- 1 Presidential Proclamation 2914, 16 Dec 50, DA Bull #22, 29 Dec 50, CMH Library
2 SR 10-5-1, 11 Apr 50, Organization and Functions, DA; DA Cir 12, 1950; SR 10-110-1, 21 Mar 51, Organization and Functions, Office of the ACofS, G-1, CMH Library.
3 Enlistment extensions were announced by EO 10145, 27 Jul 50; EO 10270, 6 Jul 51; and EO 10345, 17 Apr 52, CMH Library.
4 DA Msgs WAR 87056, 25 Jul 50, and WCL 40973, 22 Jan 51, History of the ACofS, G-1, 25 Jun 50-8 Sep 51, CMH Ref Br.
5 Memo, Col Hallaren to Gen Brooks, G-1, 11 Aug 50, file Demobilization, RG 165.
6 New York Times, 10 Feb 51.
7 Ibid., 21 Mar 51.
8 New York Evening Post, 21 Mar 51.
9 Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, "Annual History of the Office of the Chief, Army Field Forces, 1 January 1950 through 31 December 1950," CMH Ref Br.
10 Memo, WAC Plans and Policy Committee (Chairman, Maj Hortense M. Boutell) to DWAC, 11 Aug 50, sub: WAC Expansion Plan, file 337, Conferences, RG 165; AR 615-361, 30 Aug 50, CMH Library.
11 WAC Training Center, "Historical Summary Women's Army Corps Training Center, Fort Lee, Virginia, June 1950-January 1953," pp. 5-6, History Collection, WAC Museum. DA GO 13, 20 Apr 50, retitled Camp Lee as Fort Lee, effective 15 Apr 50.
12 DA Msgs WAR 85317, 9 Jul 50, and WCL 34125, 22 Jul 50, History of the ACoFS, G-1, 25 Jun i0-8 Sep 51, CMH Ref Br. Maj Elva Stillwaugh, "Personnel Problems in the Korean Conflict," in ZMH Ref Br, provides extensive information on the recall programs.
13 DA Msg WCL 22673, 25 Oct 50, History of the ACofS, G-1, 25 Jun 50-8 Sep 51, CMH Ref Br.
14 Ltr, TAG to CGs of CONUS Armies (AGAO-S 210.455 Org Res 21 Sep 50 G-1 MAGPR), 21 3ep 50, sub: Recall of Women Officers and Enlisted Personnel, author's file, Korea.
15 Ibid.; History of the ACofS, G-1, 25 Jun 50-8 Sep 51, pp. 19-20, CMH Ref Br. The involuntarily recalled officers reported to the WAC Training Center in March and April 1951 for uniforms and a brief refresher course. They dubbed themselves the "Mothball Brigade."
16 DOD Personnel Policy Board, Military Subcommittee Rpt, sub: Study of Maximum Utilization of Military Womanpower, 12 Oct 50, included in DOD Personnel Policy Board Subcommittee Project Rpt No. M-7-51, "Maximum Utilization of Military Womanpower," 9 Apr 51, ODWAC Ref File, Studies, Utilization, CMH, hereafter cited as Project Rpt No. M-7-51.
17 Memos, Asst SecAF to Chief, DOD Personnel Policy Board, 16 Nov and 18 Dec 50, sub: Study >f Maximum Utilization of Military Womanpower; SecNav to Chief, DOD Personnel Policy Board, !0 Nov 50, same sub; and SecArmy to Chief, DOD Personnel Policy Board, 21 Nov 50, same sub. kIl in Project Rpt No. M-7-51.
18 Memo, Chairman, DOD Personnel Policy Board, Military Personnel Committee, to SecArmy, iecAF, SecNav, 9 Feb 51, sub: Project Report-Maximum Utilization of Military Womanpower, 'roject Rpt No. M-7-51. Included on the senior women's panel were LtCol Cora M. Foster, WAC; ~dr Louise K. Wilde, USN; Maj Margaret H. Henderson, WM; LtCdr Etta Belle Kitchen, from office of SecDef; and Lt Margaret A. McAghon, USCG.
