Endnotes for Chapter V
1 PL 810, Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act, 80th Cong, 29 Jun 48.
2 "History of the WAC Training Center, Camp Lee, Virginia, from June 1948 to January 1949," History Collection, WAC Museum; Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors and WAC Staff Officers Conf, 12-16 Sep 49, p. 46, ODWAC Ref File, WAC Staff Adviser Conferences, CMH.
3 AR 625-5, 12 Sep 44, Officer Candidate Schools, and DA Cir 216, 19 Jul 48, and SR 350-350-40, 6 Jan 50, WAC Officer Candidate School, CMH Library. Age waivers allowed members of the first WAC OCS class to be as old as 32. Such age waivers were never again permitted for WAC OCS.
4 WAC School, "Analysis of Candidates Relieved According to Cause, Classes I through VIII WAC OCS, 1949-1953," file OCS, History Collection, WAC Museum.
5 Rpt, Officer Candidate School Board, 8 Feb 52, and Ltr, Chief, Army Field Forces, to all Army OCS School Commandants, 13 Mar 52 (file ATTNG-32 334/164, 13 Mar 52), sub: Report of OCAFF Officer Candidate School Board, file OCS, History Collection, WAC Museum.
6 Memo, CG, Second Army, to ACofS, G-3, DA, 18 May 49, sub: Report of Conference on WAC Training Center, ODWAC Ref File, Officer Training, CMH; Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors and WAC Staff Officers Conf, 12-16 Sep 49, p. 8, ODWAC Ref File, WAC Staff Adviser Conferences, CMH; SR 140-105-25, 6 Dec 49, Appointment in WAC Section, Organized Reserve Corps for Subsequent Commissioning in the Women's Army Corps, Regular Army, CMH Library.
7 WAC School, "A Study of Percentages and Ages of Students Eliminated from WAAC/WAC Officer Training, 1942-1962," Oct 63, file Attrition, History Collection, WAC Museum.
8 SR 625-5-1, 2 Nov 49, Appointment of Officers in the Regular Army, WAC; SR 140-105-25, 6 Dec 49, Appointment in WAC Section, Organized Reserve Corps for Subsequent Commission in the Women's Army Corps, Regular Army; and SR 625-5-1, 22 Jun 51, Appointment of Officers in the Regular Army, WAC, CMH Library.
9 Rpt, Maj Eleanore C. Sullivan, ODOT, DA, Trip to Various Colleges in Connection with WAC Officer Procurement Program, 16 Feb 50, file Officer Procurement, History Collection, WAC Museum.
10 Historical Report, WAC C&S, 1953, History Collection, WAC Museum; SR 605-25-25, 30 Jun 53, Appointment in the Women's Army Corps, Regular Army, CMH Library.
11 SR 140-105-7, 21 May 51, rev 25 Mar 53, Appointment as Reserve Commissioned Officers of the Army for Assignments to Women's Army Corps Branch, CMH Library.
12 WAC School, "An Analysis of Associate WAC Company Officers' Course, Classes I through VI," file Studies, History Collection, WAC Museum.
13 Historical Reports, WAC C&S, 1954, 1955, History Collection, WAC Museum.
14 Ltr, DWAC to Chief, Army Field Forces, 11 Oct 54, sub: Final draft, AR 140-107, the WAC College Junior Program, and 1st Ind, 22 Oct 54. AR 140-107 was superseded by para 26b of AR 140-111, Army Reserve Enlistment and Reenlistment, 10 Jan 55; SS, DWAC to CofS through G-1, 12 Jan 55, sub: WAC Officer Procurement. All documents in ODWAC Ref File, College Juniors, CMH. The summary sheet was approved 26 Jan 55, authorizing two WAC captain spaces for WAC officer procurement programs in each of the Army area commands and one WAC major for TAG Military Personnel Procurement Division.
15 Historical Reports, WAC C&S, FYs 1958, 1959, History Collection, WAC Museum.
16 WAC School, "Statistical Analysis of College Junior Cadet Program, 1957-1966," May 67, ODWAC Ref File, College Junior Statistics, CMH.
17 Rpt, US Army Audit Agency, Review of the WAC College Junior Program, 1966, ODWAC Ref File, Inspections, CMH.
18 Semi-Annual Rpts, SecAF to SecDef, 30 Jun 55, p. 272; 30 Jun 58, p. 293; 30 Jun 59, p. 305.
19 First-time enrollment of women in a college military training program may have occurred informally in 1889. In a letter to Army, Jan 75, MajGen N. J. Hennan, USA Ret, quoted Capt James P. Kress ("A History of Military Training at the University of Minnesota, 1869-1960"): "In 1888, the Regents permitted coeds to enroll for military training in the fall of 1889. Female participation in military training was brief. In 1892 the new PMS&T, 1st Lt. George H. Morgan requested that the Regents restrict military training to male students."
20 Memo, DWAC to Cdrs, Continental Armies and MDW; major overseas cdrs; and Cdr, WAC Center, 27 Nov 56, sub: Army Position on WAC ROTC Program, file Legislation, History Collection, WAC Museum.
21 Victor B. Hirshauer, "The History of the Army Reserve Officers Training Corps 1916-1973," dissertation, Johns Hopkins University, 1975, pp. 255-63, 368-370, CMH Library.
22 PL 810, Army and Air Force Vitalization and Retirement Equalization Act, 80th Cong, 29 Jun 48.
23 PL 773, Reserve Officers Personnel Act (ROPA), 83d Cong, 3 Sep 54. This legislation paralleled provisions for regular officers in the Officers Personnel Act of 1947, PL 381, 80th Cong, 7 Aug 47.
