH.
39 Memo, DWAC to Chief Procurement Division, DCSPER, 13 Sep 61, sub: Build-up of WAC Enlisted Strength, and Msg, DCSPER (DPD) 574335 to Maj Coms, 26 Sep 61, ODWAC Ref File, Build-up Actions (1961-2), CMH.
40 ODCSPER, Annual History, FY 62, Chap V, and FY 63, Chap V.
41 Strength of the Army Report (DCSPER-46) 30 Jun 62. The previous post-WW II high point had been 10,213 on 30 Apr 53, before the Korean armistice.
42 James E. Hewes, Jr., From Root to McNamara, Army Organization and Administration 1900-1963, United States Army Special Studies (Washington, DC: GPO, 1975) pp. 360-65; CONARC Reorganization Planning Group Study, USCONARC Reorganization, Activation Plan, 15 Jun 62, CMH Ref Br.
43 Ibid; DA GO 20, 18 Jun 64, WAC School assigned to CG, USCONARC, eff 1 Jun 64, CMH Library.
44 MFR, LtCol Marie Kehrer, Plans and Policy Officer, ODWAC, 13 Jun 61, sub: Hoelscher Committee .Study, with addendum by LtCol Lucile G. Odbert, Dep Dir, WAC, 15 Jun 61, ODWAC Ref File, Reorganization, CMH. The project director of Project 80, Study of the Functions, Organization and Procedures of the Department of the Army, was Leonard W. Hoelscher, Asst Comptroller of the Army; within the Pentagon, the study group was known as the Hoelscher Committee.
45 DCSPER Bulletin No. 33, 23 Jul .62, ODWAC Ref File, Reorganization, CMH. LtCol Miriam L. Butler, Chief, WAC Branch, and her staff, MSgt Mary K. Johnson, SgtlstCI Betty Adams, and Edith Solomon, were transferred to the OPD, OPO, DA, but remained in the same Pentagon location until Oct 66, when the entire directorate moved to Tempo A, near Ft McNair, Washington DC. Along with AG, Finance, Military Police, Aviation, Intelligence and Security, WAC Branch was assigned to Special Support Division, OPD.
46 Ltr, LtCol Ruth M. Briggs, WAC School Monitor, HQ, USCONARC, to DWAC, 11 Oct 62, ODWAC Ref File, WAC School, CMH.
47 Ltr, LtCol Sue Lynch, Commander, WAC Center/Commandant, WAC School, to DWAC, 20 Sep 62, ODWAC Ref File, WAC School, CMH.
48 MFR, DWAC, 19 Oct 62, sub: Status WAC Ctr/Sch, ODWAC Ref File, WAC School, CMH.
49 Memo, Dir Manpower Management (BrigGen Autrey J. Maroun) to DCSPER, 19 Apr 61, sub: Positions that may be staffed by Colonels, WAC, with 2 Incls, and DF, DWAC to JAG, 10 Apr 56, sub: Interpretation of Public Law 625, with Comment 2, JAG to ODWAC, 30 Apr 56, ODWAC Ref File, Promotion Restrictions (Book 3), CMH; Interv, Col Rasmuson, nee Milligan, with the author, 8 Jun 80.
50 SS, DCSLOG to SecArmy through DCSPER, 6 Jun 62, sub: Consideration for Temporary Promotion, and DF, DCSLOG to DCSPER, 22 Jun 62, same sub, ODWAC Ref File, Promotion Restrictions, (Book 3), CMH. Also see "Conversations between Lt.Col. Hortense M. Boutell and Col. Donald R. Hargrove and Lt.Col. Milton L. Little," 7 Mar 77, Senior Officers Debriefing Program, US Army Military History Institute, CMH Ref Br.
51 Rpt, Defense Ad Hoc Committee to Study and Revise the Officer Personnel Act of 1947, Dee 60, and Memo, DCSPER to Asst SecDef (Manpower) [ASD(M)], 17 May 72, sub: Grade Structure for the Women's Army Corps, ODWAC Ref File, Promotion Restrictions (Book 3, Tab 3), CMH. Also see
Army-Navy Register, 28 Jan 61, p. 11.
52 Eleanor Roosevelt chaired the commission until her death on 7 Nov 62; Esther Peterson replaced her. Col Galloway had been recalled on active duty in Feb 62 to serve as administrative officer.
53 Ltr, Mrs Roosevelt to Sec McNamara, with Incl, ODWAC Ref File, Promotion Restrictions (Book 3), CMH.
54 Ltr, Sec McNamara to Mrs Roosevelt, 10 Jul 62, and Rpt, President's Commission on the Status of Women,
American Women, Oct 63, ODWAC Ref File, Promotion Restrictions (Book 3), CMH.
55 ODCSPER, Fact sheet on Bolte Legislation, Mar 63, ODWAC Ref File, Promotion Restrictions (Book 3, Tab 6), CMH.
56 Change of Names of Regular Army Officers, Officers Register, 1962, p. 613.
57 DF, DWAC to Chief, Utilization Division, ODCSPER, 19 Jan 62, sub: Review of Proposed Final Draft Revision of SR 310-30-15 and AR 310-32, ODWAC Ref File, AR 310-32, CMH; AR 310-43, 16 Jan 64, Organization and Equipment Authorization Tables, CMH Library. AR 310-31 described three types of TOE units: Category I, Combat; Category II, Combat Support; and Category III, Combat Service Support. WACs had been assigned in the two latter categories. AR 310-32 replaced both SR 310-30-15 and AR 310-31.
58 Anniversaries, WAC, the 20th-1962, History Collection, WAC Museum.
- 59 Historical Report, WAC C&S, 1962, CMH Ref Br.