19 Project Rpt No. M-7-51, p. 3.
20 Memos, Chairman, DOD Personnel Policy Board, to SecArmy, SecNav, SecAF, 26 Dec 50, sub: Utilization of Women in the War Effort; Replies: Under SecNav, 5 Jan 51; Asst SecAF, 8 Jan 51; and Asst SecArmy, 5 Jan 51, Project Rpt No. M-7-51.
21 Interv, Col Hallaren with the author, 23 Mar 78.
22 Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, Sep 49, p. 119, ODWAC Ref File, WAC Staff Adviser Conferences, CMH.
23 DA Press Release, 23 Jul 48, sub: Address, LtCol Kathleen McClure, Office of the Executive for Reserve and ROTC Affairs, to the WAC Veterans Association 2d Annual Convention, 24 Jul 48, file 000.7, Press Releases, RG 165.
24 Change 2, 22 Sep 50, to SR 140-177-1, 29 Sep 49, ORC, Enlisted Separation; PL 476, 82d Cong, 2d sess, 9 July 1952, Armed Forces Reserve Act of 1952.
25 SR 140-107-1, 12 Apr 51, Enlistment and Reenlistment in the Enlisted Reserve Corps, CMH Library;
Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 30 Jun 52.
26 Address, Col Roger M. Crosby, to the Conf, Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, May 51, p. 26.
27 Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, May 51, p. 23.
28 Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 31 Dec 51. Total WAC strength of 11,932 included 1,010 officers, 39 warrant officers, and 10,883 enlisted women.
29 Anna M. Rosenberg, Asst SecDef for Manpower and Personnel, "Women in the Armed Services Program" (Office of Public Information, DOD, Nov 51), p. 10.
30 Radio Address, Harry S. Truman, 11 Nov 51, Public Papers of Harry S.
Truman, 1951 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1965), pp. 627-28; "Women in the Armed Services Program," Nov 51, pp. 4-6, ODWAC Ref File, DACOWITS, CMH. See also History of the Defense Advisory Committee on Women in the
31 Historical Summary, WAC Training Center, June 1950-January 1953, History Collection, WAC Museum.
32 New York Times, 6 Nov 51, p. 36.
33 Dorothy Brandon, "WAC Recruiting Lag Slows Korea Assignment," Washington
Post, 11 Dec 51, p. 19.
34 Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 30 June 1952.
35 Attitude Research Branch, Office of Armed Forces Information and Education, DOD, Rpt No. 126-345 W, "Women in the WAC, A Study of Recent Enlistees, May 52;
Rpt No. 127-347, "Attitudes of Enlisted Women in the Regular Service toward Reenlistment," Aug 52; Rpt No. 128347, "The Servicewoman as a Public Relations Agent for her Service," Sep 52; Rpt No. 136-347, "Some Satisfactions and Dissatisfactions of Service Life," Jun 53, CMH Ref Br.
36 Address, Col Hallaren, "WAC Matters," Report of the World-Wide G-1 Conference, 2-4
December 1952, prepared in the Office of the ACofS, G-1, DA, p. 50.
38 Ibid., p. 52.
39 SR 625-120-I and Air Force Regulation AFR 39-28, 9 Sep 49, Enlistment and Reenlistment in the Women's Army Corps, Regular Army, and Women in the Regular Air Forces, with Change 1, 28 Feb 50. Revised enlistment regulation SR 615-105-1, 6 Jun 52, the first separated from that for the USAF, raised the necessary score for entry into the WAC to the 49th percentile; AFR 39-9, Oct 52, placed the WAF entry score at the 65th percentile.
40 Report of the World-Wide Personnel Officers Conference, 2-4 Dec 52, p.51
41 Enlisted Gains and Losses, Strength of the Army Report (STM-30), 30 Jun 53.
42 James F. Schnabel, Policy and Direction: The First Year, United States Army in the Korean War Nashington, DC: GPO, 1972), p. 67.