24 PL 476, Armed Forces Reserve Act, 82d Cong, 9 Jul 52.
25 Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 30 Jun 54 and 30 Jun 58.
26 Regular Army WAC officer strength and percentage of total WAC officer strength on 30 Jun 65 was 234 RA officers of 742 or 31.5 percent; 30 Jun 76, 142 RA officers of 1,713 or 8.2 percent; 30 Sep 80, 841 of 3,454 or 24.3 percent. After elimination of promotion restrictions in 1967, a separate WAC branch in 1974, and entry of women into West Point in 1976, the percentage of Regular Army women officers increased. Strength of the Army Report (DCSPER-46) for the dates shown.
27 TM 20-206, Career Management for Army Officers, 29 Jun 48, superseded by DA Pam 600-3, Career Planning for Army Officers, 15 Oct 56. References contain career planning patterns for each branch of the Army.
28 For example, in 1952, TAG School offered the following officer courses: Adjutant General Company Officer, Adjutant General Officer Advanced, Associate Adjutant General Advanced, Recruiting Management, Personnel Management, Special Services, Adjutant General Company Grade Officer Refresher, Adjutant General Field Officer Refresher.
29 Ltr, G-3 to Chief, Army Field Forces, 17 Nov 51, sub: Training of WAC Officers, with 1st Ind, Chief, Army Field Forces, to Cdr, WAC Training Center, Fort Lee, VA, 7 Feb 52, and Ltr, Chief, Army Field Forces, to G-3, 3 Nov 52, sub: Proposed Program of Instruction-WAC Officer Advanced Course, ODWAC Ref File, Officers Advanced Course, CMH.
30 LtCol Mary E. Kelly and LtCol Patricia E. McCormick were the first WAC officers to attend the Associate Command and General Staff Course, in Jun 55. In June 68, Majors Nancy M. Hopfenspirger, Kitt M. MacMichael, Inez L. Nease, Marilyn J. Russell, and Martha J. Thompson graduated from the regular course. Chronological Record, Jun 55, Jun 68, ODWAC Ref File, CMH.
31 Ibid., Jun 55, Aug 68.
33 Chronological Record, Jun 61, Jul 66, ODWAC Ref File, CMH; AR 140-100, 6 Apr 61, Reserve Components, Appointment of Commissioned and Warrant Officers of the Army, superseded by AR 135-100, 5 Feb 64, same title, CMH Library.
34 Historical Reports, WAC C&S, FYs 1958, 1959, History Collection, WAC Museum.
35 DA Pam 600-3, 15 Oct 56, Career Planning for Army Officers, pp. 51, 53, CMH Library.
36 Staff Study, ODCSPER, sub: WAC Requirements, Jul 64, ODWAC Ref File, Studies, CMH.
37 Staff Study, Utilization Div, Directorate of Manpower, ODCSPER, sub: The WAC Program, 12 Kin 65, Annex B, p. 4, ODWAC Ref File, Studies, CMH. Study cited hereafter as DCSPER, The WAC Program.
38 Ibid., p. 11.
39 Ibid., Annex 13, pp. 15-16.
40 Between 1948 and 1974, when the WAC Career Branch was dissolved, ten women served as chief-LtCols Mary C. Fullbright (1948-52), Mary M. Pugh (1953), Catherine J. Lyons (1953-57), Pauline V. Houston (1957-61), Miriam L. Butler (1961-65), Maribeth C. Simpson (1965-67), Shirley R. Heinze (1967-68), and Cols Mildred G. Quails (1968-70), Maida E. Lambeth (1970-72), Shirley R. Heinze (1972-74), and Mary E. Clarke (1974-75). The chief of the WAC Advisory Office, which briefly succeeded WAC Career Branch, was LtCol Virginia L. Heseman (1975-76).
41 DA Pam 600-3, Career Planning for Army Officers, 30 Jun 64, p. 8, CMH Library.
42 Ltr, TAG to CGs, Continental Armies, 15 Feb 55 (file AGST-L(M)210.1 WAC, 11 Feb 55), sub: Procurement of Reserve Commissioned Officers of the Army, Women's Army Corps Branch, Direct from Civilian Life, ODWAC Ref File, Officer Procurement, CMH.
43 TM 12-406, 8 Feb 46, Commissioned and Warrant Officer Classification; SR 605-105-5, 1 Mar 54. Manual of Commissioned and Warrant Officer MOS; AR 611-103, 6 Dec 54, Classification of Officers and Warrant Officers; AR 611-112, 3 Jun 61, Manual of Warrant Officer MOS. Copies in CMH Library.
44 PL 379, Warrant Officer Act, 83d Cong, 29 May 54.
45 PL 130, An Act to Remove Restrictions on the Careers of Female Officers, 90th Cong, 8 Nov 67.
46 Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 30 Jun 55. The regular warrant officers were Thelma L. Alley, Dorothy E. Green, Marcia E. Estabrook, Helen E. Ryan, and Elizabeth C. Smith. The first two required a private bill to remain on duty-HR 5836, 19 Mar 59, introduced by Paul J. Kilday o1 Texas at the request of the Department of Defense.
47 Strength of the Army Reports (STM-30, DCSPER-46), 30 Jun 55 and 30 Jun 75.
48 Ibid., 30 Jun 53 and 30 Jun 65.
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