43 The detachments were located at Yokohama, Tokyo, Camp Sendai, Camp Sakai, Camp Drew, amp Zama, Camp Osaka, Camp Sagami, and Camp Schimmelpfenning in June 1953.
44 Remarks, LtCol F. Marie Clark, in Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, 2-4 May 51, p. 43, author's file, CMH; "A History of the Women's Army Corps in the Far East, 28 Jan 44 to 28 Jan 55," Office of the WAC Staff Advisor, FECOM, ODWAC Ref File, Far East Command WAGS, CMH, cited hereafter as History, WAC FE.
45 Remarks, Col Mary G. Phillips, Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, 2-4 May 51, p. 10.
46 Remarks, LtGen Edward H. Brooks, Rpt, WAC Staff Advisors Conf, 2-4 May 51, p. 8.
47 History of Activities of the Office of the ACofS, G-1, for CY 1952, p. 52, CMH Ref Br; History, WAC FE, p. 18. In Dec 52, MSgt Carolyn H. James and Cpl Louise M. Farrell,
stenographers, and Cpl Christine F. Chrones, interpreter, went to HQ, Eighth Army, in Seoul. They were followed in 1953 by MSgts Dorothea S. Cully and Grace T. Donatio, and Cpl Elaine J. Wilford. Capt Martha A. Voyles served as aide-de-camp to the commander of the Pusan Military Post from Aug 53 to Dec 54.
48 Ltr, LtCol Alice Parrish Talley, USA (Ret), to author, 22 Sep 76, in author's file, CMH; Address, LtCol Mary C. Lane, "The WAC in Korea," 19 Oct 61, History Collection, WAC Museum.
49 Col Hallaren served as acting dir from 5 Mar 47, and as DWAC AUS from 7 May 47; as dir, WAC RA from 3 Dec 48 to 3 Jan 53; HQ US European Command, Frankfurt, Germany, 1953-1957; and in the Office of the Asst SecDef, Manpower, Personnel, and Reserve Affairs, 1957-1960. At a retirement ceremony on 30 June 1960 at the WAC Center and WAC School, Fort McClellan, Col Hallaren was awarded the Legion of Merit for the third time. LtGen Herbert B. Powell, CG, Third Army, presented the award and read this tribute from the Hon Wilber M. Brucker, SecArmy: "The honors which have come to you ... speak for themselves as to the character of your service. You have indeed left an indelible mark upon the Army by your magnificent contributions." (DA Msg 496498, 25 Jun 60, Appendix "O," Annual History, WAC C&S, 60-61, CMH Ref Br.) WAC Center and WAC School historical reports, whether they are titled annual, biennial, 18-month, or supplemental, are cited hereafter as Historical Report, WAC C&S, with date and location of document.
50 Address, Col Mary Louise Milligan, Hallaren retirement ceremony, Appendix "O," Historical Report, WAC C&S, 60-61, CMH Ref Br.
51 Date of rank for these officers was 12 Sep 49 (Army Register, 1 Jan 52); the 15 other eligibles held RA date of rank 15 Aug 51: Eleanore C. Sullivan, Frances M. Lathrope, Sara L. Sturgis, Ruby E. Herman, Esther P. Pulis, Helen M. Bouffier, Arlene Scheidenhelm, Emily C. Gorman, Lucile G. Odbert, Mary K. Moynahan, Mary L. Milligan, Anne E. Sweeney, F. Marie Clark, Hortense M. Boutell, and Lillian Harris.
52 Colonel Herman had suddenly announced her plans to resign, effective 1 December, and to marry William Flannery, art director for a movie, Never Wave at a WAC, filmed at the WAC
Center that summer.
53 DA SO 258, 31 Dec 52.
55 Maj Parks was promoted to Lt Col in Jul 53; Maj Lyons in May 56. Maj Hoisington remained on the staff until Jan 54; 13 years later she returned as DWAC.
56 Army-Navy-Air Force Register, 14 Mar 53, p. 8, 21 Mar 53, p. 7, 30 Apr 53, p. 11, and 1 Aug 53, p. 9; PL 408, 82d Cong, 2d sess, 24 Jun 52.